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niece is derived from the i found in the German ; also in the Masculine, Feminine.
Masculine. Feminine. Dutch nicht, and the Friesic nift.
Prophet Sloven and slut, the former masculine, the latter feminine,
sultana, Shepherd shepherdess. Tiger
tigress. come from the Teutonic schlotte (schlutt), dirt, filth; whence
Traitor traitress. schlottern (sluddern), to hang loosely, like ill-made, ragged, or
Viscount viscountess. foul clothes; to be slovenly. Wizard and witch both come from the German wissen (Eng only one, that is ess, can be said to be strictly English. For
Of these feminine terminations, namely a, ess, it, and ine, lish, wise, wit, to know). A third mode of indicating sex is by a prefix. For example :- So the a in czarina and sultana are of foreign
origin. The ter
instance, ine in landgravine is German, as landgraf, landgrafin. 3. SEX DENOTED BY A CHANGE AT THE BEGINNING. mination it is the regular Latin feminine ending. So also, Masculine. Feminino. Masculine. Feminine. according to Latham, is ess, being ix in another form; ess (or Manservant maidservant. Male relations female relations. es), however, comes from the Saxon feminine nouns in es, nes, Male
nys, or nis, having a representation in the niss of the Germans, Male child female child. A man cook a woman cook as erlaubniss, f., a permission.
(cook-maid). If ess is vernacular, it ought properly to be applied only to In female, the prefix fe is in substance the same as the Greek masculine nouns of Teutonic origin, otherwise hybrids are prophu, in ouw (phu-o), I produce (found also in the Latin fui), and duced. Abbess is a hybrid, being a cross between the Teutonic so denotes the producer. Not dissimilar in its source is the and the Hebrew. Hybrids are numerous in English. prefix wo, which converts man into woman.
Though ess is vernacular it cannot at pleasure be employed. To the class just spoken of may be referred nouns in which The tendency seems to be to restrict its use. Words which of the sex may be considered as doubly indicated; I refer to proper old appeared in the feminine form of ess, are no longer so names having before them a complimentary title : as, Master employed. The list I have given contains no words but such as John, Miss Jane, Mr. Seymour, Mrs. Egerton.
are still in use. Nevertheless of some it may be said that their In animal names, also, sex is marked by a prefixed word: as, employment is not common. Authoress, for instance, is rarely GENDERS DENOTED BY A WORD PREFIXED.
heard from the lips of a well-educated Englishman, or found in Masculine.
writings of unquestionable authority ; its employment seems to Feminine. Masculine. Feminine. A male (a he, a tom) a sho cat. A he wolf a she wolf,
be restricted to the case when you wish to give prominence to cat
A male elephant a female elephant. the fact that the person spoken of is a female ; for example, A jack-ass
a she ass. A cock sparrow a hen sparrow. “The author of that book, did you my? rather speak of the authoress, A dog-fox a bitch fox. A cock pigeon a hen pigeon.
for only a woman could have so penetrated the inner folds of the heart A buck-rabbit a doe rabbit.
and described the most delicate emotions so chastely, yet so truly." The usages may, however, be inverted, and a suffix be em.
EXERCISE IN PARSING. ployed instead of a prefix to denote the gender. For example: The task of a schoolmaster, laboriously prompting and urging an GENDER DENOTED BY A SUFFIX.
indolent class, is worse than his who drives lazy horses along a sandy
road. Masculino. Feminine. Masculine. Feminine. A turkey cock a turkey hen. A pea cock
a pea hen. The, the definite article qualifying task. 4. More commonly, gender is denoted by a suffix. For Task, a common noun, made to refer to a particular task by the example :
use of the limiting or definite article the; task is a noun GENDER DENOTED BY A WORD APPENDED.
noater, in the singular number; the subject to the verb is.
Of, a preposition forming with schoolmaster, the Norman-French, Masculine. Feminine.
or false genitive. Gentleman gentlewoman. Nobleman noblewoman.
A, from an, the indefinite article qualifying schoolmaster. Grandfather grandmother. Widower widow.
Laboriously, an adverb qualifying prompting. Grandsire grandam.
Prompting, a present participle, known by its ending in ing, and These instances require no explanation, except one: Widow
agreeing with schoolmaster. (from the Latin viduus, our void, and the Sanscrit vidhava, a And, a conjunction, connecting together prompting and urging. widow), denoting a woman who has lost her husband, becomes, Urging, a present participle from the transitive verb to urge, by the masculine suffix er (as in baker, builder, reader), widower,
agreeing with schoolmaster, a man who has lost his wife
An, the indefinite article, which before a consonant becomes a. 5. The last remark may lead to the question whether the ter. Indolent, an adjective qualifying class ; indolent is made up of minations which denote sex might not be more correctly set
two Latin terms, in, not, and doleo, I am in pain, so that forth as suffixes rather than as changes in the root or inflections.
indolence is taking no pains. By such changes, however, gender is signified. The termina- Is, a part of the verb to be, present time, having for its subject tional changes employed to denote the feminine gender are a, Worse, an'adjective qualifying task.
task, or, in full, "the task of a schoolmaster," etc. ess, ix, ine. GENDEE INDICATED BY SEX-ENDINGS.
Than, an adverb of comparison. Masculine.
His, a possessive pronoun, or the possessive case of the personal
pronoun he; if regarded in the former light, his agrees with
governess, Actor actress.
task understood; if in the latter, it is governed by task Administrator administratrix. Hero
understood. Ambassador ambassadress. Host
Who, a relative pronoun, the subject of the verb drives. Arbiter arbitress,
Hunter huntress. Drives, a transitive verb, present time, having for its subject or Auditor auditress.
nominative case the pronoun who. Author authoress.
Lazy, an adjective qualifying horses. Baron baroness.
Horses, a common noun, in the plural number, the object to the Benefactor benefactress. Lion
Along, a preposition, made up of a and long.
Master mistress. A, the indefinite article from an, employed before a singular Count countess.
mayoress. noun beginning with a consonant. Czar czarina
Mediator mediatrix. Sandy, an adjective qualifying road. Dauphin dauphiness.
Monitor monitress. Road, a common noan, of the neuter gender, singular number, Deacon (dean) deaconess.
Murderer murderess. dependent on the preposition along. Director directress.
If viewed etymologically, the sentence yields these results.
Of Saxon or Teutonic origin are these words, namely, the, of, a, Enchanter enchantress. Peer
is, worse, than, he, who, drives, lazy, horses, along, sandy road; Executor executrix.
poetess. of Celtic origin is task (tasg, a bond, a job); and of Latin Giant giantess.
priestess. origin are laboriously, prompting, urging, indolent. Schoolmaster
is a hybrid, being made up of the Greek okoan (skol'-e), leisure, je serai charmé qu'une affaire lucrative sur notre place vienne school, and the Latin magister, a master. The student should s'offrir à vous. Vous pourrez être assuré que vos intérêts seront ascertain the signification of the words of Latin origin from the toujours l'objet de mes soins les plus scrupuleux. lists already given of Latin stems.
En vous référant à notre prix courant ci-inclus, je vous fais EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION.
observer que notre dentellerie va parfaitement bien cet hiver ;
ce sont principalement nos Valenciennes et nos Blondes de Caen Words with their proper Prepositions, to be formed into sentences.
contrefaites qui sont en grande vogue; mais il faut avoner
qu'on sait à merveille imiter les articles de cette catégorie, et Eager in, for, after Lat, acer, sharp, vigorons. Embark in, for em, en, French form of in, and bark, Fr. barque, qu'on les livre à beaucoup meilleur marché que les originaux. a boat.
En attendant vos communications ultérieures,
J'ai l'honneur d'être, Monsieur,
LÉON TAYEL. Emulous of Lat. æmulus, a rival.
32.-ACKNOWLEDGMENT or BILL OF LADING, ETC. Enamoured of en (em, in), amor, love. Encounter with en (in, against) and contra, against.
The Hague, July 10th, 1860. Encouragement to Fr. cour, Lat. cor, heart.
Messrs. Van Steen, Gniyten, & Co., Rotterdam. Encroach on connected with our crook, in Welsh crog.
Gentlemen,--We received, with your esteemed favour of the Endeared to en and dear.
| 16th inst., the bill of lading for-M & C. 18 bales of Tobacco Endeavour after en and devoir, Fr. duty.
shipped per Clara, but the bill of exchange of Endowed with Lat. dos, dotis, a gift, dower.
Florins 1,280, on Asher & Co., Frankfort, mentioned in your Endued with Lat. induo, I put on or in.
letter as being enclosed, was wanting. Engage in, with, for Fr, engager, en and gage, a plodge.
We hasten to inform you of the fact, so that, if it is not a slight inadvertence merely, you may take the necessary measures
to protect yourselves from loss. CORRESPONDENCE IN FRENCH.-VII. Having nothing further to add to-day, we beg leave to sign
ourselves with respect, 31.-LETTER ON PAYMENT OF ACCOUNTS FOR ANOTHER, ETC.
Gentlemen, your humble servants,
J. TERENAER & Sons.
La Hague, le 10 Juillet 1860. to state that I have paid the accounts as desired, and debit you as follows :
Messieurs,-Nous reçûmes avec votre honorée du 16 courant 1st. According to the enclosed receipt of
le connaissement pour 18 balles de Tabac M & C par la Clara, Ch. Aurigny of our town
fr. 328 25 c.
chargées à notre adresse, mais la lettre de change dont vous 2nd. Made good Messrs. James Barker & Co.,
parlez comme y étant incluse de Amiens, in account current
Florins 1,280, sur Asher & Cie, à Franckfort, ne s'y trouvait
» 1,311 40 , 3rd. Cash forwarded per diligence to Mr. Mar
point. tin le Tourneur, Fécamp fr, 195 85 c.
Nous nous empressons par conséquent de vous en donner Packing and Postage
connaissance, afin que s'il n'y a qu'une petite erreur, vous fassiez les démarches nécessaires pour vous garder d'une perte.
Nous n'avons rien à ajouter aujourd'hui et sommes, value the 8th February. Total fr. 1,837 15 c.
Vos humbles serviteurs, I have most willingly undertaken the slight trouble which
J. TERENAER & FILS. these payments have occasioned; you need not therefore make yourself at all uneasy on that account. I execute your com
33.-LETTER ANNOUNCING REFUSAL OF ACCEPTANCE. missions with pleasure, and shall be delighted "if a lucrative
Manchester, July 6th, 1866. commercial speculation should offer itself in our town. You Messrs. Walton Bros., Birmingham. may rest assured that your interest will always meet my morning, which we beg to confirm, Messrs. Dashwood & Co.
Gentlemen, -As you will have seen by cur telegram of this most scrupulous care.
Referring you to our enclosed price-current, I beg you to have refused the payment of their acceptance for observe that our business in lace is very good this winter, our
£500, due to-day, imitation Valenciennes and Caen Blonde being particularly stating they had not
the necessary funds in consequence of the in demand. It must be admitted that the first-mentioned non-arrival of some remittances they expected. article is a wonderful imitation, and can be offered much we have had a protest made out, and shall keep it together
They promise, however, to honour your draft in a few days. cheaper than the real. Awaiting further communications,
with your bill, awaiting your instructions whether you wish to I have the honour to remain, Sir,
have it returned or not.
We are, Gentlemen, yours truly,
JAMES ANSTRUTHER & Co.
Manchester, le 6 Juillet 1866. M. Armand fils, à Paris.
Messieurs Walton Frères, à Birmingham. Monsieur,--En réponse à votre honorée du 5 courant, j'ai
Messieurs,-Comme vouz l'aurez appris par notre dépêche l'avantage de vous faire part que j'ai payé les différentes télégraphique de ce matin, que nous vous confirmons, Messieurs sommes que vous m'avez commises et que je vous en débite Dashwood & Cie ont refusé le paiement de leur acceptation de comme suit :
£500, payable aujourd'hui, 10 Selon le reçu ci-inclus de Ch. Aurigny de
disant qu'ils n'avaient pas les fonds nécessaires par suite de notre ville.
fr. 328 25 c.
faute d'arrivée de quelques remises qu'ils attendaient. 2° Bonifié à Mm. James 'Barker & Cie
Ils promettent cependant de payer votre traite sous quelques d'Amiens, en compte courant
1,311 40 ,
jours. Nous avons fait faire le protêt que nous garderons avec 3o Envoyé à M. Martin le Tourneur, Fécamp,
l'effet en attendant vos instructions, si nous devons vous le par la dirigence fr. 195 85 c.
retourner ou non. Pour port et emballage
JACQUES ANSTRUTHER & C",
. fr. 1,837 15 c. le tout au 8 Février.
34.—LETTER ABOUT DISHONOURED ACCEPTANCE. Je me suis chargé volontiers du petit embarras que ces
Birmingham, July 7th, 1866. paiements m'ont donné, et vous ne devez pas vous en inquiéter. Messrs. Dashwood & Co., Manchester. C'est avec plaisir que je prends soin de vos commissions et Gentlemen,-We have just been informed, to our great sur
1 65 »
prise, by our banker that you refused the payment of your | itself distinguish it from all others. The poets "who wrote acceptance for £500, due yesterday,
during it are counted by hundreds. And the student who bears saying you had not the necessary funds to meet it.
in mind the barrenness of the preceding age will appreciate As the bill was drawn at three months from the date of our the importance of this fact. But almost more extraordinary invoice, we are really much astonished to hear of your using the than the extent
of the Elizabethan literature is its variety. The above pretext, for you had plenty of time to provide the money. philosophy of Bacon, the poetry of Spenser, and the drama of
We hear that you promise to pay in a few days, and there. Shakespeare are types of literary power as dissimilar to one fore allow yon till the end of this week; but if at that time the another as can well be imagined. Nor ought we to fail to bill is not honoured, we shall be under the necessity of putting diffused throughout the people. This literature was nos only
observe the universality with which the literary impulse was the matter into the hands of our solicitor. We are, Gentlemen, yours truly,
national in the sense of expressing the most ardent patriviism J. & H. WALTON.
in the most powerful forms, but in the sense, too, that all
classes of the nation contributed to it. Sidney and Raleigh, Birmingham, le 7 Juillet 1866.
the courtly cavaliers; Bacon, the diligent lawyer, son of a Messieurs Dashwood & Cie, à Manchester.
shrewd and successful statesman; Shakespeare, the tradesman's Messieurs,—Nous venons d'apprendre à notre grande surprise son from a small country town, represent extremely different par notre banquier, que vous avez refusé le paiement de votre classes of the social whole. In short, the student who gives acceptation de £500, payable hier,
most attention to the Elizabethan literature will most fully feel en disant que vous n'aviez pas les fonds nécessaires pour y how it is marked by the same qualities that characterise the faire honneur.
whole life of England in that day-unequalled extent and unL'effet étant tiré à trois mois de la date de notre facture, nous equalled variety of energy and power. sommes vraiment très-étonnés d'apprendre que vous ayez donné
There is one poem produced at quite the commencement of ce prétexte, car vous avez eu tout le temps de vous procurer the reign of Elizabeth which must not be passed by, for while its l'argent.
intrinsic merit is considerable, its interest, as marking a tranComme l'on nous écrit que vous promettez de payer dans sition period in literature, is even greater. Thomas Sackville, quelques jours, nous vous allouerons jusqu'à la fin de la semaine ; Lord Buckhurst, and afterwards Earl of Dorset, was both an mais si à cette époque la traite n'est pas payée nous serons eminent statesman and an eminent writer in more than one dedans la nécessité de mettre l'affaire entre les mains de notre partment of literature. We shall have occasion to speak of him avoué.
hereafter as a dramatist. At present we have to do with Nous vous présentons, Messieurs,
him as the designer and in part the writer of a poem or series Nos salutations empressées,
of poems of extraordinary popularity in their day, entitled, J. & H. WALTON. "The Mirror for Magistrates." Sackville's idea seems to have
been to bring together for didactic purposes in a poetical form
the history of the most illustrious men in the history of EngLESSONS IN ENGLISH LITERATURE.-VII. land whose career was unfortunate. He himself wrote only the THE ELIZABETHAN AGE-POETRY.
“ Induction," or introduction to the work, and the story of What we said in our last lesson will have enabled the student the Duke of Buckingham, first the associate and afterwards the to understand some of the influences which had been long at victim of Richard III. The remainder of the work is by various work, and which conduced to bring about the Elizabethan hands, and, for the most part, of inferior merit. Richard Bald. literature ; but it must not, of course, be supposed that any wyne, George Ferrers, Thomas Churchyard, Thomas Phaer, a thing we have said or shall say is an exhaustive account of the Welsh physician and poet, and a less-known writer, John Higgins, subject. Our object in speaking on such subjects is not so were contributors to it. Sackville's own share of the work shows much to impart positive instruction, as to suggest a line of much vigour of imagination, a singular power of description, with thought and inquiry which seems to us of great importance to great skill in versification; but his music is all in one key, his the useful study of literature. To assign causes for the greater thoughts are entirely of the gloomy and the painful. We give a phenomena of history—if, indeed, such a thing be possible at all few specimens from his “ Induction," upon the same principle --is quite beyond our scope. But the connection between litera- which we adopt throughout these lessons-that is, to enable the ture and history is a thing which can generally be traced with student, by a chain of extracts, to follow the changes in our out much risk of error, and with great profit. To say why one language and in the style of English versification. The poet, age is through all Europe an age of life, energy, and power, and reflecting upon the tragic fate of great men, meets with the another age an age of lethargy and monotonous feebleness, we impersonation of Sorrow :do not attempt. But to fail in observing that the literature of “Musing on this worldly wealth in thought, each of these periods partakes of the character of the period
Which comes and goes, more faster than we see would be a serious omission. The sixteenth century was a
The flickering flame that with the fire is wrought, century of unequalled energy and power in Europe. In the
My busy mind presented unto me wide extent of its intellectual movements, the strength of
Such fall of peers as in the realm had bee, men's convictions, the abundance of great men, the variety
That oft I wisht some would their woes descryve, of fields in which mental energy made itself felt-in thought
To warn the rest whom fortune left a live. and in action, in religion, in politics, in science, in the most "And strait forth stalking with redoubled pace, serious and permanent undertakings, and in mere boyish ad
For that I sawe the night drew on so fast, venture—this century probably stands quite unrivalled in the
In blacke all clad there fell before my face history of Europe, and certainly so in that of England. We
A piteous wight, whom woe had all forewast;
Forth on her eyes the crystal tears outbrast, need scarcely remind our readers that this was the era of the
And sighing sore, her hands she wrong and folde, Reformation, of the Spanish wars and the defeat of the Ar
Tore all her hair, that ruth was to beholde. mada, of the colonisation of America, no less than the age of Shakespeare and of Bacon.
"Her body small, forwithred, and forspent,
As is the stalk that sommer's drought opprest, The great achievements of the age were, however, among
Her wealked face with woefull teares bee sprent, the latest fruits of the intellectual life of the nation. During
Her colour pale, and, as it seemed her best, the actual struggles of the Reformation literary power had
In woe and plaint roposed was her rest; been perverted and literature stunted by the all-pervading spirit
And as the stone that drops of water wears, of theological controversy. The Elizabethan literature does not So dented were her chekes with fall of teares. really begin till the latter half of the reign of Elizabeth, and ex "Her eyes swollen with flowing streams aflote, tends to the close of that of James I. When the queen began
Where, with her lookes throwne up full piteously, her reign Spenser was a mere child, and neither Shakespeare Her forceless hands together oft she smote, nor Bacon was born.
With dolefall shrikes, that echoed in the skye ; But when the literary harvest did begin it came with a rich That, in my doome, was never man did see ness never known in any age or country. The mere number of
A wight but halfe so woe-begone as she." writers in this period, and the extent of their writings, would by Sorrow becomes his guide, and leads him to the infernal
regions, where he meets with Remorse, Dread, Revenge, Misery, and perhaps to some extent also from a vein of coarseness quite Care, and other characters, each of whom is described with much in harmony with the prevalent taste of the day, Warner's work power, and in lines which often remind us of some of Spenser's attained a remarkable popularity. allegorical descriptions. The following striking verses are from To somewhat the same class as these belong most of the the description of old age:
works of another poet of the same period, Michael Drayton. * But who had seen him, sobbing, how he stoode,
But Drayton was a poet of greater forca, and of far greater Unto himself, and how he would bemone
variety of power. His chief works are “The Barons' Wars," His youth forepast, as though it wrought him good
an historical poem on the civil wars of the days of Edward II; To talk of youth, all were his youth foregone,
"England's Heroical Epistles," also historical in subject; and He would have mused, and mervaylde much, whereon his “Polyolbion." The latter singular work is a sort of This wretched age should life desire so fayne,
itinerary in verse of the whole of England and Wales, in which And knowes full well lyfe doth but length his payne.
he goes through every part of the country in turn, and gives his “Crookebackt he was, toothshaken, and blere eyde,
readers all the stories and legends which history or popular Went on three feet, and sometyme crept ou four,
imagination has attached to each spot. This work is written in With old lame bones, that rattled by his syde,
a singular and not very attractive metre, one which tends to His scalp all pild, and he with eld forlore;
weary the ear with the monotony of its cadences. It is in long His withred fist still knocking at Death's dore,
Alexandrine lines of twelve syllables, rhyming in couplets. We Fumbling and driveling as he draws his breath
give a very few lines, merely as a specimen of the metre :For brief, the shape and messenger of Death."
"And near to these our thicks, the wild and frightful herds, At last the Duke of Buckingham appears upon the scene, and Not hearing other noise but that of chattering birds, tells the story of his woes. The whole framework of the poem Feed fairly on the lawns; both sorts of seasoned deer, underwent much alteration, though it certainly received no Here walk the stately red, the speckled fallow there ; improvement from its later authors. The stories of later intro The bucks and lusty stags amongst the rascals strewed, duction are by no means confined to English character, nor are
As sometimes gallant spirits amongst the multitude." the characters always brought upon the scene with anything To most modern readers the lighter poems of Drayton will be like Sackville's skill and power.
found more attractive than the * Polyolbion." In his "NymContemporary with Sackville was George Gascoigne, a poet of phidia,” or the " Court of Fairy," his gracefal fancies remind a class very characteristic of the times. He was a soldier, a the reader of Ben Jonson's lighter poems. courtier, and a poet-brilliant in all these capacities. The poem George Chapman was known as a dramatist, but his fame by which he is known to posterity is a vigorous satire, in blank with posterity rests upon his great translation of Homer. This verse, upon the manners and vices of his day, quaintly entitled translation is written in what we now call ballad metre, that is “The Steel Glass."
to say, in alternate lines of eight and six syllables. But in But, as we have already said, the supreme greatness of the Chapman's day, the two lines were written as one long line of Elizabethan literature belongs not to the beginning, but to the fourteen syllables. In its rugged vigour this is probably still later period of the reign of the great queen; and this latter the best English translation of Homer. portion of her reign may, with respect to poetry, be again divided Sir John Davies is a type of a class of whom wo meet with into two portions—the period of poetry other than dramatic, many in the Elizabethan period-men who combined an active during which Spenser held the throne of literature; and the participation in public affairs, or professional business, with a period of the drama, during which Shakespeare reigned supreme. keen devotion to literature. Davies was an eminent lawyer, Of course, we do not say there were not great plays written filled for a long time the office of Attorney-General in Ireland, before Shakespeare, and beautiful poems written during the and was well known as a prudent statesman. In addition to a period of his greatnegs. But it is clearly true that, even putting few shorter poems, he wrote a long argumentative poem on the aside the greatest names, Spenser and Shakespeare, poetry immortality of the soul, under the title of "Nosce te ipsam." was earlier in its development than the drama. We are, there. For its clearness and dignity of style, as well as for the skill of fore, following the natural order when we treat of Elizabethan its arguments, this work has been much admired. Sir John poetry before the Elizabethan drama.
Davies was also the author of another work on a singularly disAmong the Elizabethan poets Spenser holds by far the first similar subject, " Orchestra," a poem in honour of dancing. place, and there can be little doubt that the popularity of his Phineas and Giles Fletcher were brothers. They wera jointly works, the finish which he gave to the English language, and the authors of a curious and in some respects powerful poem, the beauty and music of his versification, contributed much to "The Purple Island." The Fletchers belong quite to the close promote the cultivation of poetry, and to form the style of con of the Elizabethan period, and in the very title of this poem, 98 temporary poets. But it will be more convenient to treat of well as in its substance, we find plain evidence that the force and Spenser and his works in a separate lesson, and to devote what simplicity of the Elizabethan poetry was beginning to give place remains of the present to a very brief account of some of the to the subtlety and quaintness which belonged to the next other poets of his day.
generation. The Purple Island is the human body, and the Sir Philip Sidney, whom we shall have to notice hereafter as poem is a fall description of the physical and mental attributes filling an important place in the history of prose writing in Eng- of man. lish, and as the generous and discriminating patron of literature, Joshua Sylvester is a poet whose works are little read now, is entitled to a place among the poets of his time, by virtue of though they once enjoyed a very general popularity.
prin his collection of sonnets, which are smooth and graceful, but not cipal literary productions were translations of the works of the distinguished by much force or originality,
French poet, Du Bartas. Samuel Daniel was a poet of great reputation among his con Among the minor posts of the age ought to be mentioned temporaries, though his poems, with all their ease of versifica Drummond of Hawthornden, near Edinburgh. He is, perhaps, tion and purity of style, are not very attractive reading in the best known from his intimacy with Ben Jonson; but his sonnets present day. He wrote many shorter pieces, but his two largest would, had he lived in an age less crowded with poetical genins, and most important works are a narrative poem, " The History have secured him a very distinguished reputation. of the Civil Wars," on the contest between the honses of York Dr. Donne, Dean of St. Paul's, and Joseph Hall, Bishop of and Lancaster ; and a dialogue in verse, entitled “Masophilus," Norwich, were the founders of English satire. Bishop Hall was which is a sort of defence of literature.
a satirist of considerable power. Donne's satires ara familiar William Warner was by profession an attorney. He was to most readers in Pope's modernised version of them. the author of a long poem, which he called “Albion's Enge We have been able to do no niore than give a very slight land." This work, like the “Mirror for Magistrates," the sketch of a few of the most prominent of the Elizabethan poets
, “ History of the Civil Wars,” and many other of the most other than the dramatists. To attempt more than this would popular poems of this period, was historical in subject and be to turn our lessons into mere catalogues of names. We shall narrative in form. It purports to be a poetical history of have occasion to show hereafter that many of those who are England, from the very earliest times to the writer's own day. best known to us as dramatists were also, like Shakespeare himFrom its singular teneness and vigour of style, its variety of self, no mean poets in other departments as well. In our next incident, and the unusual descriptive power which it displays, (lesson we shall give some account of Spenser and his works,
NATURAL HISTORY OF COMMERCE. seat of Earl Tankerville, in Northumberland. They are CHAPTER V. (continued).
smaller than the common ox, cream-white in colour,
with the exception of the ears, which are red, and the THE UNITED KINGDOM : GREAT BRITAIN-RAW PRODUCE, muzzle, which is black. Permitted to range at will
MINERAL, VEGETABLE, ANIMAL (continued). through spacious parks, they retain many of the wild Animal and Vegetable Produce of Great Britain, Population-Agrical habits of their tribe. The fox has received the doubtful tural Statistics.
privilege of being preserved for the chase. On the I. Animal Produce : Domestic Animals of Great Britain. borders of Cornwall a few stags are still found in Horses.- Hunting and racing are national sports. The their natural state, and more exist in the mountains and English racer, improved with the best Arab blood, has the wooded parts of Scotland, especially in the forest become a type of the highest equine development. York- of Athol. The roebuck, which seeks the hills only, shire and Northamptonshire draught or dray horses, is also occasionally met with there. The fallow-deer such as used by the London brewers, are peerless in of our parks are of foreign introduction, but have taken size and strength. The Suffolk Punch for ploughing, so well to the climate that the French imperial parks and the old Lincolnshire cart-horse
, have long been have been stocked from England. By a severe system eminent. The twelve sable steeds used to draw the of preserving (a relict of ancient forest laws), hares, state car at the funeral of the Duke of Wellington were partridges, pheasants, and in the north red grouse, con a part of the trade stud of a distiller. The powerful tinue abundant, despite the progress of agriculture and chargers for our cavalry; carriage horses, whose pawing the extension of towns. Water-fowl frequent the fens, arrests our admiration; and the eight royal creams, the most numerous being varieties of the wild duck, and whose occasional labour is said to cost £1,000 an hour sea-birds make the northern chiffs their home. The each, are all distinct breeds and specially broken in for rivers of Britain contain fresh-water fish, the delight of their duty. The Welsh pony is small but notable; and anglers, but little regarded as a source of food, except at the extreme in point of size stands the shaggy Shet- the salmon. The Welland and the Witham are so alive lander, peculiar to its island home.
at times with the tiny stickleback, that farmers use Cattle.—Not only our horses, but our domestic cattle them by the bushel for manure. are among the finest in the world, although fewer than II. Vegetable Produce : Food Substances for Man and are needed for consumption. The Devonshire oxen, and Animals. the breeds of Gloucester, Hereford, and Sussex are as
of the substances grown for the food of man, com famous for muscular power as they are for fattening stands first; and of the different kinds, wheat is so Comely cows and finely-proportioned steers are the important that it nearly reaches in value all others. pride of English estates, and breeders compete for Reading, Guildford, and Uxbridge are the local markets honour as well as for profit. The animals of the greatest for the finest white wheats, produced in the fertile fields bulk are those of Lincoln and Tweedside. The latter forming the basin of the Thames, and London for the are of historical note, for during the long period of like wheat from the south-eastern counties. The soil border warfare the lifting of cattle and the levying of between the estuaries of the Wash and the Thames is black mail were not merely incidents, but frequent in- equally renowned for the growth of red wheat, a variety centives, of quarrel. In our days, Scotch kine are of inferior value but greater yield. Wheat does not transported to the rich southern pastures to fatten for ripen further north than the line of lochs running from market. Dairy produce must not be undervalued, for Loch Linnhe to the Moray and Dornoch firths. Next milk is consumed by young and old, and its secondary to corn, green vegetables form the chief supply of food products, butter and cheese, enter more largely into the for all classes of people
, the great towns being girdled constituents of the food of every family than any sub- with productive market-gardens. stance except bread. The localities most favoured for Food crops for animals form an essential part of the dairy produce are referred to below.
industry of the husbandman, and consist of both grasses Sheep. ---Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Sussex, Wiltshire, and and roots. The grass, the oats, and hay of England are the Cheviots have given names to famous breeds of matchless. A few weeks' feed in the alluvial marshes of sheep, and, taking into account the fleece as well as the the Thames restores imported foreign cattle from the flesh, none are equal to ours. By skilful crossing, the effects of the roughest voyage, covers them with flesh, maximum of meat and wool of the best quality has been and fits them for the shambles. The root crops are either combined in the same animal.
fed off upon the open field or are stored for winter food. Swine.-Berkshire, Gloucestershire, and Sussex have Fruits.--Of fruit-trees the species are not many, but given names to breeds of pigs. The fame of Wiltshire the varieties are numerous. At the head of these is the bacon, York hams, and Berwick pork suggests a wide- apple, cultivated as a wholesome article of food, as a spread attention to these animals. Indeed, any British dessert fruit, and for cider. This fruit abounds in every farm would hardly be complete without a well-filled sty part of the kingdom, but the Armorican region of the or hog-pen. Turned into the woods in autumn, swine west and south-west of England is the cider district. will feed greedily upon acorns, beech mast, chestnuts, The pear is only next in value to the apple, flourishing and other dry indehiscent fruits, without browsing upon under similar conditions of climate and soil
, and furnishyoung trees and destroying them.
ing a beverage called perry, chiefly made in WorcesterPoultry.-Amongst the minor produce of the farm, shire. poultry stands highest, and the common domestic fowl Our orchards and gardens are enriched still further first. Turkeys and geese, at certain seasons, are fattened with drupes, or fruits of the almond tribe, as the plum, and brought to market in enormous numbers, providing the apricot, and the cherry. The produce of the garden us with an important supply of food.
also includes gooseberries, currants, strawberries, and Wild Animals.—The wild animals of Great Britain de other small fruits, culinary vegetables, and sweet herbs. not differ from those of Europe, and require but a brief Some of these were brought from Holland in the reign of reference. The bear, wolf, boar, fox, and wild ox once Henry VII. The cherry is said to have been brought dwelt in our forests, and the beaver built on our river from the East. The indigenous fruits are very few, banks. All but the fox and the ox have long since been limited, probably, to the crab apple, the sloe, the bramble, extirpated. Wild oxen, unique types of our domestic the gooseberry, and the raspberry. breeds, are preserved with exclusive care in the spacious Timber.- England has always been famed for her parks of Chartley, in Derbyshire, and Chillingham, the forests, which neither the enormous demand for ship and VOL. IV.