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yards high, we call it 54 feet, then add 27 to it, making it 81 ; E-gli par-ti da Mô-na-co per re-cár-si a Vi-en-na, he departed from the square root of which is 9. The visible horizon is therefore Manich to go to Vienna. distant nine miles.
I-o vá-do in 1-800-zia, in I-své-zia, I go to Scotland, to Sweden. We have spoken of the earth as being round, but some will
Il Ba-scid fu e-si-li-á-to nell' 1-so-la di Ci-pri, the pasha was exilod
to (the island of) Cyprus. perhaps call to mind the elevated mountain ranges and table
E'-gli è in Frán-cia, nél-la Chi-na, he is in France, in China. lands on the one hand, and some deep depressions on the other,
Ná-cque nell' 1-80-la di Lé-sbo, he was born in the island of Lesbos. and imagine that these interfere with the general shape. If we remember, however, what a small proportion these amounts
Usage allows the omission of the article after in before many bear to the actual diameter of the earth, we shall see that they nouns familiarly known and constantly recurring in conversain no way interfere with its general outline. The greatest ele- tion; for example, é-gli va nél-la cá-me-ra, nél-la cit-ta, nét-lo vations are only about five miles, and there are only a few of chiê-sa, nél-la can-tí-na, etc.; or, é-gli va in cá-me-ra, in cit-ta, in these, while the diameter of the earth is about 8,000 miles. If, chiê-sa, in can-ti-na, etc., he goes to the room, to town, to church, then, we would accurately represent these on a globe having a to the cellar, etc. diameter of 16 inches, we must make them too of an inch high;
Before the words day, week, month, year, morning, evening, they might, in fact, be well represented by small grains of sand when time is the subject, it is customary to omit the prepoThe thinnest tissue-paper would fully represent the elevation of sition in; for example, l án-no che mo-ri il Ga-li-lê-o, ná-cque il table-lands, and minute scratches, almost invisible without a Newton, in the year in which Galileo died, Newton was born ; il microscopo, would show the valleys of rivers or mountain mé-se ven-tú-ro, (in the) next month ; la set-ti-má-na scór-sa, (in gorges. For all ordinary purposes, then, the earth may be con- the) last week ; la nôt-te che viê-ne, (in the) next night, etc.; sidered as absolutely spherical.
instead of nell' án-no, nel mé-se, etc.
The words cá-sa, cór-te, pa-láz-zo, teá-tro, lét-to, and scuô-la
have a proper or original and a figurative signification. In the LESSONS IN ITALIAN.—XVIII.
former case they demand the preposition in; in the latter, the
preposition a (without an article) before them. For example :THE PREPOSITION IN. The preposition in denotes being, continuance, or motion in the in ted-tro, in It-to, in i-scuá-la, in palace, in the theatre
, in the bed,
E'-gli è nél-la cór-te, nel pa-láz-zo, He is in the court-yard, in the interior of a thing. It also denotes any kind of motion or
in the school (i.e. building), in penetration into it. The idea of existence in a time or in a
the house. certain condition, particularly in a certain state or disposition of E-gli è a cór-te, a pa-láz-zo, a ted. He is at court, at Guildhall, at the mind, likewise requires the use of in. The preposition a, on tro, a lét-to, a scuố-la, a cá-sa. the play, sick in bed at school, at the contrary, merely expresses presence near or about a thing, or
home. motion, approach, and tendency to it. For example :
I'-o vd-do nel-la cór-te, nel pa-lás. I go into the court-yard, inE-gli è nel giar-di-no, in quet-la ca-me-ra, in cit-tà, in piáz-za, he is la, na-la cá-sa.
zo, nel ted-tro, nel lét-to, nél-la scuố- to the palace, into the theatre,
into the bed, into the school (i.e. in the garden, in that room, in the town, in the square.
building), into the house. E-gli an-drà in In-ghil-tér-ra, in I-spá-gna, he will go to England, to I-o vá-do a cór-te, a pa-láz-zo, a I go to court, to Guildhall, to.
tea-tro, a let-tô, 2 scuô-la, 4 cá-sa. the play, to bed (i.e. to sleep), to
school, home. Sog-fior-nò al-quan-to in R6-ma, he stayed a while in Rome. Ge-si Crí-sto ná-cque in Be-to-lém-me, Jesus Christ was born in In addition to these uses, in has some indefinite meanings,
which will admit of several prepositions or adverbial expressions Im-mêr-ge-re ú-no nell' á-cqua, to plunge one in the water.
for the purpose of translating them into English. For example, E-gli e-ra qui in quest' (-stán-te, he was here (in) this moment.
by in :E gli è in a-go-nt-a, he lies in the agonies of death,
No-mi-ná-re, di-re qualche cô-sa in la-ti-no, to name, say something Es-se-re in col-le-ra, in gió-ja, in af-sti-zió-ne (i.e., nél-lo stá-to di in Latin.
cól-le-ra, di gio-ja, di af-fli-zió-ne), to be angry, cheerful, sad Spe-rá-re in Dk-o, to hope in God. (i.e., in a state of anger, joy, affliction).
In ma-nie-ra tá-le, in such a manner. A-vér qudl-che cô-sa in bóc-ca, in md-no, to have something in one's By on or upon :
mouth, in one's hand. És-se-re, stá-re in cam-pc-gna, to be, reside in the country.
Por-tá-re qualche co-sa in dós-so, in tê-sta, in côr-po, to carry An-dá-re, on-trá-re in ú-na chiê-sa, to go into, enter a church.
something on one's back or shoulders, or about one's self, on
the head, on the body.. Ca-scá-re in u-na fós-sa, to fall into a pit or hole. Mét-te-re le má-ni in tå-sca, to put or thrust one's hands into
Por-tá-re scár-pe in pié-di, to wear shoes on one's feet. one's pocket.
By round :Me-nd-re a ca-vul-lo in i-stál-la, to lead a horse into the stable. Gli git-tò il brác-cio in col-lo (for in-tór-no il col-lo), he clasped Sa-li-re in cá-me-ra, to go up into the room.
him with the arm round his neck. Vi-ve-va in un sé-co-lo di bar-bá-rie, he lived in an age of barbarity. Més-so-li ú-na ca-te-na in gó-la (for in-tor-no la gó-la), after having I have already remarked that the proper names of towns and
put a chain round his neck. similar localities are exceptions to the above-stated rule, for they By to:have the preposition a as well as in placed before them, whenever Le cac-ciò di col-le in col-le, he chased them from hill to hill. a stay or arrival in them is expressed ; for example, é-gli stêt-te
Di tém-po in têm-po, from time to time, per tre án-ni in (or a) R6-ma, he lived for three years in Rome ;
Con-fic-cá-re in ú-na cró-ce, to fasten or nail something to a cross. la sta-te pas-si-ta co stết-ti đú-e mé-si a (or in) F-rê-se, lagi | By towards :summer I lived two months in Florence. There is, however, a In me mo-nen-do đeo ba-gi ốc-chj i re-i, turning towards me the shade of difference between the employment of a and in in such rays of her beautiful eyes. cases, which will be at once understood by the following By against :examples : è in Lôn-dra, in the strictest sense of the word,
Vi-de in se ri-vol-to il pô-po-lo, he saw the people rebelling against means a person being or an occurrence taking place within the him. precincts properly called London; while è a Lôn-dra, in the By at:more enlarged or general meaning of the word, means a person Guardá-re in u-no, to look at one. not necessarily being in, or an occurrence not necessarily taking By in place of :place within those precincts, but perhaps in the neighbourhood
A-dot-tá-re ú-no in fi-gliuó-lo, to take one in place of a son, to of London-e.g., Kensington.
adopt one. The motion to or towards a town or village, conformably to
By as :the nature of the preposition, is always expressed by a. Motion to or towards (and, naturally, being or staying in) parts of the
Dá-re qual-che co-sa in do-no ad u-no, to give one something as a
present. world, countries, provinces, and islands, requires the preposition
Di-re qual-che co-sa in sú-a scu-sa, to plead something as one's in. For example :
apology or excuse. An-did-mo con lui a Pic-tro-búr-go, let us go with him to St. O Di-o, non m' im-pu-tár-lo in pec-cá-to, O Lord, do not impute it Petersburg.
to me as a sin.
By adverbial expressions :
Boom, cá-me-ra, . Summer-house, ca-si-, Unfortunate, in-fe-li. In av-ve-ni-re, in future, for the future, henceforth.
Shall we go to take nét-to, m.
ce, m. In fát-to, indeed, in fact, in reality.
our breakfast ? vo- That sideboard, quell' We find, a tró-va-no. In frét-ta, in a hurry, hastily.
glid-mo an-dá-re a ar-má-dio, m. You have bad, wo: 4. In 6-gni con-to, at any rate, at all events.
far co-la-zió-net This moment, qué-sto vé-te a-vá-lo. In fác-cia, to one's face.
She must either have pún-to, m. (gliét-to,m. You will have, poi .
gone-or, el-la sa-rà This note, qué-sto bi uréte, ella aura. VOCABULARY.
an-da-ta 0-0. Time, tém-po, m. Your journey, 1 tú. Abitava, he lived. Egli va, he goes. Quasi, almost, nearly, Steward, fat-tó-re (or To become learned, per stro viág-gio, m. Adesso, now. Essi sono 801fiti, they well nigh.
di-ve-nir dót-to. Alquanto, m., alquanta, have gone out. Scozia, Scotland.
EXERCISE 20.-COLLOQUIAL. 1., some, several Fiore, flower, bloom, Se ne parla, they talk
1. The unfortunato find consolation in hope. 2. In books we Anno, year (il fior degli prime.
of it. anni or dell' etd, Fretta, haste, hurry, Se ne stamperanno, will find the means of becoming learned. 3. Your sister is not in the bloom of youth, precipitation.
the room, she must either have gone into the kitchen or into the flower of life, primo Io mi riposo, I repose Siete, you are. cellar. 4. Shall we go to take our breakfast in the summerof one's age). myself, sit down; 1 Slitta, sledge,
house ? 5. In an agreeable company time passes very quickly. Antonio, Anthony. rely.
Sono, I am.
6. Is nobody in the castle? 7. No, the steward has gone ont Avoto avuto, you have Letto, bed.
Stanza, f., room, cham (in) this moment. 8. You have had fine weather for your had. [nobody. Lo prevenni, I came ber.
journey. 9. You will have in this note the count's direction. C'è nissuno, there is before him. Teatro, theatre, play- | 10. He hid the koy in that sideboard. Camera, chamber, room Lo trovaí, I found him. house. Campagna, country, Mano, f., hand. Tempo, timne, leisure, Cantina, cellar.' Me, ine.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ITALIAN-XVII. Capacità, ability, talent, Morironoamendue, both Tu eri, thou wast. skill.
EXERCISE 15. died.
Turchia, Turkey. Carrozza, coach, car. Ora, hour.
Vi è andato, he is gone 1. He has returned from the wood. 2. He has already departed riage. Osteria, public-house, there.
from Naples. 3. I am betrayed by you, by all. 4. He is descended Carta, f., paper (carta tavern, inn.
Viaggio, journey. from a noble family. 5. Far from my parents. 6. On whom do you pecora, vellum). Piazza, market-place, Vicino, m., vicina, f., depend? 7. One does not distinguish the one from the other. &. He Collera, anger.
neighbouring, con- has not yet gone out of the city. 9. He descends, he falls from the Copia, f., abundance, Piede, foot, leg (punta tiguous, adjoining, root. 10. The water flows down the mountain. 11. Everywhere. 12. plenty; occasion ; del piede, end adjacent.
From one side, 13. They did not want to go out through this place. copy.
point of the foot, Villegiatura, summer 14. She returned lately from Prussia. 15. He is from Glasgow. 16. Cortile, court-yard. i.e., toe).
senson, for pleasure I have been to my sister. 17, To-day I shall dine at the merchant's. Cucina, kitchen. Porto, port, harbour. or recreation spent 18. After dinnor I shall go to him. 19. He came this morning to me. E andato, he is gone. Potremo andar, we shall in the country (es. 20. He lives (lodges, resides) at his father's (or in his father's house, E partito, he has de
be able to go.
sere in villegiatura, or with his father). parted. Punta, point (of any. to spend the sum
EXERCISE 16. E qui l'aspetto, and thing).
mer season in the
1. Where have you lost your book? 2. In this garden. 3. My here I wait till he Punto, point, point of country).
father has received a letter from our aunt. 4. Hast thou received this comes.
time, moment. Voi siete, you are, present from thy sister? 5. My mother has bought this cup from EXERCISE 18.
your sister. 6. The penknife which we have received from our uncle 1. E'l-la è nél-la stán-za vi-cí-na. 2. Sá-no quá-si in pôr-to. is good and handsome. 7. I love my sister. 8. This mother loves her 3. E-gli è in A'u-stria, in I-tá-lia, in cam-pá-gna, in, vil-leg-gia- daughter. 11. This child has written a letter to his mother. 12. My
son. 9. I think of my brother. 10. My aunt thinks of her son and tú-ra. 4. E-gli va nel giar-dí-no; in quél-la cá-me-ra; in uncle has sold his beautiful horse to my father. 13. I have given my Frán-cia; in cam-pá-gna; in I-sco-zia ; in Tur-chí-a. 5. Mo-ri- penknife to my sister. 14. Have you lent your umbrella to my brother? ro-no a-men-du-e in un giór-no e in un' 6-ra. 6. Tu ê-ri in chiê- 15. Our aunt's son is very tall. 16. We have written a long letter to sa. 7. C'è nis-sú-no in cá-sa? 8. E-gli è nel cor-tí-le, nél-la our father. 17. My aunt has received this cap from her daughter
. 18. cu-cí-na, nél-la can-tí-na. 9. E an-dá-to in chiê-sa, in cit-tà, in Have you sold your snuff-box to my father? 19. I have lent to the piáz-za, in o-ste-ri-a, in teá-tro. · 10. A-bi-tá-va in quél-la cá-sa. brother the penknife which I have received from my uncle. 20. We 11. Lo tro-vá-i in lét-to. 12. An-to-nio è in côl-le-ra con me.
have given a cloak to this child, 21. Hast thou lent thy book to this 13. Se ne pár-la in tút-ta la città. 14. E par-tí-to in frét-ta. good child ? 22. Have you found this pen in the school? 23. I think 15. Vi è an-da-to in car-rôz-za.
of this son and of this daughter. 16. Do-má-ni po-tré-mo an-dár in i-slít-ta. 17. E's-si só-no sor-tí-ti in qué-sto pún-to. 18. A
EXERCISE 17. dês-so siê-te nél-le mi-e má-ni. 19. Lo pre-vên-ni in pún-ta di 1. Egli viene dalla cavallerizza e non dal giardino. 2. Da Amburgo piê-di e qui l' a-spêt-to. 20. I'-o mi ri-pô-so nél-la ca-pa-ci-tà di a Parigi ci sono
conto novanta miglia francese. 3. Osfordis none mi-o fra-têl-lo. 21. Al-quán-te cô-pie se ne stam-pe-rán-no in lontano da Londra. 4. Vien' egli dalla bottega ? 5. Non, Signore, egli cár-ta po-cô-ra. 22. Voi siê-te nel fiór dé-gli án-ni. 23. A-vé-te viene dallo scrittojo. 6. Venite voi dalla commedia ? 7. No, veniamo 8-vu-to bel tôm-po nel vô-stro viag-gio.
dal ballo. 8. I mobili del Signor Hall sono stati venduti da suoi eredi.
9. Venite voi dal giardino ? 10. No, Io vengo dal caffè. 11. Dónde EXERCISE 19.-COLLOQUIAL.
vengono questi signori? 12. Alcuni ritornano dalla caccia, altri da! 1. My uncle's garden is very large. 2. We have seen passeggio, e questi ultimi dalla pesca. 13. Ecco il danaro che mi è thy father's table and bed. 3. Have you found thy father's stato spedito dal padre. 14. Questo dipende dalla madre, e non dal umbrella ? 4. I have received this cloak from my aunt. 5. fratello. 15. Il passaggio dalla virtu al vizio è assai piu corto che non Have you received a book from this child ? 6. We have lent Giovanni; egli è gia stato tre mesi in Londra. 17. Guglielmo è ritornato
16. Io aspetto una risposta da our umbrella to your brother. 7. Have you found this pen in your school ? 8. We have written a letter to our uncle and to oggi da Parigi, o suo fratěllo viêne a spettato da Cambrigge. our aunt. 9. Your mother has given a cap to my sister. 10. Have you seen a little child in our garden ?
ARTHUR, KING OF BRITAIN. Agreeable company, Drunkenness, ub-bria. Is there nobody ? ca Ir is with the greatest regret one sees the result of destructive ag-gra-dé-vo-le com chéz-za (ts), f.
nis-su-no? pa-gmi-a, 2. Find, trố-va-TL0.
criticism as applied to some of the old historic beliefs. There
Key, chid-ve, f. Anger, col-le-ra, f. Fine weather, bal têm- Kitchen, cu-ci-na, f.
are certain things one would like to believe in, though they be Book, li-bro, m.
Man, uó-mo, m.
all unreal and unsubstantial as a dream. Around some of the Castle, ca-st&l-lo, m. Has gone out, è u-scí. Means, méz-si, m. legendary heroes and kings of antiquity there is a romantio halo Cellar, can-ti-na, f. to.
Never is better known spread, which, whether warranted or not by fact, has all the inConsolation, con-so-la- He hid, 4-gli na-scó-se. than, non si co-no- fluence of reality, and is elevating to the minds of those who zió-ne, f.
Hope, spe-rán-za, f. sce má-i mé-glis che. Count, cón-te, m. In some respects, per Passes very quickly, * This second form, in which the third person singular feminina is Direction, in-di-riz-so, di-ver-si ri-guár-di. pás-sa as-sa-i pri-sto. used for the second person plural, is intended to express respect or Is not, non è.
Play, gius-co, m. politeness.
are able to appreciate it. Distance undoubtedly lends enchant- following sketch have been obtained, though it has been necesment to the view in many cases, and the curtain of time is no sary also in places where the account has appeared to border doubt often used as a charitable covering for the sins of our on the fabulous—that is to say, in a good many places
to verify forefathers; but there are many subjects on which we would or confute, by means of other sources of information. The rather remain ignorant than be made wise, which we would original preface to this singular work says of Arthur that "he rather look at through the mist of ages than see by the clear reigned king of Britain in anno five hundred and sixteen. In bright light of modern historical criticism. Before the latter his reign he curbed the insolent power of the domineering go down many of the ideal mon and institutions which were Saxons, he won and subdued Denmark and Norway; he ordained supposed to have had existence in the olden time; under its and instituted the order of the Round Table at Winchester, light many of the so-called heroes and demigods shrink to the which was honoured with the number of one hundred and fifty dimensions of very ordinary mortals. Criticism has its disad. knights. He was victorious beyond the seas against the Saracens, vantages as well as its merits, and we feel it does us a certain and by his conquests made many of those unbelieving pagans amount of wrong when it labels as unreal some of those acknowledge the true God. Whilst he was abroad in these incarnations of a high standard of honour which it assures us noble and heroical employments, his nephew Mordred, whom he upon evidence we cannot disallow to be simply impossible in this had put in trust with the government of his realm, being puffed sublunary sphere.
up with ambition, and possessed with treason, he caused himself One of the most interesting of ancient objects to which histo- to be crowned, and usurped the kingdom; which King Arthur rical criticism has been applied is the history of King Arthur. hearing of, he made quick expedition into this land, and landed The traditions of this prince are preserved in all western king- at Dover, where the traitor Mordred was with a mighty army doms of Europe, an 1 are not simply confined to the part over to impeach and hinder the king's arrival. But in spite of all which he is said to have reigned. By some of the legends traitorous and rebellious opposition, King Arthur landed his concerning him he is represented as a demigod, miraculously troops, and after two set battles he slew Mordred, and with the born, and of superlative merits, who dwelt for a time among loss of his own life won a glorious victory, and being dead was men for the purpose of teaching them better things, and raising buried in the town of Glastonbury, in Somersetshire, after he their moral standard , to the height of his own excellence. had reigned sixteen years."
"All this famous narIndeed, it is impossible not to see that in some particulars the ration," the chronicler goes on to observe, “is set down to history and attributes of the Redeemer himself have been at- confute the errors of such as are of opinion that there was never tached to Arthur. But all the traditions portray him as an any such man as King Arthur; and though historians do disunusual character, high above the flock in "all that makes agree in their chronologies about times and places, some having a man;" a sufferer through his wife's wrong, and the faithless-written partially, some neglectively, and some fabulously and ness of those he trusted most; a prince in every sense of the superstitiously; yet in many points which are most material, word, a soldier, and a governor who could govern.
they do all conclude of the predecessors and successors of King It has been denied that King Arthur ever existed, but the Arthur, according as I have formerly related.” Such is in brief evidence is strong in disfavour of the assertion. Whether such the history of King Arthur, shorn of the miraculous accounts an Arthur as hitherto believed in ever drew breath it may be of his birth and death, of his sword Excalibur, of the feats of allowed to question, but not to upset the Arthur theory alto his knights, of the singular prowess of his own right hand. gether. Not without some foundation, however slight, do events The Roman occupation of this country lasted over four become engrained in the popular beliefs and legends ; not without hundred years, and when the Romans left, without having some warrant are names and places enshrined in ballads, and instructed the Britons in the art of government, and without the memory of them perpetuated in a country's folk lore. And having even permitted them to share in the government, and King Arthur lives in all these. In the legends and songs of disorder supervened, the country was given over to whomsoever the north of England, of parts of Scotland, of Wales, of Brittany, could most deftly cajole or force his brethren into submission. and above all of the English counties of Cornwall, Devon, and There were many native princes or noblemen, but they had all Somerset, the deeds of King Arthur and his Knights of the been carefully ignored, so far as rule was concerned, by the Round Table are freshly remembered. Particular spots com- Romans, and they had not had any opportunity of winning the memorate his battles, particular rivers and towns are identified confidence of their countrymen. A general striving for the with passages in his life, the site of his residence remains to mastery ended in the establishment of a number of small this day, and the place where he fell fighting is pointed out states, of which the princes were so emulous of one another, with no uncertain hand. In the imaginations of his subjects' that their whole time was spent either in wars or intrigues descendants he is yet living, abstracted awhile from his king. for the subjugation of the temporarily weaker state. The dom until the allotted time for its regeneration shall have come, whole country was disorganised. Strange men, adventurers, but visiting it now and again, invisible to the general eye, revealed appeared on the coasts of England, and in small expeditions only in some portent, in some mystery of the clouds, to the discovered how fair the land was, and, returning to their northern faithful who still watch for him. The peasant of Wales and homes, spread the news of their discovery, exciting in many Cornwall believes as implicitly in King Arthur as in Queen minds the desire to follow whither the adventurers had led. Victoria; and the Chouans marching against the soldiers of the Fresh invasions were the result, and what with these and Revolution, sang the hymn of Arthur, believing that ke, at the intestine commotions which the native princes were powerless head of his army in the clouds, led them on, if to death, to enrol to repress, the condition of the people was most miserable : ment also in his ranks. Though differing in certain details
, la wiessness abounded, the bonds of society were loosened, and perhaps, all accounts agree in the main ; and it is impossible, the wretched Britons, unaccustomed for so many years to rely without rejecting entirely all traditionary evidence, to dis- in anything upon themselves, had recourse to their old masters, believe wholly in the story of Arthur, King of Britain.
and begged them, by “the groans of the Britons,” to resume The period assigned to King Arthur is that which intervened their sway over the island. This request the Romans refused. between the departure of the Romans from Britain and the Imperious necessity required the withdrawal of their legions for settlement of the Northmen in the island. Concerning this the defence of the empire, and the Britons were left to settle period we have not any contemporaneons written history; their difficulties as best they could of their own unassisted but from the scanty records made up from stories current selves. The upshot of the matter was that first seven, afterat the time, we have a certain connected chronicle at once wards three, kingdoms were established in the English land. interesting and instructive. The various traditions about the Wessex included the small estates of the south-east, Mercia king and all that he did, the knighthood that he formed, the the East Angles, and Northumberland the northern and northvirtues he inculcated, the trials he met with, and the heroism western districts. Rivalry and its outcome ultimately established with which he withstood adversity, are written in "The most the supremacy of the kingdom of Wessex, of which the king, ancient and famous History of the renowned Prince Arthur, Egbert (A.D. 828), appears to have been an able and an enter. King of Britaine ; as also all the noble acts and heroicke deeds prising prince. He was, moreover, the first king who embraced of his valiant Knights of the Round Table," reduced into Christianity, English by Sir Thomas Malory, Knight, in the year 1634. From Before matters had settled down into this orderly condition, this book, an old and rare one, but to which all readers who however, efforts had been made successfully in the extremo can get access to it are referred, most of the materials for the west and south-west districts of England to establish order and
good government among a people who, for the most part, had into opposing ranks, and wherever “ the dragon of the great never yielded to Roman rule, and who were not, therefore, so Pendragonship" blazed from his helmet, there people learned much disturbed as the up-country folk by the withdrawal of to know that victory was on the side of the king. The king's that people. Lying beyond the pale of civilisation, secure in wrath was great as was his mercy, and in time men got to fear the mountains and morasses which offered innumerable obstacles it, and so to act that they came not under it. Arthur was to invasion, the people of the west were unmolested by the supreme within the borders of his kingdom, and for a short conquering race, to whose might their chiefs owned a nominal time the land had rest. At the castle of Tintagel, on a grand high subjection, and received in return a cheap allowance of semi- bluff overlooking the sea, between Boscastle and Padstow, the independence. Cornwall and Devonshire each had its duke, king kept his court. There was his seat of government; there Wales was governed by its own princes, and the lords of the head-quarters of the knights of the Round Table. There, Lyonesse (the now submerged continuation of Land's End, too, unfortunately for Arthur, was the home of Guinevere, his represented at the present day by the Scilly Islands) acknow queen, through whose sin came domestic ruin upon his house, ledged as king the ruler of Brittany, who was also king of The tide of Saxon conquest which had overborne resistance Damnonium, that is, of all the counties and principalities in on the east coast gradually spread towards the west, and now England above-mentioned. The Romans pitched their camps and again attempts were made which required all the strength and military stations as far as possible into the western country and energy of the western prince to withstand. Like Charle(some of the camps remain to this day at Clovelly, Kilk- magne, who wept when, in the height of his power, he saw the hampton, and even further into Cornwall), but these were galleys of the Northmen casting anchor in his ports, knowing meant rather as bulwarks to keep out invasion from the west of what they were the precursors, Arthur wept when he saw than as points of departure for fresh expeditions westward. It the Anglo-Saxons sweeping his way. He wept, knowing the is probable that these western stations were among the first to misery that must sooner or later come upon the land; but he be abandoned by the Romans, who retired gradually upon the nevertheless made ready to do his utmost to prevent the coming Thames and the south-eastern districts of the kingdom, as they of the inevitable. Duty required him to resist foreign foes even had to diminish time after time the garrison of Britain. The to the death, and this he summoned his knights to do on all people of these parts, more isolated than the East Angles and and every occasion. Advancing sometimes into the very heart Northumbrians, remained, as it were, apart; and while the of the English country, he met and defeated large bodies of the rest of the population was becoming an admixture of Britons enemy, returning afterwards to his own impenetrable fastnesses, and strangers, the western men were still British, and inclined whither the ever-coming force of the Saxons could not follow to remain so. The disturbances which shook the foundations him. The stories told of his prowess in these expeditions sound of other states were hardly felt in Damnonium, where there like some fairy legend, and probably are equally credible. was not any of that race-hatred which, as between Britons and William of Malmesbury says in his chronicle, that at the siego Northmen, prevented once and for ever the fasion of interests. of Mount Badon, near Bath, "relying on an image of the On the withdrawal of the Romans, however, whose presence Virgin, which he had affixed to his armour, he engaged nine had checked the natural tendency of all half-savage peoples to hundred of the enemy single-handed, and dispersed them with disorder, the people of Damnonium gave way to the spirit of incredible slaughter." The same historian says of the Saxons
, unrest, which their princes were unable to carb. Violence was however, that "after various revolutions of fortune, they filled committed, robbers roamed abroad, and there was no one capable up their thinned battalions with fresh supplies of their country, of organising resistance either to foes within or without the mon, rashed with greater courage to the conflict, and extended territory. The country was in danger of falling a prey to themselves by degrees, as the natives retreated, over the whole anarchy of the worst kind, when a man, whom tradition has island; for the counsels of God, in whose hand is every change identified with Arthur, arose, and put a bridle on the land. The of empire, did not oppose their career." lesser princes recognised in him their superior, and being tho How long the power of the western kingdoms might have roughly persuaded of the necessity for doing so, swore allegiance stood against the attacks of foreigners but for domestic treachery
, to him, and agreed to subordinate their pretensions in every- is a curious historical speculation. The superior national charasthing to his authority. The duty Arthur imposed upon them teristics of the Northmen would probably, in any case, have was the maintenance of peace at home, and the guarding of prevailed over those purely Celtic instincts which prompted the borders from invasion. Christianity, which, according to men to die in proof of devotion, but failed to make them tradition, had been taught in the west at a very early period understand why they should live in proof of the same thing. (the legend of the Glastonbury thorn makes Joseph of Arimathea The physical power of the Saxons must also, in the long run, the apostle of the west country), had lost its hold upon the have prevailed; but the downfall of the last remaining British people and their rulers. Arthur revived it, put it under arms, dominion was hastened by the wickedness of a wife and the and knit together his knights in a bond of Christian fellowship. faithlessness of a "familiar friend." For the story of Guinevere
, "I made them lay their hands in mine and swear
the wicked queen, the reader must be referred to the wondrously To reverence the king, as if he were
beautiful version of it given in the " Idylls of the King;" the Their conscience, and their conscience as their king, story of Sir Lancelot of the Lake, and the account of the To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,
relation in which he stood towards the noble king, must be read To ride abroad redressing human wrongs,
at large in the history by Sir Thomas Mallory, from which may To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it;
be gathered the intensity of the desolation which overspread To lead sweet lives in purest chastity,
Arthur's heart at the defection of those most dear to it. There, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,
too, will be found in all its sadness the account of the great And worship her by years of noble deeds Until they won her."
king's death, of the burial of Excalibur in the lake, and of the
translation of King Arthur to happier realms, where the virtaes Such, according to Mr. Tennyson, were the principle and that he practised and the wisdom that he taught were to be system on which King Arthur proceeded; and such, according better appreciated than in his earthly kingdom. The battioto legends, they really were. For a time the swine before whom ground on which King Arthur breathed his last is fixed by some these pearls were cast forebore to turn and rend the owner of writers in one place, by some in another. At Slaughter Bridge, them; for a while they rejoiced in the light which shone in the a few miles from Tintagel, is the most likely place; but other dark places of their hearts. But they wearied in well-doing spots are named, the chronicles giving the uncertain indication The light reproved their evil deeds. Arthur's Christian knight that it was "between Salisbury and the sea." One has fixed hood required the surrender of so much more than they were it at or near Dover, but the chances are strongly against
this inclined to give; the discipline of goodness was too severe for as the locus in quo. The circumstances under which Arthur them, and when in due course temptation came, many fell away, fell were specially sad. Guinevere, the queen, had so misa on whom the god-like hero mainly and reasonably depended behaved that her lord the king guarded his life only as a matter Rebellions cropped up in different parts of the scattered do- of duty, not greatly caring if he lost it; Sir Lancelot, the most minion; now in Brittany, now in Somersetshire. Arthur's beloved and mightiest of his knights, was a domestic traitor ; and presence was required more often against the forces which against the dragon of the great Pendragonship kinsmen's weapons should have been his defence than against the common enemy were lifted in aid of the foreigners. Sir Mordred, Arthur's His prowess as a warrior was of the kind which spreads dismay nephew, took advantage of his master's absence in Brittany to
10 8 12
make war against him, and on his return opposed a formidable It requires not only a good eye and a steady hand, but nice army against him, and boldly claimed the crown. Arthur, after discrimination, to shoot well at a target. You must make vainly trying every peaceful way of bringing the usurper to his allowance for currents of wind, which may deflect the arrow; duty, joined battle against him, and in dreadful conflict, wherein and, if you are shooting at a distance of more than thirty or the flower of both armies perished, overcame Sir Mordred and forty yards, you must shoot with a certain degree of elevation, slew him, receiving himself the wound which ended his mortal proportionate to the distance the arrow has to traverse. If the career. The affections of the people willingly invested him with elevation is insufficient the arrow will fall short of the mark, the attributes of immortality, and though his body was buried and if it be too great it will pass beyond it. with great pomp in the Isle of Avalon or at Glastonbury, to Commencing your practice at the distance of about thirty which he had been a great benefactor, his spirit was supposed yards, you increase it to forty, fifty, and sixty, which last is the to wait somewhere in abeyance until the people of his kingdom range generally adopted in match-shooting. Be careful, in were fit to receive him.
withdrawing your arrows from the target after shooting, to Overlaid as it may be with much that cannot be accepted as grasp them near the head, and bring them out with a slight truth, the story of King Arthur is in itself a true one, repre- turn of the wrist, otherwise you may break them short off at senting the struggles of the last native prince against the power the head. Wipe them, when necessary, with the tassel susof a nation which gradually assumed possession of the land. pended from the pouch for that purpose, as shown in our “ The old order changeth, giving place to new,
illustration of the implements; and if the feathers become And God fulfils himself in many ways,
ruffled or misplaced, they should be smoothed by drawing them Lest one good custom should corrupt the world."
through the hand.
When match-shooting is practised, the score of each competitor
is kept on a card drawn up in the following form :-
Gold, Red. In, White Black. Out. White. Total
hits. IN commencing to shoot at a target, the learner should practise at short distances only, and pay more attention to his attitude Mr. A
48 and to the management of his bow than to precision of aim at Mr. B
50 the object. The proper attitude in shooting is seen in the Mr. O illustrations which accompany our last paper. It must be erect without stiffness; the chest expanded and thrown slightly for. ward, so as to allow full play to the muscles of the arm in drawing the bow; the feet somewhat apart; and the left side The colours set down on the top of the card refer to the of the body turned in the direction of the target, while the face corresponding rings on the target. Every hit is valued in prolooks straight towards it over the left shoulder.
portion to its néarness to the centre ; thus, one shot in the gold There are three points to be attended to in the management central circle counts nine towards the score ; a hit in the red, of the bow and arrow in shooting, and these points are known which is the next ring on the target, counts seven; in the inner as nocking, drawing, and loosing. Nocking is the affixing of white it counts five ; in the black, three; and in the outer white the arrow to the bow, which is done in the following way. You the arrow scores one only. The scores are usually marked on the grasp the bow by the handle in the left hand, and hold it hori- card as each archer shoots, by piercing a hole with a pin in that zontally with the string uppermost. You then take the arrow column which corresponds to the position of his arrow on the by the middle, and pass it under the string till the head comes target. At the end of the shooting the hits are added up, and to the left hand, which retains it by the forefinger, while the then the numerical value of each hit is set down, to form the right hand is transferred from the middle of the arrow to the actual total or gross score. nock, or place which fits on to the string. The arrow is then We will suppose that a dozen arrows have been shot by each pat on the string with the cock feather uppermost, and one of the archers whose names are down on the card before us. A finger remains on each side to steady it.
has made ten hits with his number of arrows, and when the The next step is to draw the bow. Grasping the handle value of these hits is ascertained, according to the figure at the firmly in the left hand, you raise it gradually from the horizontal top of each column, they are found to form a score of fortyto the perpendicular, and at the same time draw the string by eight. B has made eight hits only; but, having more arrows the right hand with an even motion towards you. The bow is in the centre of the target than A, their value is increased, raised until the left arm is extended straight out before you, so that he scores even more than his opponent, who has made and the string is drawn back until the head of the arrow almost fewer misses than himself. C has placed every arrow upon touches the bow, the right hand nearly reaching the shoulder. the target, and yet his score, when the value of each hit is
At the moment when the bow is thus fully bent, the arrow calculated, does not exceed that of B, who has missed with oneshould be brought in a direct line with the target, and instantly third of his arrows. loosed. The grasp of the handle of the bow must be very Besides target-shooting, two or three other forms of archery steady, as the slightest shake while loosing will cause a deviation are occasionally practised. In butt-shooting, turf mounds, with in the flight of the arrow. Moreover, it is best to pause but small pasteboard marks upon them, are used in the place of little to take aim, as while aiming the arm is wearied, and the targets, thus obviating the necessity of conveying the latter to prolonged tension may possibly break the bow, unless it be a and fro. Flight-shooting is simply a test of power to shoot to very strong one. The practised archer feels a kind of sympathy a distance, withont aiming at a mark. In roving, the archers between hand and eye, which teaches him confidence in loosing take any object that may be agreed upon, as they roam from at the moment when the arrow first points directly towards field to field-a tree or a bush, etc.--and the best shot at each the bull's-eye.
mark selects the next. This is considered good practice, as the The eye should be kept steadily on the mark, and turned to distances shot are uncertain; but roving obviously requires a no other object. Old Roger Ascham, in his treatise on archery, considerable space of ground to be traversed, and can only be written at a time when it was an important science, thus enforces practised with safety in a secluded spot. this lesson :-"Leaving a man's eye always on his mark is the After practice the bow must be unstrung, which is performed only waye to shoote streighte; yea, and I suppose, so redye and by placing the bottom end upon the ground, with the right foot easye a waye that if it be learned in youth, and confirmed with against it, holding the handle with the right hand, and pressing use, a man shall never misse therein. Some men wonder whye, the upper limb downward with the left, when the string becomes in casting a man's eye at the marke, the hand should go loose, and the forefinger lifts it out of the nock. In stringing, streighte; but surely, if he considered the nature of a man's the bow is held in a similar way; but the peculiar knack which eye, he would not wonder at it. The eye is the very tongue is required in stringing and unstringing may be learnt more wherewith witte and reason doth speake to every parte of the easily by watching the method pursued by a bow.maker or some bodye. The eye is nothing more than a certayne windowe for experienced archer, than by any written description. When not witte to shute out her heade at. The chief cause why men in use, the bow should be kept covered with green baize or oilcannot shute streighte is because they look at theyre shafte.” cloth, and carefully protected against heat.