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Non mihi servorum, comitis non cara legendi,
4. Non capit, does not admit of. Non aptæ profugo vestis opisve fuit.
10 7. In old days, when times were better, the trees used to vie with Non aliter stapai, quam qui Jovis ignibus ictus
each other in productiveness. Vivit, et est vitæ nescius ipse suæ.
9. Memores, with due attention. Ut tamen hanc animo nubem dolor ipse removit,
10, Agricolas, used as an adjective. So we find vietor exercitus
domina hasta, etc. Et tandem sensus convaluere mei;
11. Liber, a name of Baochus, god of wine; tuas, sacred to theo. Alloquor extremum mæstos abiturus amicos,
12. Suas. When there was a contest between Neptune and Minerva Qui modo de multis unus et alter eranto
which should give the best gift to mankind, Neptune struck the earth Uxor amans flentem flens acrius ipsa tenebat,
with his spear, and the horse appeared; Minerva in a similar way Imbre per indignas usque cadente genas.
produced the olive. Nata procul Libycis aberat diversa sub oris;
13. Læsissent, i.e. by weighing down and breaking the bough. Nec poterat fati certior esse mei.
16. Quavis arbore, 1.c. honore cujusvis arboris. This abbreviated Quocunque aspiceres, luctus gemitusque sonabant;
form of comparison (brachylogy of comparison) is not uncommon. Formaque non taciti funeris intus erat.
Thus we find kómar xapíregoi ónoia, hair like the graces, for hair like
that of the graces; and an English poet hasFemina, virque, meo pueri quoque fanere mcerent; Inque domo lacrymas angulus omnis habet.
"They for their young Adonis might mistake Si licet exemplis in parvo grandibus uti;
The soft luxuriance of thy golden hair"-
i.e. for the hair of their young Adonis. Jamque quiescebant voces hominumque canumque,
17. In illis, i.6. among the fruit-bearing trees. The general sense of Lunaque nocturnos alta regebat equos :
this passage is, as trees have come to be cultivated more for their Hanc ego suspiciens, et ab hac Capitolia cernens,
foliage than their fruit, so the walnut-tree, following the fashion, Quæ nostro frustra juncta fuere Lari;
grows wide-spreading leaves. Numina vicinis habitantia sedibus, inquam,
The "Heroides" are a series of imaginary epistles from the Jamque oculis nanquam templa videnda meis;
heroines of the ancient Greek mythology. The following is the Dique relinquendi, quos Urbs habet alta Quirini ;
commencement of the address of the nymph Enone to the shepEste salutati tempus in omne mihi.
herd Paris, who had deserted her for the superior charms of Helen. Our readers will probably recollect that the same sub
ject is beautifully treated by Tennyson in his poem of “Enone." 1. Subit, sc, in mentem, comes into my mind. 4. Nunc qaoque, even now, after all these years of exile.
OVID.—“ENONE PARIDI,” 1–22. 6. Finibus extreme Ausoniæ, for finibus extremis Ausoniæ, the Perlegis? An conjux prohibet nova? Perlege: non est farthest limits of Italy. Ausoniæ, a name given to Italy, from an
Ista Mycenæa litera facta manu. ancient tribe, the Ausones, who were said to have inhabited it. 9. Servorum. Supply legendorum from legendi.
Pegasis Enone, Phrygiis celeberrima sylvis, 10. Vestis and opis are genitives after cura in the previous line, and
Læsa queror de te, si sinis ipse, meo. inust have legenda supplied in the construction.
Quis deus opposuit nostris sua numina votis ?
5 11. Non aliter quam, as much as, Jovis ignibus, the thunder-bolt
Ne tua permaneam, quod mihi crimen obest ? -supposed in the Roman mythology to be Jove's special weapon.
Leniter, ex merito quidquid patiare, ferendum est; 12. Vivit, etc. Compare Tennyson's "Princess," vi. 2, 3:
Quæ venit indignæ pæna, dolenda venit,
Nondum tantus eras, cum te contenta marito
Edita de magno flamine Nympha fui.
10 15. Extremum, neut. used adverbially, for the last time,
Qui nunc Priamides (adsit reverentia vero!), 22. Non taciti, i.e., attended with loud lamentation; intus, within
Servus eras; servo nubere Nympha tuli. the house.
Sæpe greges inter requievimus arbore tecti, 29. Ab hac, looking from her on to the Capitol.
Mistaque cum foliis præbuit herba torum. 30. Frustra, to no purpose, because it could do nothing to assist Sæpe super stramen fonoque jacentibus alto
15 him. Probably an allusion to M. Manlius Capitolinus, the defender
Defensa est humili cana pruina casa. of the capitol, whom the people refrained from putting to death
Quis tibi monsträbat saltus venatibus aptos, while he was in sight of the scene of his bravery. 32. Jam --- nunquam, never more.
Et tegeret catalos qua fera rupe suos ? 33. Quirini. Romulus, the founder of Rome, was worshipped
Retia sæpe comes, maculis distincta, tetendi ; under this title,
Sæpe citos egi per jaga longa canes.
20 The next extract is taken from an elegy embodying the com
Incisæ servant a te mea nomina fagi ; plaints of an ill-used walnut-tree :
Et legor Enone falce notata tua,
1. Perlegis ? i.e. this epistle which I am sending you,
2. Mycenæa, by Helen's hand. Helen was the wife of Menelaus, king A populo saxis prætereunte petor.
of Mycene. Obruere ista solet manifestos poena nocentes,
3. Pegasis, a fountain nymph; from the Greek my, a fourtain. Publica cum lentam non capit ira moram.
Phrygia was used generally for Asia Minor, in which Troy, Helen's Nil ego peccavi; nisi si peccare videtar,
5 native place, was situated. Annua cultori poma referre suo.
4. Te-meo, you who are mine, if you will only allow it. At prius arboribus, tum, cum meliora fuere
6. Ne tua, from continuing to be called your wife. Tempora, certamen fertilitatis erat.
9. Tantus, so great as you are now, chosen to be the arbiter of the Cum domini memores sertis ornare solebant
beauty of goddesses. Agricolas, fructu proveniente, deos.
11. Nunc, who now turns out to be a son of Priam, Sæpe tuas igitur, Liber, miratus es uvas ;
16. Defensa, kopt of. This word is found in two senses-(1) to
defend, (2) to ward off. Mirata est oleas sæpe Minerva suas.
19. Maculis distincta, marked, i.e. dotted, with knots. Pomaque læsissent matrem; ni subdita ramo
22. Legor Euone, my nams, Anono, is read, carved by your knife. Longa laboranti furca tulisset opem. At postquam platanis, sterilem præbentibus umbram, 15 the Latin elegiac poets, noticing especially Tibullus and Pro
In our next readings we propose to give further specimens of Uberior quavis arbore venit honos; Nos quoque frugiferæ (si nnx modo ponor in illis)
pertius. Cæpimus in patulas luxuriare comas.
TRANSLATION OF EXTRACT II. IN LAST READING. Nunc neque continuos nascuntur poma per annos ;
CICERO.—“ IN CATILINAM,” I. 1.
20 How much further, Catiline, are you going to insult our forbear
ance ? How long will this mad folly of yours continue to escape our NOTES.
vengeance? What limit shall bound the reckless course of your an1. Juncta viæ, hard by the way-side. Cum sim, although I am. bridled audacity? The Palatine guarded by night, sentries posted in 2. Petor, am pelted; cf. "Me Galaten, petit malo." (Virg., "Ecl.") the city, the people in a scare, all good citizens banded together, this 3. Manifestos, caught in actual crime, red-handed, in flagrante delicto. our senate house most strongly defended, even the very looks and
glances of those around us-have all these things failed to impress Here, then, we have a link by which we can trace ont another you ? Can you help feeling that your plots are discovered, or seeing instance of the marvellous and perfect provision made by that your conspiracy is already checked and stifled by the fact that Creative Wisdom for the support of living things. every one here kuows all about it? Do you think there is a man among us who knows not what you did last night, or the night before, birds (of which the snipe and woodcock of this country, and the
Let us see how the long-beaked, nocturnal worm-feeding where you were, whom you summoned to your councils, or what plans you adopted ? O the depravity of our age! The senate is cognisant apteryx of Tasmania are familiar examples) proceed when in of this the consul sees it-and yet this man lives. Did I say lives ? search of food. They are far too wise to grasp the half-sheltered Why, he comes into the senate, he takes part in our political discus. worm, and try vainly to draw it forth. Instinct teaches a better sions, and all the time his eye is noting each one of us, and marking way of proceeding. There is not, perhaps, in the whole world him down for assassination; while we-brave men that we are--are a more skilful worm-catcher than the common snipe. Running supposed to be doing our duty by the state if only we avoid his frenzy actively along the soft, oozy ground, where moisture and deand murderous attacks. In justice, Catiline, the consul's order should composing vegetation afford nutriment for its prey, the long, long ago have doomed you to death and the destruction you have all slender-toed bird peers keenly downward with its full round the while been plotting against us... Did not Publius Scipio, the chief eye, and on detecting a worm-hole, down is thrust the long, pontiff, a man of the highest position,
put to death in his private probe-like beak, which is again and again opened as far as the moderate degree; and shall we, the consuls, put up with Catiline, who capacity of the tube will allow, thus causing a movement is eager to desolate the whole earth with sword and fire ? I say amongst the minute fibres of the plant roots and particles of nothing of the deeds of the remote past, such as C. Servilius Ahala earth, and bringing about a state of panic and alarm amongst slaying with his own hand Sp. Mælius, who was aiming at a revo- the worms just as great as when our little fur-clad miner was at lution. There was once, but it is gone, such a feeling of honour in his labours below; and now the snipe reaps his harvest, and our state that the brave citizens would punish a traitor among their gleans from the ranks of the fugitives worm-food enough for a fellows more severely than their bitterest foe. We have a decree hearty meal. of the senate passed against you, Catiline, in stringent and severe terms. The senatorial order does not withhold from the state the
Those of our readers who are desirous of witnessing the benefit of its talent and
authority; it is ourselves – I say it openly manner in which the beaks of certain birds are opened, after the ourselves, the consuls, who are wanting in our duty.
manner of reversed action forceps, for disturbing purposes, may do so by placing a piece of loose turf with a few ants' eggs in it
before a common starling, who, although unlike the members of RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.
the family Scolopax in most particulars, resembles them in the SOME LAND, SEA, AND FRESH-WATER SHELLS, WORMS, AND open its mandibles.
dexterity with which it forces impediments asunder by spreading TUBE-DWELLERS (continued).
We have already remarked how easily the sea-worms are At the conclusion of our last paper we were engaged in deprived of vital power by the infiction of a trifling wonnd. examining certain upturned hills of fine sand, left partially dry We shall see that there are worm mud-dwellers, equally delicate by the departed tide. If we provide ourselves with a spade, in appearance, who possess constitutions infinitely stronger than and dig deep enough, we shall find a specimen of the common their marine cousins. Let us visit the shores of some of our “lug” worm of the coast fishermen. This creature resembles large tidal rivers above salt-water influences, and as we wander in a marked degree the large lob worms found in our rich culti-on amongst the willows and tufted reeds we shall see, where vated lands and kitchen gardens. Unlike some of the annelids some tiny rill discharges itself into the main stream, a large we have before described, these creatures need no defensive patch of red-looking matter, as though some extravagant painter armour, either of hardened shell or cemented sand-grains. had been heedlessly casting away his stock of vermilion. Break Dwelling in a hole or burrow of its own excavation, both the off that old dry willow stump, and throw it well out to the lug (represented at Fig. 1) and lob depend for immunity from scene of the artist's rocklessness, and, as though touched with danger mainly to their extraordinary power of retrograde move- an enchanter's wand, the red is gone, and nought but mud ment, assisted by the peculiar mechanical arrangement of their remains. The red blotch was formed by a legion of tiny red external surfaces, aided by the increase and diminution of cir- worms (Naïs littoralis); and so obstinatoly tough and tenacions cumference and length, brought about by the sudden and forci- of life are these extraordinary pigmies, that they appear perfectly ble imprisonment of the natural fluids contained within and and supremely indifferent to the decapitating process so long as acted on by the system of muscular arrangement with which the it is not repeated frequently enough to become tedious. It has body is surrounded and fortified. Progression, or the act of been found from experiment that the nais is very little, if at all
, crawling, is mainly dependent on this alternate, or forward and the worse for having its little head cut off seven distinct times, back injection of the juices. Wound a sea-worm with any sharp as an excellent and perfectly satisfactory new one sprouted out instrument in such a way that there may be an escape of this in good time. But after the appearance of the seventh new vital and movement-giving fluid, and paralysis immediately fol. head matters must be allowed to rest as they are, or the nais lows. Marine worms are less hardy than some we shall have to dies literally from the expenditure of too much vital force in notice, as fishermen and naturalists well know. Although not the formation of heads for itself. Not only is the naïs prolific provided with legs, most members of the worm family manage in this respect, but a feat, which has bidden defiance to the to travel with tolerable celerity even on the surface of the earth. efforts of the most zealous and industrious of the human race to When in their underground burrows, or tubes, they are capable perform, is by it achieved perfectly, of performing extremely rapid movements.
We often hear particularly active friends exclaim, " It is imMost of our readers will have observed the manner in which possible for any living creature to be in three or four places at the large lob or garden worms protrude their heads and the the same time." Do not believe a word of it. M. Bonnet, greater portion of their bodies from their earth tubes on warm, French naturalist, deliberately cat one of our little
nais friends moist evenings. To capture them, it is necessary to act with into twenty-six tiny fragments. Each fragment formed a head considerable adroitness
and rapidity. The worm once seized for itself, and shortly became a perfect worm, thus calling into must be instantly plucked forth, or the myriads of rough, tooth separate life twenty-six organisms from one original stock. like asperities with which the creature's covering tissues are Research has shown that these tiny creatures, insignificant 45 provided are elevated by muscular contraction, thus rendering they at the first glance appear, possess a most perfect and ad. any attempt at extraction perfectly futile. So powerful, too, is mirable arrangement for blood connection, as shown in Fig. 2. the resistance set up, that the worm may be completely severed which represents a magnified view of the blood tubes and lines before it relaxes its hold on the interior of its dwelling. By of connection in the Nais filiformis. this mode of action it endeavours to guard itself against the Fig. 3 shows the interior, or head portion, of a common attacks of surface enemies, but these are not alone to be dreaded. earth-worm after division. The wounded surface rapidly draws That accomplished sapper and miner, the mole
, with his pointed together ; its central portion forms a ventral orifice, and all the snout and exquisitely formed digging-feet, and half shovel, half functions of the creature go on as before. Figs. 4 and 5 repre rake-shaped hands, drives his galleries beneath the tiny passages sent the eggs of earth-worms ; Fig. 4 shows the valvular mouth of the worms, who, feeling a vibration and disturbance going on of the egg open for the worm to pass through; Fig. 5 shows it below, dart rapidly upwards, quit their burrows, and crawl closed, with two young worms in the same egg. panic-stricken away, they know not whither.
As we proceed, we shall find amongst another class of
burrower even greater capabilities of being subjected to sub- creature to develop in! How the species is propagated who division. From the consideration of the inhabitants of the soil shall say? Probably the frendeet worm is but, after all, an and the sand, let us take a glance at some of the strange organ. immature organism, and capable of further metamorphosis, as isms we find unerringly following out the laws of increase, we find in the case of the helminthe, or intestinal worms—those assimilation, and reproduction in the tissues of other living strange, anomalous beings, who appear to bid defiance to all organisms. The origin of some of these is extremely obscure, acknowledged natural laws. In some we find a total absence of and we are compelled to content ourselves with mere speculation the digestive organs, all nutritive matter penetrating their concerning it. A familiar example of the mystery which hangs tissues by endosmosis, just as it would enter the pores of a conover and surrounds parasitic life is to be found in the frendeet densed form of sponge. worm of Abyssinia, and the guinea-worm of India. It is The reproduction of the race is brought about in a most extrapopularly believed, and not without much show of reason, that ordinary manner. Research has shown that fresh members of the minute ova, germ, or whatever else it may be, is taken into the family may be called into existence by a system of spon. the human system with the drinking water. That this notion taneons breaking up into lengths, the casting forth of offshoots is likely to be correct is shown by the fact that those who or buds, and the deposition of eggs. It may be that one make use of water taken from the ponds produced during the creature combines within itself the united functions of both rainy season are es.
male and female, or pecially liable to its
perchance there may attacks, whilst we
be found the two have found that the
sexes distinct. It is inhabitants of native
then that the egg devillages, near which
position takes place, clear rapid rivers
but at this stage we flow, are compara
find that a series of tively free from its
transformations have attacks.
to be carried out Sir Samuel Baker,
and passed through in speaking of this
which appear almost curious pest, says:
incredible in their “There was one com
strangeness. Here plaint that I was
the axiom that like obliged to leave en
begets like entirely tirely in the hands
fails us. ef the Arabs. This Fig. 2.
gives birth to a creawas called frendeet;
ture differing entirely it was almost the cer
from the parent, and tain effect of drink.
although, so to ing the water that, in
speak, in the transi. the rainy season, is
tion or larva stage accumulated in pools
itself, this creature upon the surface of
is found capable, the rich table-lands,
without the process especially between
of fecundation being the Atbara and Ka
passed through, of tariff.” Frendeet
producing a brood or commences with a
broods of other imswelling of one of the
mature creatures still limbs, generally ac
in the larva stage, companied with in.
which may in time betense pain. This is
come developed into cansed by a worm se
the form of the origi. veral feet in length,
nal parent organism. but no thicker than
Fig. 1. of this law
we find a packthread. The
a familiar example in Arab cure is to plag.
the vesicle or bladder ter the limb with cow
formed in the tissues dung, which is their
of the pig when suffer. common application
ing from the disease for almost all com
popularly known as plaints. They then proceed to make what they term doors, through "measles." The name applied to this peculiar form of parawhich the worm will be able to escape; but should it not be able site is Cysticercus cellulosa, but it has been unfortunately to find one exit, they make a great number, by the pleasant and proved that it is merely the larva or immature young of the simple operation of pricking the skin in many places with a red tapeworm (or tænia), which comes rapidly to a matured form in hot lance. In about a week after these means of escape are pro- the intestines of any human being who has unfortunately and vided one of the wounds will inflame, and assume the character unwittingly swallowed meat in which the vesicle had its abiding of a small boil, from which the head of the worm will issue. place. This is then seized and fastened, either to a small reed or piece Fig. 6 shows a portion of one of these creatures, together of wood, which is daily and most gently wound round, until, in with two separated joints. the course of about a week, the entire worm will be extracted, Thus we see that by no system of reasoning can we arrive at unless broken during the operation, in which case severe inflam- any just conclusion as to what description of perfect being mation will ensue."
amongst the family of helminthe, and some other parasitical The manner of drawing forth the guinea-worm of India differs worms, may be in the end brought to light by the metamorbut little from that above described, except that the punctures phoses through which the immature brood or larvæ pass. Therewith the heated spear are omitted. What can be more strangely fore it behoves us to note carefully such results as we may inscrutable than the laws which influence the existence and absolutely witness, and to take nothing for granted without development of this justly dreaded creature, lurking hidden in actual demonstration. some microscopic form in countless myriads amongst the lakes A consideration of the habits of certain winged insects which and rain deposits of vast tracts of wilderness, until some chance deposit their ova in living animals we must reserve for a future brings a human victim to furnish an abiding place for the paper.
P. Hutchinson & Co.
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