It was discovered and annexed to Portugal in 1500 by Alvarez | thickly peopled than any other part of South America, and is de Cabral, and, with the exception of sixty years, from 1580 to rich in cattle and timber with which to carry on a brisk trade 1640, when Portugal belonged to Spain, it remained a Portuguese with Europe, the policy of its presidents has hitherto been to dependency until 1822, when its independence as a separate exclude foreigners, and to refuse commercial intercourse with empire was declared under Pedro, or Peter I., the son of John other states. Since 1865, Paraguay has been at war with Brazil

, VI. of Portugal.

Uruguay, and the Argentine Confederation; but the persistent The country now called Guiana was settled by the French efforts of the three allied states have nearly resulted in the and Dutch in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The part rescue of the country from the oppressive domination of its presi. which now belongs to Great Britain, and bears the name of dent, Don Francisco Solano Lopez, who has exercised absolute British Guiana, consists of the three settlements of Demerara, power since 1862. Matè, or Paraguay tea, the leaves of a kind Berbice, and Essequibo. It was taken from the Dutch in 1803, of holly, which are used throughout South America as we use and finally assigned to Great Britain at the peace of 1814. The tea, is grown in great quantities on the slopes of the hills. An country is flat and swampy, and unhealthy for Europeans; the infusion of this leaf, with the addition of a little sugar and a soil is fertile, and yields large crops of sugar, rice, coffee, and few drops of lemon juice, forms the ordinary beverage of all cotton. Cayenne, from which the pepper so called takes its classes of Paraguayans. namo, situated on the island of Cayenne, is used by the French On the north side of the great estuary of the Rio de la Plata Imperial Government as a penal settlement for political is the little republic of Uruguay, or the Banda Oriental, someoffenders.

times called the republic of Montevideo, after the name of its Venezuela, the Granadian Confederation, and Ecuador formed capital. Adjoining Brazil on one side, and an object of desire the Federal Republic of Columbia, after their emancipation from to Buenos Ayres, whose presidents or dictators sought by its the Spanish yoke in 1821. Venezuela was the first to withdraw acquisition to command on both sides the approaches to the from the union, resolving itself into an independent state, com- great rivers by which the very heart of the continent of South posed of thirteen small provinces, or departments, in 1829. America may be reached, this country was long an object of Ecuador, which is divided into three departments, soon after contention between the two powers just named, until it solved followed the example set by the people of Venezuela, and the the difficulty in 1828 by declaring itself an independent republic. three states existel as separate republics until 1858, when a further It carries on a trade with Europe in dried beef, horns, hides, disintegration of New Granada took place, its nine departments, and tallow, the produce of the great herds that find pastura in one of which is the Isthmus of Panama, becoming separate the interior, and on the banks of the Rio de la Plata ; and it was states, each independent of the rest for internal purposes, but for some years the home of the Italian patriot, Garibaldi, during maintaining an alliance for the purpose of mutual defence, and his enforced exile from his native land, and temporary sojourn forming a federal union under the name of the Granadian Con- in South America. federation, Tho highlands of the Granadian Confederation and The Argentine Confederation, or La Plata, is a federal anion, Ecuador are rich in minerals of all kinds and precious stones. formed of fourteen states, the most powerful of which, and the The lowlands of these states and Venezuela are well wooded and only one which is contiguous to the ocean, is Buenos Ayres. well watered, yielding tropical products of all kinds, among The interior of the country is for the most part a succession of which the fruit of the cacao tree deserves especial mention, undulating plains, called pampas, intersected by salt lakes. The while the llanos, or treeless plains on the banks of the Orinoco, chief wealth of the Confederation lies in its herds of cattle and afford fine and luxuriant herbage for cattle. Venezuela owns horses. The states once formed part of the great Spanish two of the West India Islands, namely, Margarita and Tortuga, viceroyalty of Peru, but they achieved their independence, and which lie close to her sea-board on the Caribbean Sea,

combined to form a separate confederacy in 1816. Since that Peru, the country of the Incas, noted for its inexhaustible time Buenos Ayres has more than once withdrawn from the mines of gold, silver, and mercury, and for the frequent occur confederation, but it has again rejoined it, and at the present rence of earthquakes, was a dependency of Spain from the time time (1869) is the most powerful of the federal states of this of its conquest by Pizarro, in 1531, to the battle of Ayachuco, republic. in 1824, by which victory its independence was achieved. It is Chili

, which gained its independence in 1817, after an arduous now divided into thirteen departments. Wool of an excellent struggle of seven years, by the battle of Maypu, is a long, quality is yielded by the llama, alpaca, and vicuna, three animals narrow strip of territory, bearing due north and sonth, and which are natives of this part of South America. The llama is formed by the western slope of the Andes towards the Pacific used as a beast of burden for carrying small weights up and down Ocean. The country is divided into thirteen provinces, and bids the rocky paths that traverse the slopes of the Andes. It is fair to become the most prosperous of the Sonth American something like a sheep, but has a long neck, and a head resem. republics through the abundance of its mineral treasures, the bling that of the deer, though it has no horns. Peru is remark- fertility of its soil, and, above all, the commercial enterprise of able for containing the highest city in the world, namely, Pasco, its inhabitants, who, contrary to the general rule with South which stands at an elevation of 13,720 feet above the level of the Americans, are active in promoting the development of the sea. The Chincha Islands, and the Lobos Islands, two groups resources of their country. Its chief seaport is Valparaiso

, its near the coast of Peru, yield abundance of the valuable manure principal island Juan Fernandez, famous for being the residence called guano.

of Alexander Selkirk, whose story, doubtless, gave Defoe the Bolivia, formerly called Upper Peru, received its present name idea of "Robinson Crusoe.” from General Simon Bolivar, to whose efforts the achievement Patagonia, and the chain of islands, terminating to the south of South American independence was mainly due. It is divided in Tierra del Fuego, and some smaller islets, that stretohes into nine departments. Like the other countries of South along its western and southern coasts, is olaimed by Chili, who America that have been noticed already, it produces minerals has asserted her right by taking possession of two pieces of and tropical fruits and vegetables in great quantities, though territory, one on the mainland, opposite the island of Chiloe. but few of the mines at Potosi, and elsewhere, are now worked. and the other on the Strait of Magellan, and forming thereon It possesses but a very small length of sea-board, not more than two settlements-namely, Puerto Montt on the former, and 300 miles according to the most favourable estimate, and

to- Punta Arenas on the latter. The claim of Chili is disputed, but wards the north of this is the small sea port of Cobija. The without

much chance of success, by the Argentine Confederation. country between the coast and the Andes is little better than a Some years ago an attempt was made to settle a Welsh colony barren desert, and owing to the difficulty of transit across this in Patagonia, but the scheme failed, and the colonists were waste, and the inefficiency of the harbour, the chief part of the invited by the Brazilian Government to seek a home in the cinchona bark, and other exports of Bolivia, are shipped for empire of Brazil. Europe at Peruvian ports, after being carried through Peruvian About 350 miles eastward from the east entrance to the territory.

Strait of Magellan lies a group of small islands, about 200 in Paraguay is the only state of South America that has no sea- number, belonging to Great Britain. This cluster, called the board, the great rivers Parana and Paraguay forming the Falkland Islands, is tenanted by a small number of British water-ways by which commercial transactions are carried on colonists, who supply ships sailing round Cape Horn, and with other countries. It was the first to throw off the Spanish whalers bound to the southern seas, with fresh water and yoke, having revolted as early as 1811; but although it is more provisions.


of brandy, wine, and cider, so that the cider was 6 gallons more

than the brandy, and the wine was as much as the cider and In the following problems, the student may now employ two, of the brandy. How much was there of each ? three, or more unknown quantities in their solution, just as the 19. Says A to B, “If you give me 10 guineas of your money, I nature of each may require; or he may still limit the number shall then have twice as much as you will have left;" but says B of the unknown quantities, by first supposing one unknown to A,"Give me 10 of your guineas, and then I shall have three quantity, and then finding from the conditions of the question times as many as you." How many had each ? expressions for the other unknown quant les in terms of that 20. Three persons, A, B, and C, make a joint contribution, which has been assumed.

which in the whole amounts to £400; of which sum B con

tributes twice as much as A, and £20 more; and C as much EXERCISE 41.-ALGEBRAICAL PROBLEMS.

as A and B together. What sum did each contribute ? 1. Find two numbers such that their sum shall be a, and

21. The stock of three traders amounted to £760. The their difference b.

shares of the first and second exceeded that of the third by 2. Divide the number 20 into such parts, that three times the £240, and the sum of the second and third exceeded the first one added to five times the other will make 76.

by £360. What was the share of each ? 3. Two gamesters, A and B, sat down to play. A had 80 22. What two numbers are those which, being in the ratio of guineas, and B had 60. After a certain number of games were 3 to 4, their product is equal to 12 times their sum? won and lost between them, it was found that A had three times 23. A certain company at an inn, when they came to settle as many guineas as B. How many guineas did A win of B? their reckoning, found that had there been 4 more in company,

4. Find two numbers such that half the first and a third part they might each have paid a shilling less than they did ; but that of the second shall make 9; and that a fourth part of the first if there had been 3 fewer in company, they must each have paid with a fifth part of the second shall make 5.

a shilling more than they did. What, then, was the number of 5. Divide the number 2 into two such parts that a third of persons in the company, what did each pay, and what was the the one added to a fifth of the other shall make

whole reckoning? 6. Find three numbers such that the sum of the first and

24. A farmer has two horses, and also two saddles, the one second shall be 7, the sum of the first and third 8, and the sum valued at £18, the other at £3. Now when he sets the better of the second and third 9; and give a general solution, by sup- saddle on the first horse, and the worse on the second, it makes posing these three sums to be a, b, and c respectively.

the first horse worth double the second ; but when he places the 7. The sum of the three digits in a certain number is 16; the better saddle on the second horse, and the worse on the first, it sum of the hundreds' digit and the tens' digit is to the sum of makes the second horse worth three times the first. What the tens' digit and the units' digit, as 4} is to 5t; and if 198 be

were the values of the two horses ? added to the number, the hundreds' digit and the units' digit 25. It is required to divide the number 24 into two such parts, will change places. What is the number?

that the quotient of the greater part divided by the less, may be 8. Divide 72 into four such parts, that the first increased by to the quotient of the less part divided by the greater, as 4 5, the second diminished by 5, the third multiplied by 5, and the to 1. fourth divided by 5, the sum, difference, product, and quotient, 26. A cistern is to be filled with water from three different shall all be equal to one another.

stop-cocks. From the first it can be filled in 8 hours, from the 9. A farmer hired 4 men and 8 boys for a week, and paid second in 10, and from the third in 14. How soon would they them in all £8; the next week he paid 7 men and 6 boys at the altogether fill it ? same rate each, and paid in all £10. How much did he pay board

, but to allow 9a. for his board

each day that he is an.

27. A labourer engages to work for 3s. 6d. a day and his each man and each boy by the week ?

10. A father bequeathed £2,800 to his daughter and son, in employed. At the end of 24 days he has to receive £3 2s. 9d. such a manner that for every half-crown the daughter had, the How many days did he work ? son should have a shilling. What were their shares ?

28. Three workmen are employed to dig a ditch of 191 yards 11. A bill of £100 was paid in half-guineas and crowns; and in length. If A can dig 27 yards in 4 days, B 35 yards in 6 202 pieces of money were employed in the payment. How many days, and C 40 yards in 12 days, in vhat time could they do it pieces were there of each kind ?

if they worked simultaneously? 12. Find four numbers such that the sum of the first, second,

29. A farmer wishes to mix 28 bushels of barley at 2s, 4d. a and third, shall be 13; the sum of the first, second, and fourth, bashel, with rye at 38. a bushel, and wheat at 45. a bushel, so 15; the sum of the first, third, and fourth, 18; and the sum of that the whole may consist of 100 bushels at 3s. 4d, a bushel. the second, third, and fourth, 20.

How much rye and wheat must he use for this purpose ? 13. Two numbers are to each other as 20 to 30; but if 6 be 30. A sum of money was divided equally amongst a certain added to each, then the sums are to each other as 40 to 50. number of persons. Had there been three persons more, each What are the numbers ?

would have received 1 shilling less; and had there been two 14. There are two numbers such that the greater is to the persons fewer, each would have received 1 shilling more. Reless as their sum is to 20, or as their difference is to 10. What quired the number of persons, and what each received. are the numbers ?

31. How may a bill of £7 4s. be paid with half-guineas and 15. Three boys were playing at marbles. In the first game, crowns, so that twice the number of crowns may be equal to A loses to B and C as many as each of these two had when they three times the number of half-guineas ? began; in the second game, B loses to A and C as many as each 32. A person rows a distance of 20 miles and back in 10 hours, of these two had at the end of the first game; in the third game, the stream flowing uniformly in the same direction all the time. Closes to A and B as many as each of these two had at the end He finds that, with the stream, he can row three miles in the of the second game. Each has now 16 marbles; how many had same time that it takes him to row 2 miles against it. How each at first?

long was he going with the stream, and how long against it? 16. A person goes to a coffee-house with a certain quantity of money in his pocket, where he spends 2 shillings; he then borrows as much money as he had left, and going to another

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA. coffee-house, he there spends 2 shillings also. Then, borrowing

EXERCISE 39. again as much money as was left, he went to a third coffee- 1. x = 1, y = 4, and z = 2. house, where likewise he spent 2 shillings; and thus repeating 2. x= 1 (a + b -c), y = $ (a

4. A's distance is 46 miles, B's =

9, and C's = 7. the same at a fourth coffee-house, he then had nothing remaining. What sum had he at first, and what was he in debt?

+ c), and z=(-a+b+c). 5. #= 24, y = 60, and . = 120.

3. A's money = 64 dollars, B's = 6. x= 30, y = 20, and 2 = 10. 17. A man with his wife and child dine together at an inn. 72, and C's = 84, The landlord charges 1 shilling for the child; for the woman, as

EXERCISE 40. much as for the child and a quarter as much as for the man; and for the man, as much as for the woman and child together. 2. is, 22, 10, and 40.


5. The port 3 guineas per dozen,

the sherry 2 guineas. How much was that for each ?

3. 50, 65, and 75, 18. A cask which held 60 gallons was filled with a mixture 4. 10 and 2.

6. 78 of brandy and 66 of water.



focus. By holding a sheet of white paper or the cloth at that AMUSING OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS ILLUSTRATING THE tube, the outer objects, such as the trees, houses, or persons

distance from the lens in a line perpendicular to the axis of the LAWS OF REFLECTION AND REFRACTION THE CAMERA-OBSCURA.

promenading, are painted on it with wonderful fidelity, distinct

ness, and brilliancy of colouring, so much so that even the It would, of course, be difficult to say who was the first to features of persons may be clearly distinguished. conceive the idea of collecting and publishing a description, with A little of the effect is certainly destroyed by the inversion appropriate engravings, of known experiments in physical science of the painting, and although there are various ways in which That the idea is not new, and was thought useful in bygone this may be corrected, it cannot be done without reducing the times, is shown by the absurd though somewhat amusing "Re- field of the picture and injuring the sharpness of the outlines creation in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy," written nearly of the figures projected on the paper or cloth. Nevertheless, if two hundred years ago, by Jacques Ozanam, and subsequently the spectator wishes to have the convenience of seeing the revised, enlarged, and improved by Jean Étienne Montucla, in objects in their right position, he may proceed as follows: the year 1793, in

Place a plane his new edition of the “Methodical

mirror, inclined.

at an angle of 45°, Encyclopædia of

at nearly half the Amusements in Fig. 1.

focal distance of Mathematical

the lens, in such and Physical

a way that it may Science," and de

reflect downdicated to the

wards the rays Most Serene Re

proceeding from public of Venice.

the lens; arrange In the preface the

horizontally below reader is told

it a sheetof paper, " that the useful is

upon which the combined

image of the exnearly always with the agree

ternal object (in

this case a bust) able, and that he

will appear. The may instruct and

Fig. 4.

image will be seen amuse himself;"

in its natural poexaggerated

sition and upright statement, be

by all those who cause the famous

look at it in a Dr. Charles Hut

certain positionton, the mathe

viz., with their matician, pub

backs turned to lished a transla

wards the opening tion of the above

in the shutter con work in 1803,

taining the lens. and subsequently

The inverted another edition in

image is shown at 1814. In the pre

Fig. 1, and the sent paper some Fig. 2.

cause of the recareful reproduce

versal of the positions of Mon.

B tion of the bust is tucla's original


Fig. 3.

evident, from the diagrams will be

fact that the rays given.

cross at the aperNearly the first

ture in the shutter optical amuse

When the sheet ment proposed is how “to exhibit,

out on a table, in a darkened

arranged to rise room, external

and fall by rackobjects, in their

work, or any other natural colours

simple means, and proportions;

there will be and in this de

painted upon it scription the principles and construction of the camera obscura, i an exact picture of all the objects before the window. People, or darkened chamber, are fully developed :-“Close the door cows, horses, sheep, etc., are seen with the same movements and and darken the windows of the chamber, so that no light can gestures which they exhibit ander ordinary circumstances; enter, except that which can pass through a very small and well. whilst the trees, the sky, and clouds are painted in their natural cut hole in the shutter or other wood-work used to darken the colours, either calm or agitated by the wind as the case may window facing some public

street or pretty country landscape. be. The use of the rack-work is to enable the spectator to focus Hang against the wall opposite the hole in the shutter a very the more distant objects, and if great sharpness in the image is white cloth, and if the external objects are well illuminated, desired, the top of the table receiving the picture should be and the chamber kept very dark, they will paint themselves on made of plaster of Paris, and hollowed out to the same curte the wall or cloth with their natural colours, in a reversed posi- , as the lens. tion."

A PORTABLE CAMERA OBSCURA. The experiment conducted in this very simple manner suc Baptista Porta's amusing optical instrument admits of many ceeds sufficiently well to surprise those who may witness it modifications, and Fig. 2 represents another, and at one time for the first time; but it is made much more striking with the very popular, form of the camera. help of a glass lens. Adapt to the hole of the shutter—which in this case must be some inches in diameter-a tube, having very convenient dimensions, and were constructed of mahogans.

They were formerly much used by artists, on account of their at its internal extremity a convex lens of four, five, or six feet and of various sizes, some so small as to be carried in the pocket.

of paper is laid

The lens at the point A is fixed in the circular tube in front of its lens in the tube, which may be thrust through a hole in the 2 square draw-out tube, and is of a focus equal to the length wall of the room against which the table stands; the images of the box when the drawer is half drawn out. A plain of the external objects are reflected from the mirror n in the mirror, placed diagonally at an angle of 45°, at the end of lines N H G to the ground glass E. The picture (e) may be con. the box, as shown by the dotted lines a b, reflects the rays cealed by a tablecloth, and when the room is darkened by transmitted by the lens up to the upper side of the plane closing the shutters and the cloth removed, some wonder is rough-ground glass, the rough side placed above, under the fold. excited by seeing the images of external objects in all their ing darkening cover, and there forms the images of the objects colours and with their natural movements delineated on the before the lens at A. The use of the drawer is to adjust the table-top. proper distance of the lens from the mirror, according to the

A PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA. variable distances of proximate objects. The images on the

In Fig. 4 is shown a more modern camera, such a one rough glass exhibit a beautiful perspective picture, also the profile of a person seated in a room in a strong light before the is called "& sliding body folding camera.”

as would be employed for taking photographic pictures; it

It is usually camera, and more particularly if the sun illumines the object; made of the best Spanish mahogany, well seasoned, and brassand may be readily traced on the rough surface of the glass by bound, because the instrument is frequently exposed to the a blacklead pencil

, or by what is preferable, red French chalk, direct rays of the sun, and if the wood craoked the light and then white paper being gently placed on the glass, the lines might be admitted, which would spoil the prepared collodion will be correctly taken off. If very thin white paper is merely placed upon the glass, the plate. When the picture intended to be taken has been focussed

on the ground glass at the back, the latter is removed, and an images may be discerned, though faintly, sufficient to afford the ingeniously made box containing the prepared collodion plate means of tracing correctly. The nearer the object or features substituted for it. When all is ready, a sliding panel of wood are to the camera the larger will be the image, and an additional is drawn up, the prepared plate is then exposed to the light, lens of a shorter focus is sometimes fitted, to be substituted for which is allowed to act for a certain time until the picture is the other when the images of very near objects are wanted. supposed to be obtained. The plate is afterwards developed "Some artists,” says Reece (from whom the above description is and fixed in the regular manner. The tube containing the taken)," who copy profiles, remove the rough glass from the cell, lenses is attached to a vertical and horizontal sliding frame, invert the camera, and by a stand support it about ten or twelve in order to enable the photographic artist to adjust the fore.. inches above the white paper on the table. The image will

ground and sky. then invertedly be formed on the paper, and they trace it with a pencil in a correct manner, and with less trouble than by the other method.”

LESSONS IN GERMAN. LIII. An improved folding camera is made by joining the side of the camera and drawer in the middle with canvas cloth, as

$ 20.-DECLENSION OF PROPER NOUNS. shown at the line BG (Fig. 2); the back c turns inwards with the

Singular Number. mirror, close up to the rough glass, and the front E F above, over (1.) Names of males and females, except when the latter terthe top, so that the whole camera may fold down into a flat minate in e, take 8 to form the genitive, which is their only form, and go into a very portable, flat, leather strap case, variation; as :making it the most portable possible for persons travelling. Inclusive of the rough glass, a double convex lens has some

Nom. Heinrich, Henry.

Elisabeth, Elizabeth. times been placed to receive the images; and as more light

Gen. Heinriche, of Henry. Elisabethe, of Elizabeth.

Dat. Heinrich, to Henry. is then refracted, the images are shown with great beauty

Elisabeth, to Elizabeth. and extraordinary brightness, even surpassing the original.

Acc. Heinrich, Henry.

Elisabeth, Elizabeth. They are also more vivid when the rough glass is placed above It is customary with some writers to affix en to the dative this lens, though the contours or outlines are not so sharp and and accusative of proper names; but the better usage distindistinct as when the rough glass is used only by itself. This guishes these cases by prefixing the article ; as, nom. Leifing, arrangement was noticed by Hooper, in his "Rational Recrea- Lessing; gen. Leffing, of Lessing ; dat. tem Lessing (instead of tion," written one hundred years ago, and was subsequently leffingen), to Lessing; acc. ben leffing (instead of leffingen), called "the Delineator," by Storer, who pretended to be the Lessing. original inventor.

(2.) Names of females ending in e form the genitive in end The camera may be reversed, and used as a show-box for dis- and the dative in en; those of males ending in 8, 18, fa, r, org playing prints, etc.; of course the ground glass must then be take likewise in the genitive eng; as :removed. Any boy, with a little care and dexterity, and at a Nom. Luise, Louisa. Leibniß, Leibnitz. Voß, Voss. very small expense, may construct a camera out of an old hat; Gen. Luiseng, of Louisa. Leibnißens, of Leib- Vossens, of V088. and as many hats are provided with ventilating holes at the

nitz. top, the aperture is ready for the insertion of the lens, and the Dat. Luisen, to Louisa. Leibniß, to Leibnitz. Voß, to Voss. picture may be received upon a circular piece of tracing paper Acc. Luise, Louisa. Leibniß, Leibnitz. Voß, Voss. stretched on a thin wooden hoop or frame, which may slide backwards and forwards in the hat for the purpose of focussing

(3.) Names, whether of males or females, when preceded by the picture. The lens must be of a sufficiently short focus to an article, are indeclinable; as :suit the hat. This very simple arrangement will help the Nom. Der Schiller, the Schiller. Die Luise, the Louisa. youthful student to understand the phenomena of vision, as Gen. Des Schiller, of the Schil. Der Luise

, of the Lonisa. the whole may be compared to the eye, and the oiled paper

ler. upon which the picture is painted will represent the expanded Dat. Dem Schiller, to the Schil. Der luise, to the Louisa. nerve, the retina, or mind of the eye, upon which the pictures

ler. seen by this organ are projected. That such images are Acc. Den Schiller, the Schiller. Die kuise, the Louisa. projected on the retina is shown by using the eye of a sheep or bullock, which may be readily procured from any butcher's

$ 21.-PROPER NOUNS IN THE PLURAL. shop. If the back part of the eye is cut off so as to leave (1.) Proper nouns, when employed in the plural, conform for the retina, and if the cornea of the eye is substituted for the the most part to the rules for the declension of common nouns; lens in the hat, the image of the external objects will be seen the masculines being varied according to the Old Declension, painted upon the retina at the back of the cornea.

and the feminines according to the New. As an amusing modification of the camera, and to show how Sometimes the plural is made by the addition of s to the sinthoroughly the old experimentalists worked out an idea, and gular; as :-Die Šķillers, the Schillers; die Herbers, the Herders. applied it in various ways, may be instanced the next form. Those ending in o add for the plural ne or nen; as:-Cato, Cato;

nom. plur. Catone or Catonen, the Catos, etc. THE MAGIC TABLE CAMERA.

(2.) Their inflection is in no wise affected by the presence of A table, FFFF (Fig. 3), is provided with a top, ABCD, in which the article, nor do the radical vowels a, o, u, au, ever assume a sheet of ground glass (E) is fitted; below is the camera (M), with the Umlaut.

[Blei-er-co)n] } leaden.



[ocr errors]


Solden, made of gold.

en, Nom. Die Leibnige , the Leibnitzes.' Die Schlegel, the Schlegels.


ern, Gen. Der Leibniße, of the Leib- Der Schlegel, of the Schlegels. nitzes.


Tugendhaft, inclined to virtue ; virtaous.

Meisterhaft, Dat. Den Leibnißen, to the Leib- Den Schlegeln, to the Schlegels.

resembling a master; masterly. nitzes.

Blumig, full of flowers; abounding in flowers.

Blumicht, Acc. Dicleibniße, the Leibnitzes. Die Schlegel, the Schlegels.

flowery, that is, like flowers. Waldig,

woody, that is, abounding in woods. Nom. Die luisen, the Louisas. Die Aanen, the Annes.

Salzicht, saltish; somewhat like salt. Gen. Der Luisen, of the Louisas. Der Annen, of the Annes.

Brüderlich, brotherly, or like a brother. Dat. Den kuisen, to the Louisas. Den Annen, to the Annes.

Kräntlich, sickly.

tid, Acc. Die Suisen, the Louisas. Die Annen, the Annes.

Süßlich, sweetish, somewhat sweet.

Beweglich, movable. § 22.-PROPER NAMES OF COUNTRIES, CITIES, ETC.

Irbisch, earthly; belonging to earth. (1.) Proper names of places admit of no changes of formir,

Poetisch, poetical for the purposes of declension, beyond the mere addition of s

Säntisch. quarrelsome.

inclined to work; diligent. to the genitive singular; as Berlin, Berlin; gen. Berlins, of

Arbeitsam, Berlin.


inclined to follow (orders), that is, ober

dient. (2.) If, however, the word end in a sound not easily admitting an & after it, the case is distinguished by placing before it a

isch is the ending commonly added to names of places pointnoun preceded by the article; or it is expressed by the prep. ing to things belonging to them; as:–Englisch, schwedish (s 5 []), von; as :-Die Stadt Mainz, the city Mayence. Die Ginwohner von etc. If, however, a name be a town, the suffix er is used in place Paris, the inhabitants of Paris.

of isch; as, das Merseburger Bier, the Merseburg beer. $ 23.-OBSERVATIONS.

$ 27.-DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. (1.) When several proper names belonging to the same per

(1.) Whether an adjective is to be inflected at all or not, do. son, and not preceded by the article, come together, the last one pends wholly upon the way in which it is used ; for, when em. only is declined; as :-Johann Christoph Adelungs Sprachlehre, John ployed as a predicate, it is never declined ;* when as an Christopher Adelung's grammar; if, however, the article pre- attribute, almost always. Be the noun, therefore, masculine, cede, none of them undergo change; as :-Die Werke des Johann feminine, or neuter; be it singular or plural; if the adjective to Gottlob Herber, the works of John Gottlob Herder.

which it is applied be used as a predicate (Sect. IX. Note), its (2.) When a common and a proper name of the same person, form remains unchanged ; thus:preceded by the article, concur, the common noun alone is in Der Mann ist gut, the man is good. fleeted; as :-Der Tod bed König Ludwig, the death of King Die Frau ist gut, the woman is good. Louis ; if no article precede, the proper noun is declined; as, Das Kind ist gut, the child is good. König fudwig: Lob, King Louis' death.

Die Männer sind gut, the men are good. (3.) When a Christian name is separated from a family name Ich nenne die Kinder schön, I call the children beautiful. by a preposition (specially von), the Christian name only admits

$ 28.-DECLINABLE ADJECTIVES. of declension; as :-Die Gedichte Friedrichs vor Schiller, the poems of Frederick of Schiller; if, however, the genitive precede the

(1.) There are two declensions of adjectives, as there are two governing noun, the family name only takes the sign of declen- declensions of nouns—the Old and the New. In either of these, sion; as :-Friedrich von Schilleưs Werte, Frederick of Schiller's according to circumstances, are attributive adjectives declined. works.

The following are the terminations of $ 21.- ADJECTIVES.

THE OLD DECLENSION. (1.) Adjectives are, in German, generally so varied in termi


Plural. nation, as to indicate thereby the gender, number, and case of the words with which they are joined. Before treating of their

Nom. -er, inflection, however, we shall present and explain those significant

Gen. -es, en, -er, -es, en suffixes which are most commonly employed in forming adjec

Dat, -em, tives from other words.

Acc. -en, (2.) Here, as was done in the case of derivative nouns (S$ 10, Adjectives ending in el, en, er, commonly drop the e upon T11), cach suffix is given with its corresponding English equiva- ceiving a suffix; as :lent, its meaning explained, and its use further illustrated by a

Gtel, noble.

Edler Mann, noble man. series of examples.

Oben, even.


Lauter, pure.

Lautres Gold, pure gold.

Upon adding en, the e of the termination (en) may be dropped; EQUIVALENTS.

as :-Den heitern, or heitren Morgen, the serene morning. bar, [able, ible, ile] implies ability ; sometimes disposition. In the genitive singular masculine and neuter the termination en,

\ points to something made of that ex en is preferable. ern, pressed by the radical.

§ 29.-RULE FOR ADJECTIVES. haft, [ive, ish]

denotes tendency or inclination; also When the adjective stands either entirely alone before its resemblance.

substantive, or is preceded and restricted by a word that is unig, [y, ful]

represents a thing as being full of that declined or indeclinable, it follows the Old form of declension

denoted by the radical. icht,

[g, os, ish]

denotes similarity of nature or cha-


Plural. lid, [ly, ish, able]

implies likeness or sameness either of

manner or degree; also ability. Nom. Guter Vater, good father. Gute Väter, good fathers, isch, [ish, some, al]

represents something as pertaining or Gen. Gutes (en) Vaters, of good Buter Väter, of good fathers. belonging to.

father. fam, [some, able] expresses inclination; sometimes ability. Dat. Gutem Vater, to good Guten Vätern, to good fathers,

father. $ 26.-EXAMPLES.

Acc. Guten Vater, good father. Gute Säter, good fathers. SUFFIXES.

Dienstbar, serviceable, tributary.

• The letters er in this word are simply euphonie; while the sof that can be seen ; visible.

the suffix en is dropped, also, for euphony ($ 2. [8]).






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bar, Sichtbar


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