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house-building, nor the exigencies of improved farming, of the cultivated land in England, 40 per cent. is have yet caused to disappear. Most of the exogens valued arable, and 60 per cent. meadows, pastures, and marshes. for their timber are found in England. The largest forests In Wales 30 per cent. is under tillage and 70 per cent. are Crown property, and still grow oak for the navy. is in pasture. Such are the New Forest, covering 400 square miles;

DISTRICTS OF ARABLE HUSBANDRY. the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, of 144 square ENGLAND. -Kent, Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Hampshire, Berkshire, Bedmiles, and others of smaller area. Many parts of histo ford, Surrey, Sussex, Hertford, parts of Yorkshire and Lincolarical note have long been disafforested, or thrown open shire, Durham, and Northumberland, to common use. Dartmoor and Charnwood, for example, SCOTLAND.-The Lothians, Berwick, Dumfries, Ayr, Ren[rew, Lanart,

Fife, Carse of Gowrie, parts of Aberdeen, Elgin, and Nairn, are forests only in name. Science has lent the aid of iron as a partial substitute for wood, and we annually

DISTRICTS OF DAIRY HUSBANDRY. supplement our native stores by 4,000,000 loads of tim- ENGLAND.- Cheshire, Shropshire, Gloucester, Wiltshire, Buckingham, ber, 36 cwt. to the load, from British possessions and

Essex, York, Derby, Cambridge, Dorset, and Devon. foreign parts,

PASTORAL AND CATTLE-REARING DISTRICTS. The mountains and islands of Scotland are singularly Lincoln, Somerset, Leicester, Northampton, parts of Durham and of treeless and bare. There are, however, a few extensive the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire, and the Downe. growths of fir, particularly in Aberdeen. The landed PER-CENTAGE OF INHABITANTS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE. proprietors have of late years beautified their estates Lincolnshire, 16%; other districts, as above, 10% to 14%; Middleser, 1%. with larches, carrying out the behest of the laird of Dumbiedikes, “Jock, when ye hae naething else to do, ye may be aye sticking in a tree; it will be growing, LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXXII. Jock, when ye are sleeping."

THE AUGMENTS. The chief varieties of British timber trees are the beech, the chestnut, the elm, the oak, and the lime. In

THE AUGMENT AND THE REDUPLICATION. the south, the ash, the poplar, and the birch are spe- The augment is specifically the token of past time. Consecially numerous, and the Scotch fir reaches to the quently, it forms a part of the historical tenses - namely, the

imperfect, the pluperfect, and the aorist; but it is retained in northernmost parts of the islands. Great Britain contrasts with Ireland in the occupa- cipal tense, takes a redaplication, and to this reduplicated form

no other mood than the indicative. The perfect, though a printions of its inhabitants, a larger per-centage being en- an angment is prefixed to form the pluperfect. gaged in mining, 'manufactures, and commerce than in The augment, considered as distinct from the reduplication, the varied pursuits of agriculture. Of the three divi- appears in two forms. Of these, one is called the Syllabie; the sions of Great Britain, only Wales shows a larger other the Temporal. per-centage of its population employed in agriculture

THE SYLLABIC AUGMENT. than in other forms of industry; yet the wealthiest and the densest parts are the mineral counties. To the with a consonant is prefixed to the stem of the imperfect and

The syllabic augment is an e, which in verbs whose root begins end of the eighteenth century, the people of England the aorist, and to the reduplication in the pluperfect. Thereby and Scotland

were more engaged in agriculture than is the word augmented (hence the name) by one syllable in the in mining and manufacture, but the development of imperfect and the aorist, and by two syllables (including the their mineral wealth has since been so great as to reduplication) in the pluperfect-e.g., Avæ, imperfect --Avot, transpose the respective industries, and the tendency aorist 4-Avon, pluperfect EneAvKEL. is at the present time still more rapidly in the same When the root begins with p, the p is doubled before receir. direction. Agriculture advances absolutely, but rela- ing the augment, as partw (I throw), imperfect epiftov, aorist tively it retrogrades.

ερριψα. The subjoined tables will help to summarise and eluci In the three verbs Bouaouai (I will), duvapau (I am able), and date the details of the foregoing chapters.

ALEXAw (I intend), the augment sometimes, and especially in the

later writers, is n instead of e; as, imperfect nBovAouny as well POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1861. ας εβoυλoμην, aorist ηβουληθην as well as εβoυληθην, imperfect Great Britain.

Ireland.

Total.

ηδυναμην as well as εδυναμην, aorist ηδυνήθην as well as εδυνήθης England, 19,093,709

(instead of εδυνασθην), imperfect ημελλον as well as εμελλον: Scotland, 3,062, 294

5,764,543 29,032,341. the aorist is very seldorm ημελλησα. . Wales, 1,111,795

THE TEMPORAL AUGMENT.
AVERAGE TO THE SQUARE MILE.

The temporal augment is prefixed to verbs whose root begins
Great Britain. Ireland.
England
with a vowel, and consists in the lengthening of that vowel

. Scotland

The lengthening is made by the conversion of a short vowel into Wales

a long vowel; thusDISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ACCORDING TO OCCUPATIONS.

a becomes 71, as ayw (I lecd), imp, nyov, perf. nxa, plup. 7xel. Mining, Manufactures, Commerce. Agriculture.

ng » EATIEW (I hope), imp. natracor, perf. JATIKA, England 17 per cent.

plap. ηλπικειν,

77 per cent. Scotland 18

itetew (I entreat), imp. iketevov, perf. IKETEVEI.

i, Wales

plup. ικετευκειν.

w, » duidew (I accompany), imp. dicov, perf. WuPOPULATION ACCORDING TO COUNTIES.

ληκα, plup. όμιληκειν. DENSEST POPULATION,

ü, 'ÜBp6w (I insuli), imp. *ußpicov, perf. 'opika. Manufacturing or Moorlands or Agricultural

plup. ÜBPIKEUP.
ENGLAND.
Mining Counties.

Counties,
Middlesex 7,822 to sq, mile. Westmoreland. 80 to sq. mile.

?, „ aipew (I take), imp. pipeov, -owy, perf. pionka, plap. Lancashire 1,275 Cumberland 131

ήρηκειν. . West Riding of North Riding of

nu, aview (I play on the flute), imp. quaedv, -54%. Yorkshire Yorkshire 135

perf. ηυληκα, plap. ηνληκειν. Staffordshire

» » DUKTIGW (I pity), imp. OKT.Çox, perf. OKTika, plup. Cheshire

ωκτικειν, . Durham WALES.

In aipew, npour, the a is longthened into 7), and the 1 is subGlamorgan 372 to sq. mile. Merioneth 64 to sq, mile. script; thus, 7. In avea, nuovv, the wis simply lengthened Flint 242

into the 7. In QLKTIGW, WKticov, the o is lengthened into w, and Anglesen. .

the 1 is subscript; thus, u.

302 100 122

263

177.

88 11.4

10

LEAST POPULATION.

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av

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565 656 457 523

.

180

ETETVEUKELV.

EKTIKEIV.

The augment does not appear in the verbs which begin with

Perfect. .

Pluperfecto n, i, ū,w, ov, and el, inasmuch as the initial syllables are already Χορευω, I dance,

κεχoρενκα, εκεχορευκειν. longs as ήτταομαι (I submit, I am worse, inferior), perf. ηττημαι, Γραφω, I write,

γεγραφα,

εγεγραφειν. plup. ηττημην ; ίποω (I press upon), aor. ιπωσα; ύπνοω (I put to Κλινω, I bend,

κεκλικα,

εκεκλικειν. sleep), aor. ύπνωσα και ωφελεω (I benefit), imp. ωφελουν: ουταζω (Ι Κρινω, I judge,

κεκρικα,

εκεκρικειν. wound), imp. ουταζον και εικω (I yield), imp. εικον, αor. ειξα. Εικαζω Πνεω, I breathe, πεπνευκα, (I liken, guess) forms an exception, which, though but seldom, Θλαω, I break,

τεθλακα,

ετεθλακεν. changes the into m and underwrites the u, thus giving rise Ριπτω, I throne, ερριφα,

ερριφειν. to these two forms, εικαζον, ηκαζον και εικασα, ήκασα και εικασμαι,

Βλακευω, I am lazy, εβλακεύκα, εβλακευκειν. η κασμαι.

Γλυφω, I grave, εγλυφα,

εγλυφειν. Those verbs are also commonly without the angment whose Γνωριζω, I make moon, εγνωρικα, εγνωρικέιν. root begins with ευ--e.g., ευχομαι (I pray), ευχομην, legs often Yet βλαπτω, I injure, takes the reduplicative; 8.8--ηυχομην, but the pluperfect is ηυγμαι, the & being augmented into n. Espiokw (I find) in good prose rejects the augment.

βλαπτω, βλαψω, βεβλαφα, βεβλαμμαι. Verbs which begin with ă and a following vowel have in the Besides the verbs that begin with , βλ, γλ, γν, those verbs angmented form a instead of n, as aïw (a poetic word), I feel or also take the simple augment whose root begins with a double apprehend, imp. äčov. In those which begin with a, av, ol, and consonant, or with two single consonants (provided they are a following vowel, there is no change for the augment, as ånd.co- not a mate and a liquid), and those which begin with three conμαι, I am displeased, imp. αηδιζομην; αυαινω, I dry up, imp. sonants; 28αυαινον; οιακιζω, I steer, imp. oιακιζον; also ανάλισκω, 1 destroy,

Perfect. Pluperfect. though no vowel follows the d, has ανάλωσα, ανάλωκα, and also Ζηλοω, I am eager for, εζηλωκα, εζηλωθειν. ανηλωσα and ανηλωκα. However, the poetic αειδω (in prose Eexow, I receive as a guest, εξενωκα, εξεγωκειν. qow), I sing, and aïoow (Attic goow), I rush, take the augment,

Ψαλλω, I sing to the lyre, εψαλκα, εψαλκειν. as ηειδον (in prose ηδον), ηύξα (Attic ηξα). Οιoμαι, I thinle, imp.

Σπειρω, I soo,

εσπάρκα, €σπαρκειν wounv, does not belong to this class, because the o following the

Κτιζω, I found,

εκτικα, ou is not a part of the root.

Πτυσσω, I fold,

€πτυχα, €πτυχείν. There is no augmental change, also, in some verbs beginning Στρατηγεω, I am a general, εστρατηγηκα, εστρατηγηκειν. with oi and a following consonant, as olkoupew, I govern a house, Aorist oικουρησα και οινιζω, I desire une, imp. οινιζον; οινοω, I

The two verbs μιμνησκω (root μνα), I remind, and κταομαι, I irdulge in wine, perf. mid. or pass. ouvwevos and also yua juevos ; not a mute and a liquid, yet take the reduplication ; as foruyno kw,

acquire, though their root begins with two consonants which are οιστραω, I madden, aor. οιστρησα.

The following verbs beginning with e have for their augment | μεμνημαι, ε-με-μνημην και κε-κτημαι, €-κε-κτημην. ει instead of η:

Five verbs beginning with a liquid do not repeat that sound,

but take as augment el, namely-Εαω, I permit, imp. ειων, αΟΙ. ειασα.

Perfect. Pluperfect. Εθιζω, I accustom, aor. εισα, perf. ειωθα, I am accustomed; εισα Λαμβανω, I take,

ειληφα, ειληφειν. (from the stem eo), I establish, is poetic; in prose there Λαγχανω, I get by lot, ειληκα, ειληκειν.

are only εισαμενος and εσαμενος, grounding, instituting. Λεγω, συλλεγω, I collect, συνειλοχα, συνειλοχειν. “Ελισσω, I wind, roll, perf. mid. or pass. ειλιγμαι.

'Pew, I say,

ειρηκα, ειρηκέιν. Ελκω, I drαιο, drag, aor. είλκυσα (stem, ελκυ), ειλον (stem, έλ), Μειρομαι, I receive as my share. Είμαρται, it is resolved.

I took, commonly called the aorist of alpew, I choose, take. Επομαι, I follow, imp. είπομην.

Διαλεγομαι, I discourse, has for its perfect διειλεγμαι, though Εργαζομαι, I labour, perf. ειργασμαι.

the simple deyw, in the sense of I say, speak, has instead the

regular reduplication, λελεγμαι. Ερπω (έρπυζω), I creep, aor. 2 είρπον. Εστιαω, I entertain a guest, perf. είστιακα.

THE ATTIC REDUPLICATION. Εχω, I have, aor. 2 ειχoν.

Several verbs beginning with a or e or o repeat in the perfect The ensuing verbs take the syllabic augment instead of the and the pluperfect, before the temporal vowel, the two fast temporal ; namely

letters of the stem. This augmentation is called the Attic Αγνυμι, I break, aor, εαξα ; perf. 2 εάγα, I am broken.

reduplication. The pluperfect very seldom takes a new aug“Αλισκομαι, I am being caught, perf. εάλωκα, also ηλωκα, I am ment, as διωρωρυκτο, from ορυσσω (I dig), fut. oρυξω, perf. ορcaught.

ωρυχα, perf. pass. or mid. ορ-ωρυγμαι, plap. ορ- and ωρ-ωρυγμην. Ανδανω, I please, imp. έανδανον, perf. εάδα, aor. 2 εάδον. In ηκ-ηκοειν the pluperfect is regular. Ωθεω, I push, imp. εωθουν και Βometimes without augment, as διω

The temporal augment, as well as the reduplication, remains θουντο.

in all the moods as well as in the participle. Ωνεομαι, I purchase, imp. εωνουμην, also ωνουμην.

The Attic reduplication affects verbs of two classes :-

1. Verbs whose stem-syllable is short by nature, e.g.--The verb éopraow, I celebrate a festival, takes the augment in the second syllable, as imp. éwpracov. This happens, also, in

Αροω, I plough,

αρ-ηροκα, αρ-ηρομαι,

αρ-ηροκειν, αρ-ηρομην. Εικω, I resemble, perf. 2 εoικα, Ιαm like; εοικε, it is likely; plup. Ελεγχω, I convince, ελ-ηλεγχα, ελ-ηλεγμαι, εκειν.

ελ-ηλεγχειν, ελ-ηλεγμην. , GATELY } poetic.

Ελαω (ελαυνω), I drive, ελ-ηλακα, ελ-ηλαμαι, Εργω, I do, perf. 2 εοργα, plup. εωργειν

ελ-ηλακειν, ελ-ηλαμην. The following three verbs have both the syllabic and the

Ορυττω, I dig,

όρ-ωρυχα, όρ-ωρυγμαι, temporal augment; the aspirate of the root passes to the aug

ορ-ωρυχειν, ορ-ωρυγμην. ment ε:

2. Verbs which in the second syllable of the stem have a “Οραω, I behold, imp. έωρων, perf. έωρακα, έωραμαι.

vowel long by nature, which after prefixing the augment they Ανοιγω, Iopen, imp. ανεωγον, aor. ανεωξα (infin. ανοιξαι).

shorten; except ερειδω, I support, stem ερ-ηρεικα, ερ-ηρεισμαι. Αλισκομαι, I am being caught, aor. εάλων (imin, άλωναι), also ηλων. Αλειφω, Ι αηοιιε, αλ-ηλιφα, αλ-ηλιμμαι,

αλ-ηλιφειν, αλ-ηλιμμην. THE REDUPLICATION.

Αγειρω, I collect,

αγ-ηγερκα, αγ-γερμαι, The reduplication is used only when the root begins with a

αγήγερκειν, αγ-ηγερμην. single consonant, or with a mute and a liquid, excepting verbs

Ακουω, I hear,

ακηκόα, ηκουσμαι, beginning with ρ, βλ, γλ, γν, which take the simple augment.

η-ήκοειν, ηκουσμην.
Perfect.
Pluperfect.

Εγειρω, Ι αοαλε, αrouse, εγ-ηγερκα, έγ-γερμαι,
Λυω, I loose,

λελυκα,
ελελυκειν.

εγ-ηγερκειν, εγ-ηγερμην. Ovw, I sacrifice, τεθυκα,

ετεθυκειν.

The verb ayo, I lead, forms also the second aorist active Φυτευω, 1 plant, πεφυτευκα, επεφυτευκειν. and middle with this reduplication, only that the vowel of the

reduplication takes the temporal augment, and retains it in the As exceptions, some verbs compounded with prepositions take indicative, and the vowel of the stem remains pure; as in the the augment before the preposition. These are verbs in which following

the preposition and the verb have so coalesced as to present the

signification of a simple verb; e.g.Αγω, aor. 2 act. ηγ-αγον, inf. αγαγειν; aor. 2 mid. ηγ-αγομην, inf. αγαγεσθαι.

Αμφιγνοεω (νοεω, I think), impf. ημφιγνοεον.
AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION IN COMPOUND VERBS.

I am in doubt,
Αμφιεννυμι,

aor. ημφιεσα, pf. τα. Or p. ημφιεσμαι. Verbs compounded of a preposition and a verb take the aug. I put on, clothe, ment between the verb and the preposition. In the change, Koinue,

imp. αφιεον And ηφιεον οι ηφαειν. prepositions ending in a vowel (except nepi and #po) have the I dismiss, send forth, vowel divided; but apo generally mingles by crasis with the Kadecouar,

εκαθεζόμην And καθεζόμην. of the augment, forming apou: ek before the syllabic augment

I sit myself, I sit down, becomos et, and the v in ev and our is either dropped or assimi. Kaonuar, I sit,

εκαθημην And καθημην. lates itself to the initial consonant of the verb; for example :Present. .

An apparent exoeption is offered by those verbs which are Imperfect. Perfect. . Pluperfect. Απο-βαλλω, απ-εβαλλον, απο-βεβληκα, απ-εβεβληκειν. | tion, but from an already compounded word; e.g.

formed not by a combination of a simple verb with a preposi. I throw away. Προ-βαλλω, προ-εβαλλον, προ-βεβληκα, προ-εβεβληκειν.

Imperfect. I twow before, προυβαλλον,

προυβεβληκειν.

Εναντιοομαι, I oppose (from εναντιος), ηναντιόομην, Εκ-βαλλω, εξ-εβαλλον, εκ-βεβληκα,

επροφητενον, εξ-εβεβληκειν.

Προφητευω, I prophesy (from προφητης), I timrow out.

where evaytios is made up of ev, in, and arti, against; and ApoΣυλ-λεγω, συν-ελεγον, συν-ειλοχα, συν-ειλοχειν. φητης is made up of πρo, before, and φημι, I say.

I collect,
Εγγιγνομαι, εν-εγιγνομην, εγγεγονα, εν-εγεγονειν.

EXERCISE 94.--GREEK-ENGLISH.
I arise in.

N.B.-Tell the part and give the English of each of these Εμ-βαλλω, εν-εβαλλον, εμ-βεβληκα, εν-εβεβληκειν.

forms :I throw in.

1. Ηνωρθουν. 2. Επαρωνουν. 3. Ηνωχλησα. 4. Ηνωρθωκα, In αποβαλλω, the o of the preposition is dropped before the | 5. Εδιηκονεον. 6. Διηταομην. 7. Ηνειχομην. 8. Εμυθολογουν, vowel of εβαλλον, to prevent the hiatus occasioned by two 9. φκοδομηκα. 10. Ερριπτον. 11. Ηγον.

12. Ηλπικα. 13. Towels Coming immediately together; but as in βεβληκα the | Ικετευκα. 14. Ωμιληκα. 15. φκτικα. 16. Ευχομην. 17. Αναreason ceases, so the o is resumed, and you have αποβεβληκα ;λωσα. 18. Ειπομην.

19. Εκτικειν. 20. Ειληφειν. 21. Ορωνyet again απ-εβεβληκειν. In συλλεγω the λof the verb has | ρυγμαι. 22. Απεβαλλον. 23. Συνεσκευαζον. · 24. Δνσηρεστουν. changed the wof the preposition into its own sound, namely, λ; | 25. Ευεργετηκα. 26. Μεμυθολογηκα. but when the preposition is not immediately subjected to the

The student should not only give the English and assign the form of the 1, it resumes its own v, as in ouveleyov.

Verbs which are made up of ous, hardly, with dificulty, part (mood, tense, etc.), but explain the formation of each word, take the angment of the reduplication (1) in front, or at the giving the derivation, the manner in which the several parta beginning, when the root of the simple verb begins with a

are produced, and the rule or remark which the formation consonant or with n or w; and (2) in the middle, when the exemplifies, as set forth in what precedes. root of the simple verb begins with any other vowel except n and w; e.g.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXXI. Present. Imperfect. Perfect.

Pluperfect.

EXERCISE 90.-GREEK-ENGLISH. Δυς-τυχεω, ε-δυο-τυχουν, δε-δυς-τυχηκα, ε-δε-δυο-τυχηκειν.

1. The enemy are making an expedition against our city. 2. We I am unfortunate.

will consult respecting the safety of the citizens. 3. The father told These two laws are observed by compounds of ev, well, me that he would go. 4. The Greeks made an expedition against the only that such compounds avoid the augment at the beginning ; Persians. 5. Let us rest, my friends. 6. Consult well before action. also evepyetew, I do well to, I benefit, commonly avoids the aug- 7. All wish to taste honour. 8. The father will go when he has rested. ment in the middle; e.g.

9. The gates will have been shut by night. 10. If such a man attends Imperfect.

to the constitution, it will have been well cared for (consulted about). Ευ-τυχεω, I am fortunate, ηυ-τυχεον, commonly ευ-τυχεον.

EXERCISE 91.- ENGLISH-GREEK. Ευ-εργετεω, I serve, ευ-ηργετέον, perf. ευ-ηργετηκα, but commonly ευ εργετεον,

1. Πεπαιδευσομαι. 2. Πεπαιδευσεται. 3. Πεπαιδευσομεθα, 4, Πεφυτευσονται, ευ-εργετηκα.

5. Πεφονευσεται. 6. Ο στρατηγος επι την πολιν πορενσεται. 7. Ο στρατηγος Verbs derived from compound nouns or adjectives take the επι την πολιν επoρευσεν. . 8. “Ο στρατηγος επι την πολιν πορενσηται. 9. “Ο augment at the beginning; e.g.-

στρατηγος επι την πολιν πορενσαιτο. 10. Βεβουλευσομεθα περι της πατριδος Imperfect.

Perfect. ,

σωτηριας. 11. Βουλευσεται περι της σης σωτηρίας. 12. Περι της των πολιτων Μυθολογεω, Ιιαγate,

15. Πανσεται. ε-μυθολογουν, μεμυθολογηκα.

σωτηρίας εβoυλενσατο. 13. Επανσαντο, 14. Πεπαυσονται. (from μυθολογος),

16. Ώ δυο ανθρωπω επαύσασθην. 17. Παυσομεθα, ω φιλοι. 18. Οι φιλοι Οικοδομεω, I build, φκοδομουν, ωκοδομηκα.

πορευσονται. 19. Οι φιλοι πορεύσονται. 20. Οι φιλοι επορευσαντο. (from οικοδομος),

EXERCISE 92.-GREEK-ENGLISH. Some verbs compounded with prepositions take the augment 1. Hector was slain by Achilles. 2. The two brothers were edu. in both places, that is, in the root and in the preposition ; e.g.- cated by the same teacher. 3. Many democracies were destroyed by

the usurpers. Presont. Imperfect. Perfect. Aorist. .

4. Great fear possesses the citizens lest the treaty

should have been broken by the enemy. 5. Would that all youths Ανορθοω, ηνωρθουν, ηνωρθωκα, ηνωρθωσα.

were well educated. 6. Death to thee (be thou slain), thou villain._* I set upright,

The soldiers are said to have marched into the enemy's land. 8. Tha Ανεχομαι, ηνειχοι ην, ηγεσχημαι, ηνεσχόμην. enemy, having broken the treaty, are coming to war against us (lit., I support.

are bringing war against). 9. The robber shall be slain. The analogy of these verbs is followed by two other verbs

EXERCISE 93.-ENGLISH-GREEK. which are not formed with the aid of prepositions, but by derivation from other compounds; e.g.

1. Φονευθησονται. 2. Εφονευθησαν. 3, Εφονευθη. 4. Δυο στρατιωτα εφονενΔιαιταω (from διαιτα, subsistence), I feed, imp. εδιιταον and διη- σεται, και Παιδευθησομεθα. 9. Παιδευθησεσθον. 10. Εν επαιδευθην. 11. Η

θητην. 5. Πολλοι ανθρωποι φονευθησονται. 6. Παιδευθησομαι. 7. Παιδευθη: ταων, αση. εδιωτησα and διητησα, perf. δεδιητηκα ; mid. πολιτεια κατελνθη. 12 “Η πολιτεια καταλυθησεται. 13. Αι συνθηκαι κατε

διαιταομαι, I live, διαταομην. Διακονεω (from διακονος, α servant, our deaton), I serve, imp. πολίται εφονεύθησαν. 16. Οι λησται εφονεύθησαν. 17. Οι λησται φονευθηναι

λυθησαν. 14 Αί συνθηκαι καταλυθησονται. 15. Των συνθηκων λυθεισών οι εδιηκονεον and διηκονεον, perf. δεδιηκονηκα.

λεγονται. 18. Η δημοκρατια καταλυθησεται.

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are

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-XV.

Wales are generally formed, and wherever it is found on the

surface the aspect is barren and bleak. UPPER SILURIAN.

The Wenlock Shale, which succeeds in the upward order the THE upper Silurian may be divided into three groups :

Woolhope grit, is the most prominent member of the Wenlock

formation. It is a thick mass of fine argillaceous deposit, and Ludlow group

2,500 feet.

is worked for flagstones and slates. It contains trilobites and Wenlock group

a great number of graptolites, together with corals, crinoids, Upper Llandovery or May Hill

and several other species, which are also found in group

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The Upper Wenlock.—This bed is a limestone, by no means The May Hill Sandstone is developed in the Malvern range, uniform, but sometimes concretionary, sometimes thin and and in its lithological character so resembles the Caradoc group flaggy, and often interstratified with shales. It is exhibited in that at first the two were confounded. Professor Sedgwick Shropshire, running some twenty miles from north-east to southfirst pointed out the mistake; he considered these rocks to be west. The soft shales above and below it have succumbed the proper base of the upper Silurians. They rest uncon. I to the eroding action of the rain, and have been gradually worn formably on the beds

away, leaving the below them, and are

52

limestone in a ridge perfectly distinct 47

39

prominently above from the lower Silu

the surface; and rians. In the Malvern

about a mile distant hills they exhibit a

the same thing has thickness of some

occurred with the 600 feet, and are

Aymestry limestone, composed of calca.

40

so that these two reous sandstones,

limestone ridges run which are nodular at

parallel to each the top.

other. This limeFrom the general

stone, as in Lesson and abundant distri

VIII. we stated was bution of the bra

the case with all chiopod, the Penta

limestones, was promerus lævis (Fig. 39), 46

41

bably built up by orthese beds are some

ganic causes. It is times called Penta

full of fossils, many merus beds. With

of them corals, of this fossil another is

which

there usually associated

numerous species ; the Pentamerus ob

crinoids with their longus (Fig. 42); but

long stems, and cups this latter is by some

and arms. The trigeologists consi.

lobites have several dered only to be the

remarkable repreyoung Pentamerus 50

sentatives, as Caly. lavis. As they are

15

mene Blumenbachii wanting in the

and Phacops caugroups both above

datus, noted for its and below, they are 48

large size and flat. very characteristic of

tened form. Some these beds; and as

of the most promi. is generally the case

nent of these fossils when a fossil has in 53 43

are here figured: one place a deep sea

Fig. 43, Cyathophyl. range, its represen

lum; Fig. 44, Helio. tatives are very

bites; Fig. 45, Catewidely distributed.

nipora; Fig. 46, The corresponding

49

Cyathecrinus ; Fig. Silurian rocks both

47, Calymene Bluin America and 51

menbachii ; Fig. 48, Russia produce

Phacops caudatus. these Pentameri. In

This limestone, be. Fig. 40 is repre

fore its geological sented a broken fossil of the Pentamerus lævis, and in Fig. 41 position was fixed, was generally known as the Dudley limothe internal cast of the same is shown. Besides these, about stone, and the Calymene as the Dudley trilobite. sixty specimens of fossils have been found in these beds. About We have now reached the topmost of the Silurian formation, one-half of them extend into other beds of the upper Silurian, The Ludlow Group, which also has its upper and lower divisions. and some few are found in the lower. Immediately resting upon The lower Ludlow consists of a limestone which lies upon the May Hill sandstone is a pale fine-grained slate, which certain shales. The limestone is well marked, and from the sometimes runs so fissile as to be shaley. Near Tarannon, in town near which it is exhibited it is called the Aymestry LimeMontgomeryshire, the bed reaches the thickness of 1,000 feet, stone; the shales beneath have received the name of lower hence it is called the Tarannon shales. It contains but few Ludlow shales. They are a dark-grey argillaceous deposit, fossils, and they bear a great resemblance to those of the next containing fossils of a higher order than we have found hitherto. surrounding rocks, the

In 1859 this bed produced a fish of the genus Pteraspis, which Wenlock Formation. This group admits of a division, the Professor Huxley allies with the sturgeon. This is the first apper and lower Wenlocks. The upper comprises the Wenlock indication of piscine life on our globe, and it is a damaging limestone ; the lower comprises the Wenlock shale, and the fossil to the theory of progression ; for instead of being of a Woolhope limestone.

very inferior development, as the supporters of that theory The Woolhope Limestone is massive and nodular, interstrati- would have expected, it is in reality a good way up the scale. fied with grey shales, and underlying it are fine slabs or flag. Of course it may be said that we do not know the whole constones. Of this bed the mountain ranges of North and South tents of the lower Silurian beds, and that remains of the lower

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ordors of fish may yet be brought to light. And so they may;

UPPER SILURIAN FOSSILS. yet it is hardly likely that among the numerous organic remains Plants.-Chondrites antiquus. which håve been unrocked, we should not have hit upon some Zoophyta.---Acervularia, Alveolites, Arachnophyllam, Comites, Cyati. ichthyolite had any been there. As yet, facts are against the phyllum, Palmocyclus Thecia, Petraia bina, Heliobites. supposition that the higher orders of life are mere developments Bryozoa.- Festenella, Cellepora, Discopora. from those which belong to inferior types. Here, when fish Brachiopoda. ---Obolus, Spirifer, Athysis, Chonetes, Peatamerus oblongus first appear, we have a highly-developed genus, indicating a

(Upper Llandovery), P. Knightii (Aymestry limestone), Leptæn,

Strophomena, Orthis Atrypa, Orbicula, Lingula Rhynconella. separate creation.

Conchifera.--Avicula Pterinen, Cardiola, Grammysia, Leptodomus, The lower Ludlow contains many large-chambered shells, Clidophorus Modiola, Mytilus, Nucula. such as the Phragmoceras ventricosum, and a shell of the same Gasteropoda.-Holopella, Natica, Newta, Pleurotonaria, Euomphalus, kind bat straight, the Orthoceras Ludense (Fig. 49). These Turbo, Murchisonia Turritella. two last fossils are peculiar, and therefore characteristic of the Pteropoda.-Bellerophon, Cornularia. lower Ludlow shales.

Cephalopoda. — Actinoceras, Cyrtoceras, Lituites, Orthoceras, Phrag. The Aymestry Limestone is somewhat argillaceous and semi

Echinodermata.-Actinocrinus, Apiocystites, Cyathocrinus, Eucalyptocrystalline; it is celebrated by the enormous quantity of the

crinus, Taxocrinus. Pentamerus Knightii (Fig. 50), a brachiopod, each chamber of Annelida.-Cornulites, Serpulites, Tentaculites, Spirorbis. which is divided by a septum, or wall of division, into five cells, Crustacea.--Acidaspis, Amphyx, Calymene, Encrinurus, Eurypterus, hence its name. Lingula Lewisii, Rhynchonella Wilsoni, and Lichas. Atrypa reticularis are three other abundant and noted fossils, Fish.-Onchus, Plectrodus. which are drawn in Figs. 51, 52, and 53. The Upper Ludlow Series consists of grey argillaceous sand

READINGS IN LATIN.- VII. stones containing calcareous nodules, which sometimes become shaley, and in the upper parts of the series show the red tint so

THE ELEGIAC POETS. characteristic of the overlying Devonians. The most interesting SEVERAL of the Roman poets wrote in what is called the Elegiac feature they exhibit is a bone-bed. Here we have indications metre, consisting of alternate hexameters and pontameters, bat that we are approaching the great fish era, when the piscine there are some few--notably Ovid, Tibullus, and Propertiuslife reached its maximum. We shall find in the Devonian period whose achievements in this direction stand out far beyond those the waters were alive with fish of every form and character of any other poets who attempted the same metre. Of these wonderful creations! In this, the uppermost strata of the Ovid is undoubtedly worthy of mention first, not only on scSilurians, we find premonitory symptoms of the coming profu- count of the exceeding melodious beauty and clear simplicity sion of fish life. Near the town of Ludlow, Sir R. Murchison of his verse, but also for the surprising quantity of his writings

. • observed a brown layer, which can be traced forty-five miles. He is by far the most voluminous of the Roman poets, and yet

It varies from one inch to a foot thick, and is absolutely com. he never seems to have exhausted his poetic vein, all his poetry posed of fish remains. Many of the bones, spines, and scales being singularly equal throughout. He lived in the early years of these palæozoic fish are well preserved; but the great mass of the Roman empire, a period peculiarly prolific in great poets, of tho fossils bear evidence of the action of the water, being of whom he may fairly be reckoned as famous as any; and more or less rounded. We may suppose that the remains though chiefly known as a writer of elegiac verse, yet he did of the fish were swept by the marino currents, and deposited in not confine himself to that metre, the fifteen books of “Metasome place where the water was undisturbed. This is no far- morphoses," in which he clothed in a poetic dress many of the stretched supposition. The reader will remember we cited an singular legends of the Greek mythology, being & notable erinstance where, in dredging, an area found, which was evidently ception. After living some years at Rome in familiar interthe cemetery of the fish, remains now in process of deposition off course with the chief literary men of the day, and in the the coast of Yorkshire.

enjoyment of the patronage of the emperor, he was suddenly · The Downton Sandstone, which was elassed with the old red banished, for some reason that has never been divulged, to sandstone by Sir R. Murchison under the name of " Tilestones," Tomi, a wild, uncivilised place on the shores of the Adriatic. is the last member of the Silurian group. Its fossils have a His lament on leaving the city where he had lived so long and Silurian likeness; hence the reason of its present classification. gained so great a name is one of his most beautiful productions

, We shall now give a list of the most common of the Silurian and we give a portion of it below among our present extracts. fossils. Those which did not outlive the period in which they Fortunately for posterity, his dreary banishment did not stop are named are printed in italics.

his literary career, and many of his most beantiful poems were For the localities where the various formations occur, the given to the world from his place of exile, where he died in the student is referred to any of the perfect geological maps based year A.D. 18. The works of Ovid are always considered the upon an accurate geological survey of this kingdom. Any very best model for elegiac verse-writing, every one of the laws attempt at defining the exact position of the formations would which govern that rhythm being studiously obeyed, with a only be a useless expenditure of our limited space; and for a remarkable absence of any appearance of constraint. The complete list of British fossils, Professor Morris's catalogue will grammatical constructions are remarkably simple and straightbe found invaluable. If the name of a strata be enclosed in forward, and for the most part there is very little difficulty brackets immediately after a fossil, it should be understood that either in apprehending the meaning or appreciating the beauty that fossil is particularly characteristic of that strata.

of his poems. The great German historian Niebuhr romarks

of Ovid: “No one can have had a greater talent or a greater Plants ---Fucoids, Chondrites, Palæochorda.

facility for writing poetry than Ovid had. In this respect he Corals.-Cbætates, Favosites, Halysites, Heliobites, Nebulipora.

may rank among the greatest poets. This is the kind of poetry Zoophyta. -Petraia subduplicata ; Stenopora fibrosa ; Nidulites Stre- could not be expressed in any other way. Horace is much

in which every one feels at home, and as if the sentimenta phodes, Pyritonema. Hydrozob. Graptolitus; Didymograpsus: Diplograpsus.

inferior to Ovid in this respect; there are only a few among Bryozoa. Oldhamia (Cambrians), Retepora.

his lyric poems of which we can say that they were composed Brachiopoda.--Atrypa; Discina Lingula, Pentamerus, Rhynconella, with ease and facility," Strophoinena, Trematis, Orthis, Orthisina.

Of the subject of our first extract we have already spoken; Conchifero.-Ambonychia Arca, Conocardium, Cypricardia Modiola, it is the account of his leaving Rome :

Nucula, Mytilus.
Gasteropoda. -Capulus, Euomphalus, Holopea, Maclurea, Turbo Trochus,

OVID.--"TRISTIA," I. III, 1–34.
Turritella, Murchisonia Pleurotomaria.

Cum gubit illius tristissima noctis imago,
Pteropoda.-Conularia, Bellerophon Theca, Pterotheca.

Quæ mihi supremum tempus in urbe fuit ;
Cephalopoda.-Actinoceras, Lituites, Orthoceras, Phragmoceras.
Echinodermata.-Agelacrinitos Caryocystites, Echinospherites Rhodo-

Cum repeto noctem, qua tot mihi cara roliqui,

Labitur ex oculis nunc quoque gutta meis. crinus. Annelida.--Arenicola, Lumbricaria, Nereites, Serpulites, Tentaculites.

Jam prope lux aderat, qua me discedere Cxsar Crustacoa.--Acidaspis, Amphion, Ampyx, Asaphus, Calymene, Homalo

Finibus extremæ jusserat Ausonie. notus, Ogygia, Phacops, Trinucleus, Agnostus, Ilenus, Remo Nec mens, nec spatium fuerat satis apta paranti; pleurides.

Torpuerant longa poctora nostra mora.

LOWER SILURIAN FOSSILS.

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