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CIVIL SERVICE PAPERS.-VI.

I. CLERKS.

1. Writing from Dictation. 12.—THE PAYMASTER-GENERAL'S.

2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).

3. English Composition. Office at Whitehall. The Paymaster-General pays all autho

4. Précis. rised demands on the public purse. Except for small amounts,

5. Geography, no department of the state is allowed itself to pay, in cash, 6. English History. liabilities which it has incurred. Public payments are, as a II, STATISTICAL ABSTRACTORS AND INDEX COMPILERS. rule, paid only by the Paymaster-General, upon whom the other 1. Handwriting and Orthography. departments draw bills at three days. These bills are paid at 2. Copying.' maturity, either in cash, if under £50 and the payee so wishes 3. Arithmetic (elementary). it, or, if for amounts over £50, by cheque on the Bank of Eng III. OFFICE-KEEPERS AND MESSENGERS. land. The office staff for this duty is necessarily large, and 1. Handwriting and Orthography. costs £20,000 a year. There are two first-class clerks, first 2. Arithmetic (elementary). section ; five first-class clerks, second section; sixteen second Prizes of the office--the post of secretary, worth £800 a year, class clerks; and thirty-five third-class clerks. Patronage in and the post of Registrar-General, worth £1,200. the Paymaster-General, who is also Vice-President of the Board of Trade. Limits of age for admission, 18 and 25. Salaries:

15.-SCIENCE AND ART DEPARTMENT Third-class clerks, £100 to £300 ; second-class clerks, £315 to Is in Cromwell Road, South Kensington. Carries out the detail £500; first-class clerks, £520 to £650 ; messengers, £80 to of administration of the departments connected with the Museum. £110. Qualifications :

There are many professional officers, but the office staff is not I. CLERKS.

large. The professional officers are subjected to special exami

nations. Limits of age for admission--ordinary clerks, 18 and 1. Writing from Dictation. 2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions),

25; supplemental clerks, 17 and 30. Patronage in the head of 3. Arithmetic (Purchase of Stock and Exchange).

the department. Qualifications :4. Bookkeeping,

I. ORDINARY CLERKS. 5. English Composition.

1. Writing from Dictation. 6. Précis.

2. Transcribing. 7. One Dead or Modern Language.

3. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions). 11. EXTRA CLERKS AND MESSENGERS.

4. Prócis.

5. Geography. 1. Handwriting and Orthography. 2. Elementary Arithmetic.

6. Translation from one Ancient or Modern Foreign Language,

II. ASSISTANT BOOK-KEEPERS. Prize of the office, the post of assistant-paymaster-general, 1. Handwriting and Orthography. worth £1,000 to £1,200 a year.

2. Transcribing.

3. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions). 13.--THE RECORD OFFICE.

4. Bookkeeping. In the Rolls House, Chancery Lane. There are kept the III. SUPPLEMENTARY CLERKS. archives of the kingdom, and all the public papers of import 1. Writing from Dictation, ance enough to be preserved. The duties of the office are mani.

2. Transcribing. fcld, some of them consisting in ordinary official routine, some

3. Arithmetic (the First Four Rules, with Practice and the in translating, deciphering, transcribing, or arranging doca

Rule of Three). ments in the possession of the Keeper of the Records. The

4. Grammatical Structure of Sentences of a simple character. patronage is in the Master of the Rolls, who is Keeper of the

Salaries : -Second-class clerks, £100 to £250 ; first-class Records. Limits of age for admission, 17 and 30. Salaries :

clerks, £280 to £400; chief clerk, £375 to $450; secretary, Six assistant-keepers (first class), £400 to £600; one assistant- £1,000 to £1,200; assistant-secretary, £600 to £800. keeper (second class), £250 to £400; eleven senior clerks, £250 to £400; sixteen junior clerks, £100 to £200; transcribers, SPECIMEN OF QUESTIONS IN RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE-THE 24s. to 32s. per week. Qualifications :

(Time allowed, Three Hours.) I CLEEKS.

1. What proofs of God's mercy, and of the people's rebelliots and 1. Handwriting and Orthography.

presumptuous spirit, are enumerated by Moses ? 2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).

2. Mention the chief events which occurred between the death of 3. Bookkeeping.

Joshua and the accession of Saul, 4. English Composition.

3. Give instances of generosity, self-denial, resignation, and zeal 5. Précis.

from the history of David, Hezekiah, and Josiah. 6. Geography.

4. Quote one or more prophecies referring to Christ from each of 7. History of England.

the following prophets :-Isaiah, Jeremiah, Malachi. 8. Latin (translation).

5. What lessons are given us in the following parables :-"The Lost 9. French (translation).

Piece of Silver," "The Unjust Judge," "The Friend at Midnight?" Prizes of the office :-Secretaryship, £600 to £700; deputy. address to his disciples.

6. Give an account of the ascension of our Lord, and of his parting kespership, £800 to £1,000.

7. Give an account of what we are told of St. Peter in the Acts of 14.-GENERAL REGISTER OFFICE

the Apostles.

8. How many visits of St. Paul to Antioch are recorded in the Acts Is at Somerset House. The duties of the office are to arrange of the Apostles ? Give some account of each of them. and tabulate the information which is collected by district registrars as to the increase and diminution of the population, SPECIMEN OF QUESTIONS IN MODERN HISTORY. Births, marriages, and deaths are recorded there, and copies of

(Time allowed, Three Hours.) certificates can be obtained under certain conditions. The

1. What were the general aims of the policy of Richelieu ? year's statistics are gathered up into the Registrar-General's

2. Give a sketch of the foreign history of England under Cromwell report, which is published annually. The limits of age for 3. How did Bohemia, Hungary, Gallicia, Croatia, and Venice come admission to the offices are--for clerks, 17 and 25; for office to be parts of the Austrian Empire ? keepers, 25 and 35; for messengers, 21 and 35. Patronage in 4. What were the political effects of the revocation of the Edict of the Registrar-General. Salaries : -Statistical abstractors and Nantes ? index compilers, by task-work, or 6s. to 10s. a day when on day

5. Write a short biography of Charles XII. of Sweden. pay; assistant clerks, £90 to £280; senior clerks, £300 to

6. Under what circumstances was the first partition of Poland car£420; inspectors of registration, £380 to £580; superinten

ried out? dents (second class), £450 to £550 ; superintendents (first class), North America and India.

7. Trace the steps by which France lost her colonial possessions in £600 to £700 ; messengers, £75 to £110; office-keeper, £120 8. Give a sketch of the history of Germany from the battle of Jena to £150. Qualifications :

to the battle of Leipsic.

BIBLE.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

9. What resources could Napoleon count on after his return from Malheureux ... qui porte chez Wretched is he acho carries among Elba, and what were the political and military plans which he tried to les siens le glaive et les flam- his fellow-citizens the sword and the carry out ?

beaux,

torch. 10. Under what circumstances was the kingdom of Belgium esta. (4.) Le mien and le tien are also used absolutely as the word blished ?

mine and thine in English, in the sense of possession, property :SPECIMEN ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC PAPER. 1. In 3,660,607 grains of gold, how many lbs., oz., etc. ?

Le tion et le mien sont les sources Mine and thine (moum and tuum) 2. If 3 cwt. 69 lbs. cost £14 3s. 6d., how much may be bought for de toutes les divisions et de toutes are the sources of all divisions and

les querelles.

quarrels. £23 12s. 6d. ? 3. Find, by practice, the cost of 3 oz. 16 dwt. 15 grs. of gold at

$36.-DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
£2 10s. per ounce.
4. Reduce 4 acres 3 roods 16 poles to square feet.

Masc.
Fem.

Masc.

Fom. 5. If the net income of an estate, after paying all taxes, be £267 78. 6d., and the gross income is £285 4s., how much in the

Celui, celle, this, that. Ceux, celles, those, those. pound do the taxes amount to?

Celui-ci, celle-ci, this.

Ceux-ci, celles-ci, these. 6. Find, by practice, the price of 6 cwt. 3 grs. 14 lbs. at £2 5s, 6d.

Celui-là, celle-là, that. Ceux-là, celles-là, those.

Ce, it, they. per cwt. 7. In 4,433,007 seconds how many weeks, days, etc.?

ABSOLUTE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 8. What is the income of a person who loses £84 78. 6d. a year by

Ceci, this; cela, that. (Not used in the plural.) an increase of the income-tax from 73. to 9d. in the pound?

9. Find, by practice, the rent of 5 acres 1 rood 13 perches at 80s. $ 37.-REMARKS ON THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. per acre. SPECIMEN EXERCISE IN ORTHOGRAPHY.

(1.) The demonstrative pronouns celui, celle, etc., assume the

gender and number of the nouns which they represent :1. But notwethstanding the seaming dicline of his boddely powers,

Je ne connais d'avarice permise Methinks no avarice is allowable those of his minde were rendared more viggerous by adversety. During the confarance, which lasted some weaks, he had to sustane aloan the

que celle du temps.

unless it be that of time. difense of his cause aganst some of the most elloquant speekers of the (2.) These pronouns are sometimes used absolutely before House of Comons. All who were present were astonished at his qui, que, dont, etc., in the same manner as the English personal promtness of aprehension, his fasillety of expression, and his dignity pronouns he, they, etc., before who, whom, etc. :of maner. While the confarence was going on, the king had parmission to take the exarsize of rideing. He gave his word of honner not

Celui qui rend un service doit He who renders a service should to quitte the iland, but he was so slendarly garded that it allmost l'oublier, celui qui le reçoit, s'en forget it; he who receives it shouia apeered as if the parlament wished him to seize some opertunaty of souvenir.

remember it. making his iscape. This he was imporetund to do by his frends, who (3.) Celui-ci, celle-ci, etc., celui-, celle-là, are used when it is were now alowed to have acsess to him; but he rijected their advise, desirable to denote the comparative proximity or remoteness saying he would not brake the prommiss he had given. He probbebly, expressed in English by the words this and that:also, may have deseeved himself with the hope that, as the treety was

Celui-ci, this one.

Celui-là, that one. zow drawing towerds a conclusion, he would soon be restoared to piece and libbirty at leest, if not to his formar orthorraty.

(4.) Celui-ci, celui-là, etc., are often used to express contrast or comparison. They are then equivalent to the English

expressions the former, the latter ; this one, that one :LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LVII.

Un magistrat intègre et un brave An upright magistrate and a brave $ 31.-POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

officier, sont également estimables: officer are equally estimable : the

celui-là fait la guerre aux ennemis former makes war against domestic (1). The possessive pronouns (which are formed from the domestiques, celui-ci nous protège enemies, the latter protects us against personal pronouns), represent, in the radical part, the possessor, contre les ennemis extérieurs. foreign enemies. while in termination they always agree with the thing possessed.

(5.) Ceci, cela, have no plural, and are used only of things. Some relate to one person, some to several.

They do not refer to a word expressed before, but serve to point (2.) POSSESSIVES RELATING TO ONE PERSON. out objects :The object possessed being in the

Prenez ceci, take this.

Donnez-moi cela, give me that.

J'ai déjà dit ce qu'il faut faire, I have already said what should be
Masc.
Fem.

Masc.
Fam.

quand un enfant veut avoir ceci et done when a child will have this and 1. Le mien, La mienne, Les miens, Les miennes, mine.

cela.

that. 2. Le tien, La tienne,

Les tiens, Les tiennes, thine. (6.) Ce, a pronoun, must not be confounded with the demon3. Le sien, La sienne, Les siens, Les siennes, his, hers, its strative adjective ce. The pronoun ce is often used without an (3.) TWO OR MORE PERSONS.

antecedent, as the nominative of the verb être, in the same The object possessed being in the

manner as the English pronoun it:SINGULAR.

C'est moi, it is I.

C'est vous, it is you.
PLURAL.
Masc. Fem.
Masc. and Fem.

Ce n'est plus le jouet d'une flamme It is no longer the sport of a..
Le notre, La nôtre, Les nôtres,

servile.

unworthy flame. Le vôtre, La vôtre, Les vôtres, yours.

C'est Pyrrhus, c'est le fils et le It is Pyrrhus ; it is the son and Le leur, La leur, Les leurs, theirs.

rival d'Achille.

the rival of Achilles.

For particular rules on this pronoun, see § 108. $ 35.-REMARKS ON THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. (1.) It may be seen from the above table that, as before said,

$ 38.--RELATIVE PRONOUNS. the termination of the possessive pronoun agrees in gender and

(1.) The relative pronouns are so named on account of the number with the object possessed :

intimate relation which they have to a noun or pronoun which Votre canif et le mien.

Votre plume et la mienne. precedes, and of which they recall the idea. The noun or proYour ponknife and mine.

Your pen and mine.

noun so preceding the relative pronoun is called the antecedent. (2.) These prononns should relate to a noun previously ex

(2.) TABLE OF THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS pressed. This rule is often violated in mercantile correspon. Qui, who, which (sujet, nominat.). De qui, of, from whom Regime in. dence :

Que, whom, which (reg. direct, acc.) Dont, of, from whom, tive and J'ai reçu la vôtre en date du, etc., I received yours dated, cto.,

which,

lative. is incorrect. It should read thus :

À qui, to whom; (régime indirect, dative.) J'ai reçu votre lettre en date du, etc., I received your letter dated, etc.

Lequel, who, which; composed of the article and quel.

PLURAL, (3.) These pronouns may, however, be used absolutely when

Masc.
Fem,
Masc.

Fem. we mean thereby our family, near relatives, or intimate

Lequel, Laquelle, Lesquels, Lesquelles, who, which. friends :

Duquel, De laquelle, Desquels, Desquelles, of, from which, Moi, j'ai les miens, la cour, le I have my family or friends, the | Auquel, A laquelle, Auxquels, Auxquelles, to which, peuple à contenter.

court, the people to please. | Y, to it, of it, etc. En, of it, of them, etc. Quoi, what, which, why, etc.

SINGULAL.

PLURAL.

ours.

SINGULAR.

assez.

$ 39.-REMARKS ON THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

Vous on parlez, you speak of it. J'en ai, I have some of it. (1.) QUI, who, which, is generally the subject or nominative. La vie est un dépôt confié par le Life is a trust confided by header; It is used for both genders and numbers, for persons and for ciel; oser en disposer, c'est être to dare to dispose of it, is a crime.

criminel. things. (See No. 6 of this S.)

(2.) When used for things, qui cannot be preceded by a pre (18.) Y, to it, to them, thereto, of it, etc. This relative proposition. Its use, in this respect, is restricted to the nominative. noun, of both genders and numbers, is used instead of a lui, d (3.) It is used relatively and absolutely.

elle, en lui, &c. It is used of things, and also adverbially in (4.) It is used relatively when it has an antecedent expressed the sense of there :Le premier qui fut roi, fut un The first who became king, was an

J'y pense, I think of it, J'y donne mes soins, I devote père adoré. adored father.

my care to it. (5.) It is used absolutely when it has no antecedent expressed. French authors have used y with regard to persons, these are

(19.) Although numerous instances may be found in which It then offers to the mind a vague and indeterminate idea. It licenses which it is not desirable to imitate. is rendered in English by he who, she who, they who:Läche, qui veut mourir, cou He who wishes to die is a coward;

$ 40.-INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. rageux qui peut vivre.

ho toho can support life has courage. (1.) The indefinite pronouns indicate persons and things (6.) Qui is also used absolutely when it is interrogative. It without particularising them: they are may then be nominative or régime :

Autrui, others.

Quiconque, whoever. Qui parle ? who speaks ? Qui voyez-vous? whom do you see? Chacun, every one.

L'un l'autre, one another. (7.) QUE, whom, what, which, stands generally for the régime On, one, people, thoy.

L'un et l'autre, both. direct. This pronoun is used for persons and things. It is of

Personne, no one, nobody. Tel, such. both genders and nambers :

Quelqu'un, some, somebody. Tout, everything, whole.
Les lettres que j'ai,
The letters which I have.

$ 41.---REMARKS ON THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. Les hommes que j'ai vus, The men whom I have seen.

(1.) AUTRUI, others. This pronoun is applied only to persons. (8.) It is relative when it has an antecedent:

It has no change of form for gender or number, and is used only Des lois que nous suivons, la of the laws which we follow, the as an indirect regimen :première est l'honneur. first is honour,

Ne fais point à autrui ce que tu Do not unto others that which thos (9.) It is absolute when it has no antecedent, and signifies ne voudrais pas qu'on te fit. wouldst not like to be done unto thos. quelle chose what thing? quoi ? what?

(2.) CHACUN, every one, each one. When this pronoun is Que voulez-vous ? What will you (hare) ?

absolute, and means every one, everybody, it is invariable :Que dit-on ? What do people say?

Le sens commun n'est pas chose Common sense is no common (10.) 'QUOI, what, is invariable, and said only of things. It commune,

thing, though every one believes he may be used absolutely and relatively :

Chacun pourtant, croit en avoir has enough of it.
J'ignore ce d quoi il pense. I am ignorant of what he thinks.
In the above sentence it is relative, being preceded by its

(3.) When chacun is used relatively it may take the form of antecedent ce.

the feminine : (11.) QUOI, when absolute, means quelle chose? what thing?

Chacune de nous (des femmes) Every one of us (women) thout and is used mostly in interrogative and doubtful sentences :

se prétendait supérieure aux autres herself superior in beauty to the en beauté.

others. Il y avait je ne sais quoi dans There was I know not what in his ses yeux perçants, qui me faisait piercing oyes, which inspired me with although always construed with a verb in the third person

(4.) ON (one, people, they) is always in the nominative; and peur.

fear. (12.) Dont, of whom, of which, whose, is used for both genders singular, it conveys most generally tho idea of plurality. It is and numbers; for persons and for things. It is always employed

commonly used in indefinito sentences :relatively, and is, therefore, always preceded by an antecedent:

On dit, people say, thoy say, it is said. On parle, somebody spraks, k. Il faut plaindre le sort du prince We must pity the fate of that un.

On garde sans remords ce qu'on W. (one, people) keep without yoinfortuné, dont le cour endurci n'a fortunate prince, whose hardened acquiert sans crime.

morse that which we (one, perde) jamais párdonné. heart has never forgiven.

acquire without crime.

On ne surmonte le vice qu'en le We conquer vice only by avoiding (13.) Dont is preferable to de qui, of whom, and duquel, of fuyant.

it, which. When, however, the pronoun has the sense of from (5.) On, coming immediately after the words et, si, que, and uhom, i.e., when used to denote a transfer, de qui is better :

qui, is generally preceded by the article l' used for euphong:Le libraire de qui j'ai reçu ces The bookseller from whom I have c'est d'un roi que l'on tient cette It is from a ling that we derive livres. received these books.

maxime auguste,

this august mazim, that one is only (14.) Lequel, laquelle, lesquelles, who, which, should only be Que jamais on n'est grand, qu'au- great in proportion as he is just

. used in the nominative, and in the direct régimen, in order to

tant que l'on est juste. avoid ambiguity. They may relate to persons or things:

(6.) PERSONNE, no one, nobody, used as an indefinite pronom, C'est un effet de la divine Provi It is an act of divine Providence, is always masculine and singalar. When used as nominative dence, lequel attire l'admiration de which (act) attracts the admiration a verb expressed, it is followed by ne: tout le monde. of every one.

Personne ne veut être plaint de No one wishes to be pitied on (15.) Lequel, preceded by a preposition—that is, duquel, au

account of his mistakes. quel, duns lequel, etc., must always be used for things in the NOTE.-The word personne, used as a noun, and meaning a indirect regimen. The word qui, as has been mentioned above, particular person, is of the feminine gender. cannot relate to things in the oblique cases :

(7.) QUELQU'UN, somebody, some one, any one, anybody, used Un livre curieux serait celui That would be a curious book in absolutely, is invariable:dans lequel, on ne trouverait pas which not a falsehood were found. un mensonge.

Quelqu'un a-t-il jamais douté Has any one ever had serious

sérieusement de l'existence de doubts on the existence of God! (16.) Lequel, in all its modifications, may be used absolutely Dieu ? or interrogatively :

(8.) Quelqu'un, used relatively, changes for gender and numLequel? which one?

Duquel ? of which one ? ber. It has then the sense of some of, some one of :Lequel voyez-vous ? which one do you see?

Connaissez-vous quelqu'una de Do you knono any one of those (17.) En, of it, of them. This pronoun is of both genders ces dames, quelques-uns de ces ladies, any of those gentlement and numbers, and relates almost always to animals and things. messieurs ? IS 3 often used fo- the English words some, any, when employed absolutely, or even when understood.

(9.) Quiconque, whoever, whosoever, is generally masculine,

It is also used as an and has no plural. It is only said of persons :indirect regimen in relation to things, and sometimes, but not often, in relation to persons CS 92 (2)], instead of the personal est indigne d'etre compté au unworthy to be counted among the

Quiconque est capable de mentir, Whoever is capable of falsehood is pronouns de lui, d'elle, d'eux, d'elles. ($ 103, Rulo 1.]

nombre des hommes.

number of men.

ses erreurs.

(10) L'un l'autre, one another, each other, the one and the forked and the downy scale-mosses—which grow on stones, other. This pronoun makes in the feminine l'une l'autre, and in trunks of trees, and on shady limestone rocks. the plural les uns les autres, les unes les autres :

The fruit of this genus is a theca or capsule, which rises from Tout le peuple suirit Virginie," All the people followed Virginia, is usually borne on a seta or fruit-stalk. The theca lies involved

a tubular leaf or cluster of leaves called the perichætium, and los uns par curiosité, les autres per some through curiosity, some through in this protecting sheath until it is mature enough to make its considération pour Icilius. respect for Icüius.

Il y a deux sortes de ruines; There are two sorts of ruins; one appearance in the world'; the perichætium then opens at the 'une l'ouvrage du temps, l'autre the scork of time, the other the work top, and the little theca--unlike the modest little mosses which l'ouvrage des hommes. of mer.

never lift their young heads to the light without the covering of (11.) L'un et l'antre, les uns les autres (both). This expression attached to the point at which it originally grew, and displays

their calyptra or veil-suddenly starts up, leaving that organ may be used of persons and of things :

itself unveiled to the eye which may be sharp enough to detect Sous l'une et l'autre époque, il At both epochs a large number of its diminutive beauties. This theca is four-valved, in shape périt an trés-grand nombre de citizens perished.

much like those of mosses, but it has no lid, and no central citoyens.

column round which the spores assemble; instead of this, it is Ils se réunissaient les uns et les Thoy united with one another furnished with some very curious spiral filaments with which autres contre l'ennemi commun. against tho common enemy.

the spores are associated (Fig. 288). It is in the possession of (12.) Tel, telle, feminine, such, many a person, many, is an these spring-like organs alone that the different families which indefinite pronoun in the following and in similar sentences : class under the general name of Hepaticæ resemble each other ;

but these are common to the Jungermanniæ, the Marchantia, Tels que l'on croit d'inutiles Many friends whom we think use and all the rest of the genera which the order comprises. amis, dans le besoin rendent de less ronder us, in our nood, valuable These organs consist of double spiral threads, somewhat like boos services. services.

the traches or spiral air-vessels in plants, only more elastic. (13.) Tel, in connection with Monsieur, Madame, etc., as They are contained in the same case with the spores, and curled Monsieur un tel, Madame une telle, Mr., Mrs. such-a-one, is used up among them, and when the capsule is mature, spring up with substantively,

a sudden jerk like a Jack-in-a-box, and scatter the spores which (14.) Tout, every one, everything. This word, employed abso- are around them in all directions. So sensitive are these lutely, is invariable:

elaters, that even breathing on them will set them in motion

after the spores have escaped. The scale-mosses chiefly differ Son grand génie embrassait His great genius embracod every- from true mosses in the permanent attachment of the calyptra tout. thing.

of which we spoke above, and in having no lid or operculum,

and no columella. The tubular form of the sheath and the LESSONS IN BOTANY.XLI.

presence of the spiral filaments, just described, constitute the

other distinguishing features of the genus. Besides the normal SECTION CXXI.-MOSSES (concluded).

fructification, the Jungermanniæ possess a second kind of reproThe liverworts, of which we have next to give some account, ductive organ, by means of which the species are often propacome lower in the scale of organisation ; they are much varied gated ; these are called gemmæ, and consist of minute roundish in size, appearance, and structure, and some of them are of or oblong bodies, variously situated, sometimes in the axil of exceeding beauty. They muster under their banner some genera the leaf, at others on its margin, and clustered together in the which closely resemble true mosses. Others which are nearer the form of little bells. structure of lichens, and again others which link them with the The colour of the scale-mosses varies through all the shades Alge, Jungermanniæ, Marchantim, Tagioniæ, and a few other less of green into brown, yellowish, dusky purple, and bronze. The noticeable genera, are all of this tribe ; but they differ so theca is usually black, or deep purple, or dark brown, although widely from each other, that we shall scarcely from their appear- occasionally it is nearly transparent. ance be led to place them in the same order. The similarity of The seta or fruit-stalk is in most cases semi-transparent, and their organs of fructification shows, however, that they must as delicately reticulated as the other parts of the plant. Our all be considered as belonging to the order Hepaticæ, and we example, the pear-shaped scale-moss (Jungermannia turbinato, proceed to give a brief notice of a few of the most interesting Fig. 289), shows this very beautifully. This species is one genera,

which is frequent in moist shady spots in limestone districts, The Jungermanniæ, or scale-mosses, so named from Louis and we have selected it as illustrative of the highly cellular Jangermann, a German botanist, are of a very peculiar and structure of plants of this tribe. Jungermannia pusilla (Fig. exquisitely delicate structure. The whole substance of the 290), the dwarf scale-moss, is given for the purpose of exhibitplant is loosely cellular, so much so that, although most of the ing the beautiful form of its folded sheath or perichætium. The species are exceedingly minute, the beautiful reticulation of the plant is of a tender green, the capsule brown, and the edges of leaves may often be detected by the naked eye. The herbage the bell-shaped sheath of a delicate pink. This is given, as are consists of a variously dilated frond, often naked, but more all the other scale-mosses of which we present drawings, as frequently covered with small leaf-like appendages. These are they appear when magnified to about six times their natural often divided, but never truly nerved, and might more properly size. be considered as dilatations of the frond.

Sowerby says, in speaking of mosses, that which may with The scale-mosses may be considered as divided into two equal truth be said of the tribes which at present engage our classes: the foliaceous, or those which have the appearance of attention:--"It is chiefly in the economy of Nature that we must separate leaves; and the frondose, or those which consist of look for the utility of these little plants, that she has fashioned lobed fronds or thalli.

with so much care, and for the reproduction and dissemination The former of these divisions is composed of minute plants, of which she has invented so beautiful and complicated an which by an unaccustomed eye might be taken for true mosses, apparatus as that described above, though they are destined for amongst which, in many instances, they are found growing. the most part to flourish where no human eye beholds that These are widely spread over the ground on banks and trunks beauty, no intelligence, save her own, can calculate the necessity of trees, or other positions in shady woods ; some are found on and advantage of their existence. Their ministry is pursued in moist Alpine moors, frequenting the beds of torrents, or grow.concert with other families lower in the scale of vegetable ing in boggy places, along the edges of springs or rivalets; being; the smaller species assisting in the production of soil whilst we find some species spread out on clay and exposed upon newly-formed lands, clothing with verdure the most barren heaths, exhibiting their pretty purple or bronze foliage where spots, and gradually fitting them for the support of the higher nothing else will grow.

order of plants; while the larger are occupied in no small The second or frondose division of this tribe is chiefly con- degree in the production of land itself, especially the aquatic fined to semi-aquatic positions. They are larger, their leafy kinds, which fix themselves upon the surface of lakes and stag. parts, or fronds, are thicker, broader, and of a different texture nant waters, already interlaced with the slender stems of the from the foliaceous kinds, and some of them are slimy to the Chare, Confervæ, and plants of similar habit, gradually converttouch; but there are one or two of this division-namely, the ing the liquid plain into a partially solid one, on which eventu.

ally grasses, rushes, etc., are capable of growing ; thus are either four or eight in number. Besides this normal fruit, formed morasses, which, by a further progress of vegetation, gemmæ, or detached buds, of quite a different structure, are become at length fertile meadows. While thus slowly operating found on these plants. These are small leafy bodies whick to increase the extent of the habitable world, their influence spontaneously separate from the parent plant, and when matare directly and indirectly affects in various ways—but more fre- are washed out by the rain, and carried abundantly to new quently, perhaps, unseen and unsuspected—the welfare and localities, where they spring up and grow very rapidly. The interest of those who are too apt to despise their apparent form of the thalli or fronds of the Marchantiæ is thus quaintly insignificance, and too proud to stoop to the examination of described by the good old herbalist Gerard :—"Liverwort is their surpassing beauty.” Of the species which render their | kinde of mosse which spreadeth itself abroad opon the ground, feeble aid in

having many thus converting

anoven or crum. water into land, 291

pled leaves ly. are some of the

ing over one little frondose

another, as the scale-mosses,

scales of fishes and also some

do;

greene of the other

above, browne tribes of the

onderneath." Hepatice. The

These fronde broad - leaved

are variously scale-moss(Jun.

lobed, their cogermannia epyo

lour is a living philla, Fig.291),

green, and when which is de.

broadly spread picted of tho

over & damp natural size, is

bank or the wall one of these. It

of & fonntain is frequent on

or reservoir of moist heaths,

water, they form and in damp

a beautiful obwoods and

ject. The Ger thickets, espe

mans have the cially by the

same name for sides of wells

293

the tribe as and rivulets.

selves, and call The slippery

it Leberkraut. scale-moss (Jun 288

The conical germannia pin

liverwort (Fig. guis) is another

292) is common. of this descrip

It is of a yel. tion.

lowish · green, We next come

tinged with to the family

290 brown; the pe Marchantiæ,

289

duncle, or fruitnamed from

stalk, is white, Nicholas Mar.

touched with chant, a noted

pink, and fleshy. botanist. It is

It springs from a pretty and sin

& concave disc, gular tribe, its trivial name,

in the marginal liverwort, being

clefts of the derived from a

fronds. Thespofancied resem

rules are large blance to the

of a dark olive human

hue. The fronds this resem.

when bruised, blance was sup

send forth a peposed to indi.

culiar fragrance cate some spe

292

like bergamot

. cial virtue in the

The other ex plant, as

ample given nected with that 288. SPIRAL FILAMENTS

[graphic]

usually situated

liver ;

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OR ELATERS OF HEPATICE. DWARF SCALE-MOSS.

289. THE PEAR-SHAPED SCALE-MOSS.

290. THE (Fig. 293) is of organ, and in

291. THE BROAD-LEAVED

292. CONICAL LIVERWORT.

293. the star-headed olden time itwas STAR-HEADED LIVERWORT (MARCHANTIA POLYMORPHA).

liverwort (Mar considered as a

chantia poły specific for jaundice and other such disorders. The Marchantiæ morpha), a species even more common than the conical. grow on earth or the bark of trees in damp places, spading Of the other genera which the order Hepaticæ comprises we over the ground in the form of a green

incrustation, from

the shall say but little, as they are few and, in comparison, insizlower surface of which root-fibres are developed. This crust or nificant. thallus is entirely composed of cellular tissue, the cells of the Targionia hypophylla at first sight resembles a Marchant, outer layer being closer in texture than the rest, and forming

a but differs in its fructification, which is globose and nearly thick leathery cuticle, in which are large stomata. The fruit buried in the margin of the frond; and

this, with Anthocerie consists of a head of spore-cases, radiating from a central disc punctatus, Sphærocarpus terrestris

, and

a few species of a little called the shield, like the spokes of a wheel. The head is tribe called Riccia (on which, as they are for the most part mounted on a long stalk

springing from a bell-shaped sheath, little known and not of much general interest, we shall not which starts from the surface of the frond or thallus, usually at enter particularly), complete the number of the genera conthe margin. The spore-cases or thecæ open by irregular fissures, tained in this order.

SCALE-MOSS.

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