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material, called enamel (Figs. III. and IV., 1,1); and the root Hunterian Museum, have shown to belong to an intermediate with a material which is named cortical substance, or cement type, shedding only one tooth (Fig. XIV., 2, 2), a fact which has (Figs. III. and IV., 3, 3). The enamel, when examined under been previously overlooked by observers. the microscope, appears like a number of six-sided prisms Alimentary Canal.—The mouth is separated from the upper closely pressed against each other, and directed perpendicularly part of the gullet by a pendulous musculo-membranous fold towards the surface of the tooth (Fig. V.). The dentine is called the soft palate. This prevents the food, during the act composed of delicate branching tubes, which run from the of swallowing, from entering the back part of the nose. The central cavity (Figs. III. and IV., 4, 4) towards the surface of the upper part of the gullet is called the pharynx. It is a muscular tooth. In the whale the teeth are represented by large flexible bag common to both the food and air passages. The opening plates in the upper jaw, called whalebone (Figs. VI. and VII.). In into the windpipe is protected by a movable leaf-like lid of man, and the higher apes, monkeys, etc., there are in each balf of cartilage, which effectually closes it during the passage of the each jaw two front teeth, chisel-shaped, named incisors, or cut- food into the gullet. The food is propelled along the gullet by ting-teeth (Fig. II., 1); a more pointed one called the canine, or the successive action of the muscular fibres of which the tubo dog-tooth, for
is mainly combiting, holding,
posed. This act and tearing (Fig.
is beyond the conII., 2); two some
trol of the will. what flattened at
In many of the the top, with sin
mammalia the gle fangs, called
stomach is a simfalse, or premo
ple membranous lars (Fig. II., 3);
bag, stretched and three situ.
transversely ated behind all
across the upper the rest, the
part of the abtrue molars or
dominal cavity, grinders (Fig. II.,
and curved some4). To express
what upon itself. the number of
The upper curve teeth in a simple
is smaller than manner, the fol.
you the lower. The lowing table is
point where the used by natura
food enters is lists, and called
called the asothe dental for
phageal opening, 16 mula
and that where it 2.2
leaves the stomach the pyloric
(from the Greek, 3:3 3:3
signifying a gate
keeper), because The incisor
it is constricted teeth are very
by an aggregasmall in the in
tion of the mus. sectivora, strong
cular fibres of the and large in the herbivora and ro
stomach into a XV.
circular ring, dents. The ca
which effectually nines are large in
guards the aperthe carnivorous L15
2-2 ; m.
ture until the and some other
food is suffianimals. Figs.
ciently digested VIII., IX., X.,
to permit of its and XI. show ex- MAMMALIA. - XII. & XIII, STOMACH, AND SECTION OF STOMACH, OF SHEEP (AFTER MILNE-EDWARDS). passage into the amples of the XIV. SHOWING DENTITION OF A MARSUPIAL (AFTER FLOWER). XV. SKELETON OF A CAMEL, intestine. In ruteeth in the car. Refs. to Nos. in Figs.-XII. and XIII. 1, 1, gullet; 2, 2, third stomach ; 3, 3, second stomach ; 4, 4, minants the stonivorous, insecti. paunch ; 5, fourth stomach ; 6,6, pylorus and intestine; 7, æsophageal groove. XIV. 1, 1, per- mach is much vorous, herbivo manent, and 2, 2, deciduous teeth.. XV. 1, blade-bone or scapula; 2, humerus; 3, ulna or cubirous, and frugitus ; 4, carpus; 5, metacarpus ; 6, phalanges ; 7, femur; 8, tibia : 9, tarsus ; 10, metatarsus: 11, cated, being di
more compli. phalanges ; 12, cervical vertebræ ; 13, dorsal ditto; 14, lumbar ditto; 15, sacrum or sacral ditto; vorous animals. The narwhal has 16, caudal or ox-tail ditto; 17, ribs.
vided into a
number of comonly two teeth.
partments (Figs. The elephant has six-viz., an entire molar on each side of ' XII. and XIII.). The first stomach is called the paunch both jaws, together with two tusks of the upper jaw. In (4), the second the king's hood, or honey-combed stomach rodents the teeth vary from 12 to 28. In ruminants, apes of (3), from being arranged in folds or cells similar to a honeythe Old World, and commonly throughout the mammalia, there comb; the third, or manyplies (2), from its inner surface are 32, the typical number, however, being 44 (Owen). The being increased by a number of longitudinal folds; the fourth, cachelot (spermaceti whale) has more than 60 (which are con or rennet (5), named from its property of curdling milk. The fined to the lower jaw); and the dolphin 100 to 190.
ruminant swallows its herbaceous food partially masticated. It Animals are said to be monophyodonts that generate a single descends into the first stomach, or paunch, which corresponds to set of teeth, and diphyodonts that generate two sets of teeth. the crop of birds. When at leisure, the animal regurgitates the To the first belong the monotremata (ornithorynchus and food to the mouth. A part is passed into the second stomach, echidna), edentata* (sloths, etc.), and cetacea (whales). To the and there formed into a smooth, moistened mass, and then prosecond all the rest, except the marsupials, which the recent jected into the mouth, where it is now properly masticated, and researches of Mr. Flower, the present able conservator of the again swallowed. This time the morsel passes into the third
stomach, and, spreading over its longitudinal folds, is preEdentata (6 and dens), without teeth. In many of the species pared for admission into the fourth or true digestive stomach, the teeth are entirely absent; in others only partially so.
and thence into the small intestine. In the camel and
dromedary the walls of the first and second stomachs are ex. birds, certain rodent animals, and the smallest of the monkey. cavated into deep cells, wherein water may be retained in con- tribe, man has a larger brain, in proportion to the size of the siderable quantities. On this account these animals are able to body, than any other vertebrate. go many days without a fresh supply of water, even during long Sensory Organs.-We find these delicate organs developed to journeys across the hot, sandy desert. The intestines (like those the highest degree of perfection in this class. The pupil of the of man) consist of two portions, of which the first is named eye varies in shape. In man, and many of the larger carnivora, the small, and the second the large intestine. The point of it is round. In nocturnal animals, as the cat, it assumes the separation between them is indicated by a valve formed by the form of a vertical fissure, and is very large. In many of the mucous lining of the bowel, and in some animals by a cæcum, herbivorous animals it is transversely oblong. In the whale to which is attached a tail-like process, termed the vermiform tribe the eye is similar in shape to that already described in appendix. The relative length of the intestines varies. In the fishes. The eye is moved by six muscles. It is protected by carnivora it is from five to fifteen times the length of the body; two movable lids. Besides these, there is sometimes a third in insectivora, from three to six times; cheiroptera, two to lid, called the nictitating membrane. The minute structure seven ; ungulata, fifteen to thirty; in the quadrumana, about of the eye is in almost every respect similar to that of man, three to eight times. The division into large and small intestine which will be described elsewhere, as also the organ of hearing. prevails with few exceptions throughout the mammalia. The The nose consists of two lateral halves, the cavity being membrane lining the small intestine is elevated into valvular divided by a vertical septum. It is invested by a delicate memfolds, for the purpose of increasing the surface over which the brane (mucous), in which the olfactory nerve filaments, which digestive material has to pass; there are also embedded in it preside over the sense of smell, ramify. Both cavities comsmall glandular organs and villi; the former secrete a fluid municate with the upper part of the gullet, or pharynx. The which aids the digestive process, and the latter take into the sense of smell is very acute in the majority of members of this system, as white blood, that already sufficiently prepared. The class. large intestine is sacculated. It commences by a blind ex The proboscis, or trunk of the elephant, is a prolongation of tremity called the cæcum, at the termination of which the small the nose. It consists of a highly flexible tube, surrounded with intestines open. The cæcum is not always present, as in the muscles, through which food and water are conveyed to the insect-eaters, bats, edentata, and certain of the cetacea; and in mouth, and air to the lungs. It also serves as an organ of preother mammals it is variable in length. It is short in the hension. By means of its trunk the elephant is enabled to carnivora, yet absent in bears and weasels. In the ruminants it uproot trees, untie knots, open a lock, or even write with a pen is large and capacious. The appendix exists in man, apes, and (Rymer Jones). gibbons, and also in the marsupial wombat, but in no other The Skeleton, in many respects, presents a close analogy to animal. In the monotremata (ornithorynchus) the intestinal that of man. It undergoes, however, many modifications. The canal terminates in a cloaca, as in birds.
skull and face are formed by a series of bones immovably bound The glandular organs, liver, and pancreas, and the spleen, are together, and so arranged as to present several complete and always present. The liver has generally appended to it a gall-incomplete cavities for the lodgment of the delicate organs combladder, or reservoir for the bile. In the mouth there are cerned in the manifestation of the senses. Thus we have one usually three pairs of salivary glands, which furnish the secretion cavity, of variable size, for the brain; another one for the nose; to moisten and partially dissolve certain constituents of the and one on each side of the face for the eyes. The mouth is food This fluid readily converts starchy food into sugar, while situated at the base, in the interval between the upper and in the mouth.
lower jaws. The size of the face becomes larger, and the The kidneys are situated on each side the lumbar portion of cranium smaller, as we recede from man. The jaws are always the spine. They eliminate the urine from the blood. This articulated to the squamosal bone of the skull, without the excretion passes from the kidney into the bladder by means of intervention of a quadrate bone, as in the preceding classes. a membranous tube called the ureter.
Some of the mammalia (ruminants) have horns projecting The abdominal cavity is separated from the chest by a parti- from the frontal bones. In deer the horns are called antlers, tion-muscle called the diaphragm. This is a very important and are replaced annually. The horns of the rhinoceros are muscle, and by its contraction and relaxation the principal part mere appendages of the skin. In the goat, ox, and sheep, the of the mechanism of breathing is effected.
horns are hollow, and based upon an osseous process, which is The lungs and heart present much the same arrangement as hollowed out into cells. These communicate with certain that described in the last lesson. The lungs do not communicate cavities in the frontal bone, called sinuses. Such horns grow by with air-cells in any part of the body in the mammalia, as they layers, analogous to ordinary nail, and are never shed. With do in birds.
the exception of camels and musks, all the ruminants are proThe windpipe has surmounting it a larynx, made up of a num. vided with horns. ber of pieces called cartilages, to which are attached numerous The vertebral column is made up of bone segments. These are muscles and ligaments. It is here that the voice is produced. respectively named cervical, dorsal, lumbar, sacral, and caudal,
The position of the heart is usually in the median line of the according to their position. The cervical are usually seven in chest, lying between the lungs. In man and the higher apes it number(Fig. XV.,12). The dorsal (13) vary from eleven to twenty, has an inclination towards the left side.
and give attachment to a corresponding number of ribs. Thus, Nervous System.-- As will be anticipated, the brain is found in man there are twelve dorsal vertebræ, and as many ribs. larger and more complicated in these animals than in the pre- The horse has eighteen, and the elephant twenty pairs of ribs. ceding classes. It is characterised by the presence of a trans- The sacral vertebræ are absent in the whale tribe. In other verse band of nervous matter, which connects together the two mammals they consist of three or more segments fased together
, halves of which the brain is composed. This transverse band, forming a wedge-shaped bone, called the sacrum (15). The tail or commissure, is called the corpus callogam. It is small (said (caudai) vertebræ (16) are represented in man by four small to be absent) in the monotremata. The convolutions of the segments. In other mammals they vary to sixty in number
. brain are more numerous, and increase in complexity, as we In certain rats they are entirely absent. The weight of the ascend towards the higher mammalia, according with the head is supported by a strong elastic
ligament, vulgarly termed increased
intelligence which these animals manifest. The weight packwax, which extends between the back part of the skull and of the brain in proportion to that of the body diminishes in the the neck vertebræ. vertebrata generally in the following order and manner :--In Every mammal is provided with four limbs, except the whalo mammalia it is as 1 to 186; in birds, as 1 to 212; in reptiles, as tribe, and these have only the two thoracic or anterior limbs. 1 to 1,321 ; and in fishes, as 1 to 5,668 (Leuret). ' In proportion The limbs present many peculiar modifications, according to the to the body, the brain is smaller in the larger mammals than in habits and sphere of the animal. Thus, the thoracio limbs of those of less dimensions. Thus, in the ox, it is as 1 to 180 ; in the bat act as wings ; those
of the whale, as oars ; in quadrupeds the elephant, as 1 to 500; in the horse, as 1 to 400; in' the as legs; and in some, as the cat tribe, also as instruments of sheep, as 1 to 350 ; in the dog, as 1 to 305; in the cat, as 1 to offence.' In monkeys they are indiscriminately used as hands and 156, in the
rabbit, as 1 to 140 ; in the rat, as 1 to 76; and in feet; while in man the hand and arm are emblematical of his the field-mouse, as '1 to 31. In man, the average proportion is skill' and prowess-by them he is enabled to accomplish the s 1 to 36.5 (Marshall)
. With the exception of a few small | various duties which the exigencies of life entail upon him.
The bones of the extremities are, first, a broad and expanded in Chemistry" in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, which have the bone, called the blade-bone (Fig. XV., 1) in the thoracic, and the great merit of simplicity and numerous illustrative diagrams, innominate bone in the pelvio extremity. The blade-bone may and in “Natural Philosophy," may be most advantageously or may not have a clavicle or collar-bone attached to it.* read, especially as a general introduction to the subject. The arm and thigh bones are single, and called respectively
IV.-CLASSICS. the humerus (2) and femur (7). The fore-arm and leg have each two bones, viz., radius and ulna (3), and tibia and
The classical knowledge required consists of one Greek and fibula (8). The bones of the hand and foot are very vari-one Latin subject, announced in the University Calendar one able (5, 6, 10, 11). Man has five digits ; the bat also five year and a half prior to each examination.
The Greek subject consists of one book of either Homer or but the thumb is small; while the other digits are very Xenophon; and the Latin, of a small portion of Terence, Virgil, long and connected together by a fold of skin derived from Horace, Sallust, Cægar, Livy, Cicero, or Ovid. the sides of the body, and continued along the whole length of the hind legs. The horse has only one perfect toe, and two literal translation of any passage from the selected author; and
Candidates must be prepared to write with facility a fairly imperfect ones; the perfect toe is inclosed in a mass of horny for this purpose, in the case of self-teaching students, it may be matter, called a hoof. The toes of the carnivora are armed with necessary and even desirable to procure some translation for claws; and many, as the well-known cat, have their feet padded reference on points of difficulty, and as a test of accuracy. with an elastic cushion, to enable them to tread noiselessly, and Those published in Bohn's classical series will best answer the thus take their prey unawares. The ruminants have a cloven end in view. But such works must be used with caution ; and, hoof, having two toes on each foot. Besides these, there are a if they can possibly be dispensed with, not at all. There is variety of modifications. Some animals walk on the sole of the much reason in the almost universal condemnation of such aids foot, as man, bears, and badgers, and are called plantigrades. by educational authorities. But there are cases in which some Others walk on the extremities of their toes, as the horse, and such assistance is indispensable in those in which there is no many of the carnivora ; these are called digitigrades. Professor master or friend to whom to refer a difficulty, no mutual assistOwen adds a pinnigrade class, as the seal tribe, which have both ance on the part of members of the same class. Under these fore and hind feet expanded into broad webbed paddles for circumstances a key may, we think, be used with advantage; swimming In our next lesson we shall give the classification but we repeat the caution that it should be rarely resorted to, of the mammalia, etc.
and only in cases of extreme difficulty, and as a substitute for a
master. It must not become a servant. The student must, in THE UNIVERSITIES-IX.
addition to the translation, render himself acquainted with the
outlines of the life and times of the selected authors, and with LONDON.-II.
che chief allusions, geographical, historical, and mythological, in III.-CHEMISTRY.
the text. This branch of the examination will be found difficult, unless The classical papers also include questions in grammar, some recourse can be had to experimental teaching. But in history, and geography; and a separate paper is set in Latin any of our large towns this will not be difficult of attainment, grammar, which also contains simple and easy sentences of and even when such is not the case the apparatus which is English for translation into Latin prose. The grammatical absolutely requisite is not very expensive. But the performance questions in the classical papers usually have reference to words of some experiments is very desirable, and cannot be too strongly in the text, and we recommend the student to get up the syntax, recommended. Some medical friend will probably be most etymology, and chief peculiarities of the words made use of. qualified to suggest the best method in which to proceed for But the questions are not by any means confined to these; and this parpose. The chief subjects of the examination in Che- as special stress is laid on accuracy in the answers to the quesmistry are thus enumerated in the University Calendar: tions in both Greek and Latin grammar, these subjects should
Heat, its sources. Expansion. Thermometers, relations be- be very carefully prepared from a good grammar. In Latin tween different Scales in common use. Difference between grammar, the declension of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, Temperature and Quantity of Heat. Specific and Latent Heat. with the chief exceptions to the general rules; the formation of Calorimeters. Liquefaction. Ebullition. Evaporation. Con the genitive plurals of the third declension ; the comparison of duction. Convection. Radiation.
adjectives and adverbs; and the chief parts of those verbs Chemistry of the Non-metallic elements; including their com- whose perfects and supines are irregularly formed, should be pounds as enumerated below—their chief physical and chemical committed to memory : while in Greek the inflections of nouns characters--their preparation-and their characteristic tests.
and adjectives, the conjugation of verbs, and the comparison of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen. Chlorine, Bromine, adjectives should be rendered familiar, the exceptions to general Iodine, Fluorine. Sulphur, Phosphorus, Silicon.
rules being specially noted in all cases Combining proportions by weight and by volume. General
The examination in Latin Prose Composition is of the most nature of Acids, Bases, and Salts. Symbols and Nomenclature. elementary character, and frequently has reference to the use of
The Atmosphere--its constitution; effects of Animal and the subjunctive mood, Latin numerals and ordinals, and the Vegetable Life upon its composition.
Roman calendar. Combustion. Structure and properties of Flame. Nature
The histories of Greece and Rome must be carefully and dili. and composition of ordinary Fuel.
gently read, and special attention should be paid to the dates Water. Chemical peculiarities of Natural Waters, such as of the most important events, the causes and chief battles of Rain Water, River Water, Spring Water, Sea Water.
the wars, and the leading features of the lives of the chief Carbonic Acid, Carbonic Oxide. Oxides and Acids of Nitro
characters. gen. Ammonia. Olefiant Gas, Marsh Gas, Sulphurous and V.—THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, AND HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. Sulphuric Acids, Sulphuretted Hydrogen.
The English element of the Matriculation Examination will Hydrochloric Acid. Phosphoric Acid and Phosphuretted involve considerable preparation, chiefly owing to the want of Hydrogen. Silica.
attention usually bestowed upon the subject at primary and One paper is set in Chemistry, for which three hours are secondary schools. The history and principles of the English allowed. Its proper execution involves a general and accurate language and its grammatical structure must be carefully and knowledge of the elements of Inorganic Chemistry; and, as the methodically studied. The grammatical and logical analysis of subject is a new one to the majority of those who propose to sentences; the signification of Anglo-Saxon, Greek, and Latin matriculate, and the paper usually somewhat fatal to candidates, prefixes and affixes, and of the chief Anglo-Saxon inflections as it is desirable that preparation for this portion of the examina- they influence English forms; and the leading rules of syntax tion should be commenced early, and steadily pursued. The should receive every attention.* subject is exceedingly interesting and practically useful, and The paper on the outlines of English history is not usually a the difficulties of its study rapidly disappear. The “ Lessons difficult one. The questions embrace a period commencing with
The collar-bone is absent in the cetacea, hyrax, elephant, ungulata, • See upon all these points the "Lessons in English " in the Popuand in some of the carnivora it is a mere rudiment.
the earliest historical times, and terminating with the end of the history--and to write out the translation of the classical authors, seventeenth century. Most of them may be answered from any But this course, if adopted at all, should be deferred until the of the usual school histories. The questions frequently have student's knowledge of the subjects is such as to enable him to reference to the dates of the most important events, to points discriminate those portions which it is desirable to commit to of constitutional importance, to legislation by charter and by writing. It must also be remembered that the note-book should statute, to conflicting claims to the Crown, to battles, and to never be a substitute for the memory, which it is apt to become. general biography. It is, therefore, desirable that these subjects A more useful and less dangerous plan is to mark, by perpenshould be carefully read. Candidates should also be able to dicular lines drawn down the margins of the text-books, those draw from memory an outline map of England, and to fill in passages which are of most importance, and which it is desirable the most important geographical divisions and places in Roman, to commit to memory, such as definitions and generalisations ; Saxon, and modern times.
the number of these may be again reduced, either by a parallel The POPULAR EDUCATOR will furnish ample materials for line, or by some other distinctive mark; and it is a recomthe study of the requisite modern geography.
mendation of this or some similar system that it enables the
most essential points to be referred to at the last moment VI.--FRENCH OR GERMAN.
before the examination, Either the French or German language must be so far mas. We advise students who have studied thus systematically tered as to enable the candidate to answer grammatical ques- to read until the moment of entering the examination-room, tions, limited to the accidence, and to translate short and easy In the case of those who possess neither notes nor marked paspassages from prose works not previously announced, and short sages, such a course is calculated to produce confusion and nerand easy French and German sentences at sight. The lessons vousness; but it has a reverse effect with those who are in a in these languages in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, and the trans- position to glance over the whole subject in a few hours before lation of passages from standard authors will be amply suffi- the commencement of the examination in each branch. cient for these purposes.
We add one or two hints for observation in the examination
room. First, let no candidate omit to write his name legibly The whole of the subjects required at the matriculation on each book of his answers to the questions. Such an omission examination have now been mentioned.
has in more than one instance led to the rejection of competent It is, of course, impossible to even estimate the time requisite men. It is desirable to answer each question in consecutive for their preparation, or to lay down any inflexible rule as to order, and to complete, if possible, the first before proceeding the hours and modes of reading. These matters depend upon to or even looking at the second. A hasty glance at the whole the previous knowledge, ability, and leisure of individual candi- in the first instance is apt to magnify the difficulties of the dates, but in the majority of cases a year and a half or two paper, which will probably vanish before a little thought, but years will, with ordinary application, be sufficient for the purpose which at first sight may seem insuperable, and so give rise to a of preparation. A few words upon the mode of reading may, paralysing nervousness. It is generally necessary to write perhaps, be useful in affording some general hints. They are, quickly, and it is a good rule, though the paper may be finished, however, offered merely as suggestions, and must yield to to remain in the examination-room and to carefully revise it. individual tastes and circumstances. It is, we think, desirable Such a conrse may lead, as it often has done, to the detection of to gain a general acquaintance with each of the subjects before errors and to the remembrance of answers previously forgotten. proceeding to acquire a knowledge of those portions of them Lastly, we recommend our students to avoid merely cramming especially required at the examination. The Greek and Latin the minimum of knowledge requisite to pass this or any other grammars, the lessons in Greek and Latin in the POPULAR examination. Such a course is neither a safe nor a useful one ; EDUCATOR, and the first part of Arnold's “Latin Prose Com- on the contrary, an extensive acquaintance with each branch position," or some similar work, should be thoroughly studied will not only prove of service at future examinations and in the before the translation of the selected authors is commenced; world, but is an insurance of success. It may be stated for the and in the study of French and German it is equally desirable encouragement of nervous candidates that half the marks in to master the accidence and to gain a general acquaintance with each subject will suffice for a mere pass, but such an equivocal the elements of the language in the first instance. This done, position as that of the second class should be carefully avoided. the special subject should be read and re-read until the student A place in the Honours Division must be an object of aspirais perfectly familiar with it, and able to translate any passage tion to one and all our readers; and it is to be hoped that the with facility, in order that more time may be devoted at the more material rewards promised to the first six candidates at examination to the consideration of those questions which may each matriculation examination, in the shape of scholarships not have suggested themselves in the course of reading. of £30, £20, and £15 each, tenable for two years, and prizes
It is, in our opinion, desirable that all the subjects should be of books, philosophical instruments, or money, may be awarded read concurrently rather than successively. If, for instance, frequently to the self-tanght students to whom these remarks three hours a day can be spared for study, a portion of the time have been especially addressed. should be devoted on alternate days to each of the branches of In the next paper on the University of London the two the examination. If this plan be adopted, although the stu- examinations for the degree of Bachelor of Arts will be simi. dent's progress may be less perceptible, he will, on the eve of larly dealt with. examination, find himself familiar with even the details of the whole of the subjects, and fresh from their preparation; while the more usual and ably advocated system of reading each
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XXVI. branch separately tends to create an inequality in the candidate's
MINOR TUNES. knowledge of the various elements of the examination. In the We shall now try to elucidate the subject of “Minor Tunes." subjects most recently prepared he is strong, but the details of Why they are so denominated we shall explain presently. But, those studied at an earlier period, and laid aside as finished, first, let us ask our readers to recall all that we have said in will have faded somewhat from the memory-a fatal defect in former lessons on the "mental effect of the note LAH (the sixth an examination in which a competent knowledge of all is abso- above the key-note or the minor third below), or, better still
, lutely essential. The change produced by reading the different let them recall all they have themselves observed and felt in subjects contemporaneously furnishes another argument in favour connection with it. Was it not always, when sung slowly, the of this system; each forms a relief to the other, and it is possible sorrowful note? Then let us suppose ourselves trying to comby judicious variation to read for a much longer period without pose a very sorrowful tune-should we not naturally employ fatigue, than can be done if one subject only be adhered to. this note in the most effective positions ? Without composing,
It is an excellent plan to construct periodically a time-table, however, let us iust recall one of the oldest tunes of this kind allotting to each subject a certain portion of the hours of study in existence. in proportion to the progress made and the amount of prepara You notice nat a sorrowful effect is produced by simply tion requisite. Such systematic reading is worth double the closing on Lan instead of the key-note in Ex. 1 in the accomamount of cursory study.
panying Exercise. Yet more striking is this effect if the tuno It may be useful to analyse and note down briefly certain also opens with this note of sadness. Take the example "ubjects of the examination—for instance, the chemistry and (Ex. 2) with which Mr. Hickson illustrates this subject.
EXERCISE 47.-FIVE EXAMPLES OF MENTAL EFFECT IN MINOR TUNES.
: 11. mr:d:tı 11:-:m 8.f:m:rm:--:d til,:m:
drid:ti:tim.:d :t11:And I must this bo-dy die, This mor-tal frame de-cay! And Imust these active limbs of mine Lie mouldering in the clayil
tı : 1 m :8 stran - ger slay, And
bah:r.m bah : m
Two other examples (Exs. 3, 4), in the well-known tunes St. LAH. This note bears the same relation to LAH, which Te bears Bride's and Wirksworth, will bring more clearly before the mind to doł. Musicians also think it necessary sometimes to introthe effect of LAH when thus placed in effective positions. duce another new note, which they then use instead of FAH.
Our pupils will now be prepared for the following exposition It is a tone below se, or a chromatic part-tone above FAH. of the subject before us :
We call it BAH. It bears the same relation to se which LAH a. In some tunes-chiefly those which are intended to ex- bears to TE. BAH, SE, LAH, heard in succession, resemble, in press a mournful sentiment—the note LAH is found to predo- mental effect, LAH, TE, DOH. The learner may sometimes strike minate. It is necessarily heard both at the beginning and at BAH more easily by thinking of it as FE. The note SE is in the end of such tunes ; and assumes almost the importance of frequent use, but bah is very seldom used in ordinary music a governing or key-note, but without changing (as son and (Ex. 5). FAH do when they become key-notes by "transition") its own Tunes of this kind are commonly callea minor tunes, musical effect. It still leaves on the mind the impression of from their having the interval called a minor (smaller) third * sorrowful suspense.”
immediately above their predominating note LAH-(LAH, DOH), b. Modern musicians, in order to give to LAH a closer resem. and in distinction from other tunes which have a major (larger) blance to the ordinary key-note, and to direct the ear to it third above their predominating note don. They may be said more decisively as the note on which the tune closes, as well to be in the Lah mode. It is advisable to take their pitch by as to increase the general effect of such tunes, occasionally means of Doh, as in other tunes. The signature may be written introduce a new note, which we shall call se, a little step below | in this form, KEY A, LAH MODE.