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01 ALCOHOLS. ES
FORMULA AS C.H. +20. Nom. Gute Mutter, good mother. Gute Mütter, good mothers. Gen. Guter Mutter, of good Guter Mütter, of good mothers. mother.
Methylic Alcohol, or Wood Spirit CH,O Dat. Guter Mutter, to good Guten Müttern, to good mothers. mother.
Ethylic Alcohol, or Spirits of Wine' C,H,O
•}o. Ace. Gute Mutter, good mother. Gute Mütter, good mothers,
Tritylic or Propylic
н Tetrylic or Butylic
etc. Nom. Gutes Gelb, good money. Gute Gelder, good moneys. Fusel Oil ór Amylio
CHO. Gen. Gutes (en) Geldes, of good Guter Gelder, of good moneys. Hexylic or Caproic
C.; 0. money.
CH, 0. Dat. Øutem Gelde, to good Guten Gelden, to good moneys.
Octylic or Caprylic
C.,,.o. Acc. Gutes Gelb, good money. Gute Gelder, good moneys.
Ethal or Cetylic
The relation which the various derivations from alcohol bear EXERCISE 147 (Vol. III., page 91).
to each other is indicated in this table :1. Wollen Sie mir gefälligst eine Tasse Kaffe oder Thee geben? 2. Seit gestern habe ich mich nicht ganz wohl gefühlt. 3. Seitdem er sein Hydrocarbon
Ether. elterliches Haus verlassen hat, haben wir nichts von ihm gehört. 4. Seit
Compound Aldehyd. Acid.
Radical. meinem zwölften Jahre habe ich mein Vaterland nicht besucht. 5. Seitdem er die Nachricht erhielt, hat er feine Ruhe gehabt. 6. Damit mein Freund
Ethyl. nicht vergebens fomme, werde ich zu Hause bleiben. 7. Ich habe meinen
Ethylic. Ethylic. Acetic. Acetic, Acetic Ether Freund nicht gesehen, seitdem er von Deutschland angelangt ist. 8. Anstatt C,H, C,,
0. CH; | HH, Trine Stiefel anzuziehen, ging er in den Pantoffeln aus. 9. Sagen Sie
H gefälligst Ihrem Freunde, er fönne uns zu jeder Zeit besuchen. 10. Warum benußt er seine Jugend nicht, um die Rentnisse zu erwerben, die er gebraucht.
WOOD SPIRIT, METHYLIC ALCOHOL (CH,O). 11. Wie haben Sie sich befunden, seitdem ich Sie zuleßt fah? 12. Been SPECIFIC GRAVITY AT 0°= 0.8179; BOILING POINT, 650:5. dige Deine Aufgabe, wenn du sie noch nicht beendigt hast, dann wirst du von
This spirit is one of the products of the destructive distilladeinem Lehrer nicht bestraft werden.
tion of wood. It has never been procured by any process of fermentation: hence the derivation of the word from uéou (noine) is
an error. Berthelot obtained it artificially, by acting on marsh LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXXII. gas with chlorine, thus forming CH,C1, and by treating this ALCOHOL AND ITS DERIVATIONS.
with potash the following reaction took place
CH,Cl + KHO = CHỊ0 + KCl. Both from their chemical interest and commercial value the alcohols form a prominent group. The word was originally When wood is heated in closed iron retorts charcoal remains, applied to that spirit which is the product of the fermentation and tar, mixed with water containing acetic acid and wood of sugar. But further researches extended the limits of this spirits, passes over into the condenser. When this is again definition, and alcohols are now described by Miller to be distilled from chalk, the “wood naphtha” of commerce is the “ neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which result, which is a mixture of methylic alcohol, methyl acetate, react directly upon the acids in such a manner that water is and certain oily hydrocarbons. This liquid is chiefly used for eliminated, whilst ethers are produced.”
mixing with spirits of wine, to form " methylated spirit,” which They are grouped under three heads-monatomic, diatomic, contains 10 per cent. of wood naphtha, and is permitted by and triatomic alcohols ; that is, alcohols which are formed on Government to be sold free of duty, as a solvent for certain
H) gums, resins, etc., which form varnishes, French polish, etc. the type of one, two, or three molecules of water ; thus 0.
ні To procure wood spirit from wood naphtha an equal volume of
concentrated solution of potash is added, and the mixture is If one atom of the H be replaced by ethyl (C.H.), thus ethyl alcohol, or spirits of wine, is the result. If both atoms of acetate is decomposed, forming potassio acetate and wood spirit.
The surface of the liquid is skimmed to remove any oily matters the H be replaced, we have common ether, 01:0. C,H, which rice. Potassic carbonate is now added, so long as it is plays the part which a monatomic element did in Inorganic dissolved, and the liquid arranges itself into two strata ; the Chemistry, and for this reason is termed a monatomic radical. upper, containing the spirit, is decanted. Calcic chloride is now • The only example of a diatomic radical as yet known is added, with which the spirit forms a compound which is not
decomposed at 100° : hence the mixture is distilled in a waterethylene (C.H.). If this replace H, in its type ; 0,, we bath, by which means everything is driven off save the alcohol, C
and H, series, or ethylene oxide, will be
wine; being soluble in all proportions in water, the mixture has
a less volume than the sum of the volumes of its components. CH:}0., or 2(C,H,0), or C.8.0.
It burns with a non-luminous blue flame into carbonic anhydride An instance of a triad alcohol is furnished by glycerine, and water, furnishing an admirable fuel for the chemist, as the
flame is smokeless and hot. whose composition is founded on the type
Thus When wood spirit is partially oxidised by means of spongy
platinum, formic acid is produced ; thusCH:0, is glycerine.
CH,0 + 0, = CH10, + HO. Monatomic alcohols may be represented by the general formula ALCOHOL, ETHYLIC OR VINIC ALCOHOL, OR SPIRITS OF CyH2n+20. By the following table it will be seen that the
WINE (C,H,O). series is as yet incomplete; further research may supply the SPECIFIC GRAVITY AT 0o = 0.815; BOILING POINT, 78.3o. wanting members :
This substance, which is a product of the fermentation of
grape sugar, is the stimulant in all intoxicating drinks. From For the form of the adjective substantively employed after nichts all such liquors it may be separated by distillation. It invarior etwas, see Sect. XIV. 4.
ably carries with it some essential oil of the plant which has
have “H; } 0,, blycol
, or ethylene alcohol. The other of the distilling. It has many properties in common with spirits of
Propyl Alcohol (CH }).— When the distillation of French
yielded the sugar for the fermentation. There are also acci. dental circumstances which cause the alcohol to possess a characteristic flavour. For example, whiskey is spirit distilled brandy is about to end, the temperature being at 96°, this from malt wort, and owes its flavour to the fact that the malt alcohol comes off. It forms compounds which resemble the is dried over a peat fire. The flavour of gin is produced by ethyl group. When it is oxidised, propionic acid is formed. adding juniper berries to the liquid in process of distillation. Brandy is truly “spirits of wine," being obtained from wines,
(C*}) is found among the last products and coloured more or less with burnt sugar. Rum comes from of the distillation of spirits from beetroot molasses. molasses. Peppermint carries with it the essential oil of the plant. Commercial "spirits of wine" is a mixture of absolute
}0) derives its name from amylum alcohol and 10 per cent. of water. This is the strongest spirit (starch), since it is procured from fermented potatoes. It has which can be got by simple distillation. To obtain from this a peculiar offensive odour, and is frequently an impurity in spirit absolute or anhydrous alcohol, any spirit is rectified from brandy derived from this source. It oxidises into valerio acid. charcoal, which retains the essential oils which give its charac Cetyl Alcohol is a white solid which is present in spermaceti. teristic flavour. Half its weight of quick-lime is now added, Melissylic Alcohol is also a solid contained in bees'-war. and in two or three days it falls to powder, being slaked at the expense of the water in the spirit. Another distillation of this
ETHER (;!;}o). Boiling point, 35°. gives absolute alcohol. Proof spirit is defined by law as containing 49-24 per cent. of
When two volumes of strong spirits of wine are mixed with alcohol. It took its appellation from the process of testing it, three of sulphuric acid, strong chemical action ensues : which was by moistening gunpowder with the spirit, and then igniting it. If the powder fired, the spirit was said to be "over
R}so, + }o = H}so, + 1" proof;" if, on the other hand, it contained sufficient water to represents the change which takes place. A molecule of ethyl prevent its combustion, it was under proof.” The presence of takes the place of an atom of H in the sulphuric acid, thus alcohol in a liquid may be made apparent by saturating it with forming hydric-ethyl-sulphate, or potassic carbonate. This salt is not soluble in alcohol, whereas it Sulphovinic Acid.--This acid reacts on a second molecule of is readily soluble in water: hence, the alcohol rises to the surface. alcohol, thusIf the vapour of alcohol be passed through red-hot tubes, it is
H decomposed, yielding various products, according to the tempera
CH, ture; at a bright red heat, carbon is deposited and hydrogen
C,H, н escapes. At a lower temperature naphthaline appears;
and, at producing ether and sulphuric acid. Hence no sulphuric acid a still lower heat, olefiant, marsh, and carbonic oxide gases, alcohol is added to the retort, which is kept at a temperature of
is removed during the etherification, but a constant supply of acetylene, and water are produced. Alcohol burns thus
140°. A mixture of ether and water condenses in the receiver.
To procure the ether perfectly pure it must be distilled again
from sodio hydrate, or even metallic sodium, by which the Aldehyde.-Alcohol readily oxidises, even in the presence of water and alcohol will be retained. Ether is a very mobile water, forming aldehyde (c.81,0); that is, two atoms of H are
liquid, emitting the well-known ethereal odour; at 0°, its specific burnt by the oxygen. The process does not rest here. Another gravity is 0-736. It dissolves in 14 times its volume of water. atom of oxygen is assimilated, forming acetic acid (C,H,02). If an insufficient quantity of water be present, ether containing This will account for the "souring " of beer, and the production about sits volume of water appears as a supernatant stratam of vinegar.
(Williamson). Its vapour is 2 times heavier than the air, and Wines are the fermented juice of the grape. Their various therefore can, like carbonic anhydride, bo ponred from one vessel flavours depend upon the grapes from which they are expressed, to another. Owing to its rapidity of evaporation when poured on of which there are more than 500 kinds.
the hand, it produces great cold. The other alcohols produce The colour of the wine does not depend on that of the grape,
corresponding ethers. but is produced by allowing the skins of the fruit to remain in
A large number of ethers of a compound structure can be the must during fermentation, when the alcohol dissolves the made by replacement, such as colouring matter of the skin, and communicates to the 'wine
Methyl-ethyl ether, 1;}. the tint. "Fruity" and "dry" wines depend upon the point at which fermentation is checked. If all the sugar be transformed
Methyl-amyl ether, into alcohol, carbonic anhydride, and water, a "dry” wine is
C,HS the result; but if not, a "fruity "wine is produced. If the wine
Ethyl-butyl other, be "bottled” before the fermentation is completed, an effer. vescing wine is secured. The alterations which wines undergo, For the numerous compounds produced by replacing these if kept for a length of time, appear to be due to the gradual hydro-carbon radicals by inorganic elements, and other organic deposition of potassic tartrate (KH,C,H,0.), which is rendered radicals, a larger work must be consulted, as any attempt to more insoluble as rich wines gradually continue to furnish more notice them in our limited space can only lead to inevitable alcohol from a further fermentation of their sugar. This salt confusion. also carries down with it some of the colouring matter, and Ether was much valued for its anæsthetic properties, but has thus lightens the wine. This precipitate forms the crust in been altogether superseded by chloroform, which does not leave ports. As this slow process is going on, certain fragrant ethers such objectionable after effects. are also produced, which give the wine its “ bouquet."
Chloroform (CHCl,) is obtained by distillation from a mixture The quantity of alcohol in different beverages is given in this of water, spirits of wine, and bleaching powder. table :
The fact that Organic Chemistry is "the chemistry of com: Port 15 per cent. Claret.
.8 per cent,
pound radicals,” is even more clearly illustrated by a series of Madeira 14.5 Ale.
compounds formed on the ammonia type. Sherry Porter
Hitherto we have only noticed the replacement of H in the The characteristic fragrance of all wines is due to the presence water type by the radicals of the group of aloohols given abore
. of a minute quantity of ænanthic ether.
If we cause the ethyl molecule to replace successively one, two, or Alcohol acts on acids by replacing their H by a molecule of
CH, C.Hg, thus
three atoms of the H in HN, or ammonia, we have HN, H
H) 0 + HCl H 1}0 + 0,4,,ca;
c.,) “H} 0 + HNO, - H} 0 + 0.4.NO,
ethylamine; CH N, diethylamine; and CA, N, or triH
CH Ethylic chloride and nitrate are the results of the actions ; a ethylamine. further reaction will be noticed in the production of ether. These compound ammonias may be formed by the action of
CH;}0, etc. etc.
caustic alkalies on cyanates of the alcohol radicals. Similar to try and escape through the enemy's lines to Athens. After compounds may be produced with methyl, propyl, phosphorus, laying their plans with consummate skill, they carried them into arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, which also form compounds with execution as follows:Η
THUCYDIDES, III. 22. three atoms of hydrogen, as HP, phosphoretted hydrogen. Η
Οι δ', επειδή παρεσκεύαστο αυτοϊς, τηρήσαντες νύκτα χειμερινον The carbon radicals are capable of replacing the H in these ύδατι και ανέμων και άμα ασεληνον εξήεσαν ηγούντο δε οίπερ C,H,
και της πείρας αίτιοι ήσαν. και πρώτον μεν την τάφρον διέβησαν compounds. Thus CH P is tri-ethyl phosphine ; CH AS και περιείχεν αυτούς, έπειτα προσέμιξαν τα τείχει των πολεμίων CH)
λαθόντες τους φύλακας, ανά το σκοτεινον μεν ου προϊδόντων is tri-methyl arsine.
αυτών, ψόφο δε τω εκ του προσιέναι αυτούς αντιπαταγούντος του From these facts the student will_gain some idea of the wide ανέμου ου κατακουσάντων: άμα δε και διέχοντες πολύ και ήεσαν, limits of Organic Chemistry. Had any of these compounds όπως τα όπλα μή κρουόμενα προς άλληλα αίσθησιν παρέχοι. played any prominent part either in commerce or the process of ήσαν δε ευσταλείς τε τη οπλίσει και τον αριστερον πόδα μόνον organic life, we should have noted them; but, beyond the possi- υποδεδεμένοι ασφαλείας ένεκα της προς τον πηλόν. κατά ούν bility of their existence, little is known of them.
μεταπύργιον προσέμισγον προς τας επάλξεις, ειδότες ότι έρημοι εισι, πρώτον μεν οι τας κλίμακας φέροντες και προσέθεσαν· έπειτα
ψιλοι δώδεκα ξυν ξιφιδίω και θώρακι ανέβαινον, ών ηγείτο 'Αμμέας READINGS IN GREEK. –VI.
και Κοροίβου και πρώτος ανέβη, μετά δε αυτόν οι επόμενοι εξ εφ'
εκάτερον των πύργων ανέβαινον έπειτα ψιλοί άλλοι μετά τούτους THUCYDIDES.
ξύν δορατίοις έχώρουν, οίς έτεροι κατόπιν τας ασπίδας έφερον, όπως «THUCYDIDES, the Athenian, compiled the history of the war πολεμίοις είησαν. ώς δε άνω πλείους εγένοντο, ήσθοντο οι εκ
εκείνοι δαον προσβαίνoιεν, και έμελλον δώσειν 8 οπότε προς τους between the Peloponnesians and Athenians”-these are the των πύργων φύλακες κατέβαλε γάρ τις των Πλαταιών αντιλαμwords with which the great Greek historian commences his im- βανόμενος από των επάλξεων κεραμίδα, και πεσούσα δούπον εποίησε. mortal work, the most magnificent piece of history extant, as it is the first trustworthy record of Grecian afairs. The war in και αυτίκα βοή ήν, το δε στρατόπεδον επί το τείχος ώρμησεν ου question is that tedious struggle for supremacy between the και άμα οι εν τη πόλει των Πλαταιών υπολελειμμένοι εξελθόντες
γάρ ήδει και τι ήν το δεινόν σκοτεινής νυκτός και χειμώνος όντος, two leading nations of Greece called the Peloponnesian war, which lasted from B.C. 431 to B.C. 404. Thucydides was himself προσέβαλον τα τείχει των Πελοποννησίων έκ τούμπαλιν και οι a witness of much that he describes, and during the course of | έχοιεν. εθορυβούντο μεν ούν 10 κατά χώραν μένοντες, βοηθείν δε
άνδρες αυτών υπερέβαινον, όπως ήκιστα προς αυτούς τον νούν the war held an important military command. Singularly enough, ουδείς ετόλμα εκ της εαυτών φυλακής, αλλ' εν απόρω ήσαν εικάσαι it is owing to his failure in this capacity that we may be το γιγνόμενον. και οι τριακόσιοι αυτών, οίς ετέτακτο παραβοηθείν said to oπo his history, for, being sent with a feet to the relief of et τι δέοι, έχώρουν
έξω του τείχους προς την βοήν. φρυκτοίί τε the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which was besieged by the Peloponnesians under Brasidas, he had the misfortune to igs ήροντοές τάς Θήβας πολέμιοι παρανίσχoν δε και οι εκ της πόλεως his opportunity; the city fell, and the Athenians in consequence | μένους ες αυτό τούτο, όπως ασαφή 13 τα σημεία της φρυκτωρίας τους
Πλαταιής από του τείχους φρυκτους πολλούς πρότερον παρεσκευασsent him into exile. He remained in this banishment for πολεμίοις ή και μή βοηθοίεν, άλλο τι νομίσαντες το γιγνόμενον επenty years, nor did he return to Athens until after the termi- είναι και το ον, πριν σφών οι άνδρες οι εξιόντες διαφύγοιεν και του nation of the war. Of this time, much was probably spent by him in Thrace, where he is known to have had estates; but he also
NOTES. took the opportunity of visiting many parts of Greece, hostile as well as neutral states. “However much," says Mr. Grote, 1. Aurois, dat. of the agent. After they had made their preparations. the greatest of modern Greek historians, "we may deplore such 2. Λαθόντες, λανίng escaped the sentinels' notice. 1 misfortune on his account, mankind in general has, and ever 3. 'Ava TÒ OKotervòv, through the darkness, or rather, amid the darkness. will have,
the strongest reason to rejoice at it. The oppor- Avrūv refers to the sentinels. tunities which an exile enjoyed of personally consulting
4. Ου κατακουσάντων, genitive absolute agreeing with αυτων, αnd not neutrals and enemies contributed much to form that impartial, hearing them, as the noise of the wind drowned tho clatter of their approach. comprehensive spirit which reigns generally through his im. Yopce, dat., is governed by apre in avtıxata YOūto:, the wind roaring in mortal work.”
opposition to the noise. Αυτούς goes with προσιέναι, and the joint phrase The history of Thucydides is divided into eight books. Of is used as a substantive; èK TOī apogiévai aurois being equivalent to èx these the last is in a somewhat imperfect state, and was pro
του προσόδου αυτών.
5. Διέχοντες πολύ, keeping side apart. bably given to the world after the author's death, and never
6. 'Ασφαλείας ένεκα, The left was shod to provent its slipping in the enjoyed the advantage of his revision. It contains none of mud-(1) as being the weakest; (2) because he who is going to strike the speeches which are such a distinctive feature in the other with his right arm wants a firm purchase for his left foot. parts of the work. These speeches the historian does not
7. Μεταπύργιον is the space in the enemy's wall between two of the profess to have been delivered in the form in which he gives towers (Méta-túpyos) that were erected at regular intervals upon it. them, but they rather represent what he believes, judging from
8. Δώσειν, to give them into their hand. his intimate knowledge of the speakers and the occasions on 9. 'Ex Tourav, on the side opposite to that on which their comrades were which they were uttered, might have been the sentiments ex- climbing. pressed.
Many of them are very fine specimens of oratory, 10. 'Edopußoüvto uėv ow, they caught the alarm, it is true, and remained in and appear to have been very carefully elaborated. The style their stations. of Thucydides is throughout elevated and stately, his informa- 11. Φρυκτοι-πολέμιοι, δεαcons were raised by the enemy to give the alarm tion is clear and precise, and his descriptions remarkably at Thebes. minute and vivid. In the narrative the student will find but 12. Παρανίσχoν, held up to counteract them. little difficulty, when he has once mastered the technical terms of 13. 'Acapă. The object was to confuse the friends of the besiegers by warfare to which the writer faithfully adheres; but the speeches raising a duplicate signal. are, as a rule, very difficult, the sentences being peculiarly long
14. ή-βοηθοίεν. The reason for this change of mood appears to be and involved, while occasionally the impetuosity of the speaker that the first is intended to express the immediate, the second suggests seems to override the bounds of strict grammatical regularity.
the more remote consequence. The language is pure Attic Greek, which, at the time of Thucy- The following extract is a part of the funeral speech delivered dides, had reached its most perfect form. The following is an by Pericles, the greatest of Athenian statesmen, over the bodies account of a remarkable episode in the war. The little town of of those who had fallen in the service of their country in the Platxa, on the confines of Bæotia, one of the firmest allies of war of the previous year. The passage may be thus paraAthens, was besieged by the Thebans, who were always their phrased :-Athens, as a nation, is the school of Greece, and her bitterest foes. Failing to take the town by assault, they citizens are more accomplished than those of any other country. blockaded it, raising walls of circumvallation, which effectually This is not an idle boast, but is a fact which experience proves. enclosed the besieged. After enduring the misery of this Every land feels the greatness of her powers, and the best blockade for some months, a number of the besieged determined evidence of this is found in the fear or the gratitude of the rest
of mankind; and for such a country it is meet that her sons και την επιχείρησιν εφ' εαυτώ τε ενόμιζεν είναι οπόταν βούληται, should die.
των νεών άμεινον πλεουσών, και τότε καλλίστης γίγνεσθαι. ώς THUCYDIDES, II. 41.
δε τό τε πνεύμα κατηει8 και αι νήες εν ολίγω? ήδη ούσαι υπ' Ξυνελών τε λέγω τήν τε πάσαν πόλιν της Ελλάδος παίδευσιν αμφοτέρων, του τε ανέμου των τε πλοίων άμα προσκειμένων, είναι και καθ' έκαστον δοκείν άν μοι τον αυτόν άνδρα παρ' ημών? | εταράσσοντο, και ναύς τε νη) προσέπιπτε και τους κοντούς διωθούντο,10 επί πλείστ' άν είδη και μετά χαρίτων μάλιστ' αν ευτραπέλως βοή τε χρώμενοι και προς αλλήλους αντιφυλακή τε και λοιδορία το σώμα αυταρκες και παρέχεσθαι. και ώς oύ λόγων εν τώ παρόντι ουδέν κατήκουον ούτε των παραγγελλομένων ούτε των κελευστών 11 κόμπος τάδε μάλλον και έργων έστιν αλήθεια, αυτή η δύναμις της και τας κώπας αδύνατοι όντες εν κλυδωνία αναφέρειν άνθρωποι πόλεως, ήν άπό τώνδε των τρόπων έκτησάμεθα, σημαίνει, μόνη | άπειροι 18 τους κυβερνήταις απειθεστέρας 11 τάς ναύς παρείχον, τότε γάρ των νυν ακοής κρείσσων ές πειραν έρχεται και μόνη ούτε δή 14 κατά τον καιρόν τούτον σημαίνει, και οι Αθηναίοι προσπεσόντες τω πολεμίω επελθόντι αγανάκτησιν έχει υφ' οίων10 κακοπαθεί, ούτε πρώτον μεν καταδύoυσι των στρατηγίδων νεών μίαν, έπειτα δε και τω υπηκόω κατάμεμψιν ως ουχ υπ' αξίων άρχεται μετά μεγάλων πάσας ή χωρήσειαν διέφθειρον, και κατέστησαν ες αλκήν μεν δε σημείων και ου δη τοι αμάρτυρόν γε την δύναμιν παρασχό- μηδένα τρέπεσθαι αυτών υπό της ταραχής, φεύγειν δ' ες Πάτρα: μενοι τοίς τε νύν και τους έπειτα θαυμασθησόμεθα, και ουδέν και Δύμην της Αχαΐας. προσδεόμενοι ούτε Ομήρου επαινέτου 12 ούτε όστις έπεσι μεν το
NOTES. αυτίκα τέρψει, των δε έργων 13 την υπόνοιαν η αλήθεια βλάψει,
1. Κατά μίαν ναύν, η single file. αλλά πάσαν μέν θάλασσας και γήν έσβατόν14 τη ημετέρα τόλμη | served in the translation : kept sailing round and contracting them.
2. Περιέπλεον-ξυνήγον. The force of the imperfect should be p. καταναγκάσαντες γενέσθαι, πανταχού δε μνημεία κακών τε κάγαθών αΐδια ξυγκατοικίσαντες, περί τοιαύτης ουν πόλεως οίδε
3. 'Ev Xpø, lit, on or close to the skin. Sailing past so as to share or gras
them. τε γενναίως δικαιούντες 15 μή αφαιρεθήναι αυτήν μαχόμενοι έτε 4. Aóknaiv, etc., giving the impression that they would come to blows a: λεύτησαν, και των λειπομένων 16 πάντα τινά εικός εθέλειν υπέρ αυτής κάμνειν.
5. Aúrós, himself, with his own lips.
6. "Οπερ (πνεύμα) αναμένων. Ιη ευρεctation of chich he kept sailing τοεπε, 1. Evveluv, compendiously-in a word, to sum up.
and which (supply otep in non, as subject to cic0eu) usually happen. 2. Παρ' ημών, from amongst us.
towards morning. 3. Επί πλείστ' άν είδη-παρέχεσθαι. The three αν’s in this sentence go 7. 'EP' davrợ, was in his own hands. Tóte-i,o, the favourable moment with rapézeatas, adding to it the notion of probability: would be likely when the breeze would aid him. to offer his person to the state for the most various kinds of action.
8. Κατήει, oame αοιση upon them. 4. Μετά χαρίτων, gracefully. Εύτραπέλως signifies the power of easily 9. 'Ex dicun
, etc., when they were now confined in a narrow space by the turning (eú Tpénw) one's faculties to different pursuits. Arnold trans- ships on each side of them. lates it with the happiest versatility.
10. Alwboūvto (observe the middle voice), kept pushing off each other. 5. Αύταρκες, eficiently, 80 as to be of service.
11. Κελευστών. It was the business of the κελευστής to make the 6. Ού-μάλλον ή. Translate, not so much-as.
rowers keep time by singing to them. This, in the confusion, was nov 7. Των νυν-i.e., πόλεων, of states at the present day.
inaudible, and the rowers consequently became unsteady. 8. 'Axons Kpeisowy, better than it is said to be. 'Akon is used to signify 12. 'Απειροι, unskilled in seamanship. The fighting men on board ship famo or rumour-what you hear said of a man; so, &Koúet kakus is to be consisted of ordinary land soldiers. ill spoken of, and male andire in Latin has the same meaning. So Milton, 13. 'Απειθεστέρας, made the ships less capable of being managed 17 “Paradise Lost," bk. iii., line 7
the steersmen, “Or hear'st thou rather pure ethereal stream?"
14. Tóre dm. The reader will notice the length of the previous sentence which means, Or dost thou rather choose to be called pure ethereal as a good example of the manner of Thucydides. The description of the stream?
situation is piled up bit by bit, and then this sentence comes in with sur9. 'Αγανάκτησιν έχει (έχει for παρέχει, offers or occasions), occasions no | prising force of contrast. indignation to an invading enemy-ie., does not cause him to feel indig. nation.
TRANSLATION OF EXTRACT II. IN LAST READING. 10. 'Yooiwv, at any evils he suffers. The form of the sentence is con Come now, and let us begin the chorus, since it hath seemed good to densed from υπ' εκείνων οία κακοπαθεϊ. The relative is said to be | unfold our strain of vengeance, and to tell how our company disattracted into the case of the antecedent.
tributes the lots among mankind, and we believe that our justice is 11. Ου δη τοι αμάρτυρόν, by no means unsupported by facts.
unerring. To the man who holds forth his hands unstained no wrath 12. “Ομήρου επαινέτου, α panegyrist like Ηomer. of the value of a from us accrues, and all unharmed he passes his life. But whoever, poet's praise, Horace speaks when he says (Odes, iv. 25)- .
being a transgressor like this man, conceals his murder-stained hands "Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona
he finds us sure to visit him as avengers of blood coming to the aid of Multi : sed omnes illacri mabiles
the dead with unerring testimony. Hear me, O Night! Hear me, Urgentur ignotique longa
mother mine, who barest me to the dead and living alike an avenger! Nocte, carent quia vate sacro."
Hear me, for Latona's son puts me to shame by robbing me of this 13. Tūv de čpywv, while the truth of the facts will damage the reputation trembling one, my own peculiar victim to avenge a mother's murder! they bear. He means that too often the poet's flowery descriptions are And over the consecrated victim comes this strain delirious, disoverthrown by a knowledge of the actual facts which he relates.
tracting, disturbing the brain -a hymn from the Furies, binding the 14. 'Εσβατόν, open to our daring.
soul in chains, not sung to the lyre, a blight to men. 15. Δικαιούντες, etc., claiming not to lose her. 16. Λειπομένων. The survivors who are still left to fight her battles.
LESSONS IN ASTRONOMY.–VII. Our extracts from Thucydides would not be complete without one of his vivid accounts of a battle. The following is part of
DIP OF THE HORIZON-EFFECTS OF THE ATMOSPHEREthe story of one of the most famous naval engagements in the
REFRACTION—TWILIGHT-GREAT AND SMALL CIRCLES course of the war, in which Phormio, the Athenian admiral, up
EQUINOCTIAL ECLIPTIC — DECLINATION - RIGHT ASCENheld the supremacy of his country upon the sea. The Lacedæmonian fleet was cruising round the opening of the Gulf of The "dip of the horizon" is a phrase which we sometimes meet Corinth, when Phormio came down upon them ; on perceiving with, and in nautical observations an allowance has frequently him they at once arranged their ships in a circle, with the prows to be made for it; we must therefore explain what is meant by outward, “like the spokes of a wheel,” and awaited his attack. the expression.
Let BCE (Fig. 8) represent the earth, and a the situation of THUCYDIDES, II. 84.
an observer above its surface. The circle BCD will represent Οι δε Αθηναίοι κατά μίαν ναών! τεταγμένοι περιέπλεον2 | the sensible horizon, that is, the rays drawn from the point A αυτούς κύκλω και ξυνήγον ές ολίγον, έν χρώ3 αεί παραπλέοντες will touch the surface of the earth in a series of points which και δόκησιν παρέχοντες αυτίκα εμβαλείν προείρητο δ' αυτούς υπό are situated on this line. Now as we have already seen, the Φορμίωνος μη επιχειρείν πριν αν αυτός5 σημήνη. ήλπιζε γάρ more elevated the point A is, the larger will the circlo BC αυτών ου μενεϊν την τάξιν, ώσπερ εν γή πεζών, αλλά ξυμπεσείσθαι become; but at the same time the angle contained by the lines προς αλλήλας τας ναύς και τα πλοία ταραχήν παρέξειν, ει τ'AC, AB will become less, so that although a larger extent of the και ειώθει γίγνεσθαι επί την έω, ουδένα χρόνον ησυχάσεις αυτούς | simplest illustration of this is afforded by means of a pair of
compasses, and any globular body-as, for instance, a cannon
In our figure we only drew two layers of air, but in reality ball, or a common round bottle. If we open the compasses the density diminishes very gradually, so that there are an so that the points just touch opposite sides of the body, infinite number; the only difference, however, that this causes, we shall find that the angle contained between the legs is to make the ray curve evenly instead of by a series of bends. is but small, while a considerable portion of the surface is The amount of refraction when the object is situated near the included between the place touched by them. Now press the horizon is about 33', or rather more than the apparent diameter hinge nearer and nearer, and it will be seen that the angle of the sun, so that its lower edge just appears to touch the becomes larger and larger, while at the same time the space horizon when in reality its upper edge is entirely below it. included becomes less. When the hinge nearly touches, the two Another effect of refraction is somewhat to distort the form of limbs will be almost in a straight line.
the sun or moon when they are rising or setting. In this posiIf now we imagine the hinge to represent the position of the tion they will frequently appear elliptical in form, as if they observer and the limbs the visual rays, we shall understand were a little flattened. The real cause of this is the rapid rate that when the observer is at all elevated above the earth's sur at which refraction increases as we approach the horizon. The face, the sensible horizon appears depressed below him, and this lower portion of the sun's disc is, accordingly, more elevated in angle of depression is called the dip of the horizon. Thus, in this way than the upper side, and thus the vertical diameter the figure, if FG be the horizontal line passing through the point appears less than it otherwise would. The lateral diameter is, A, as determined by a level, then the angle Fac or G A B (for of course, quite unaffected by this cause. The increased size of they are equal) will be the dip.
the sun or moon when near the horizon does not arise from the The globe we inhabit is completely surrounded by a layer of effects of refraction. It is merely an illusion arising from the invisible gases known as the air or atmosphere. We live, in fact that we see these bodies by the side of terrestrial objects, and fact, at the bottom of an aërial ocean, the depth of which is thus compare their sizes with known objects. If we measure supposed to be about forty-five or fifty miles; it diminishes, carefully their apparent diameters, we shall find they are just however, very rapidly in density as we ascend. The physical the same as when higher up in the sky. properties of this envelope have already been referred to in the We have not yet referred to the effect of refraction which is Lessons on Pneumatics (Vol. III., p. 302): we need not, there of the greatest importance to us in our every-day life, namely, fore, inquire generally into them here; we must, however, refer its influence in producing twilight. As we have seen, the sun to the influence of the air on our observations. At many times, is visible for a short time after it is in reality below the horizon, especially in our changeable climate, the amount of moisture in but after it has disappeared many of its rays continue for a the air is so great that it is almost impossible to employ a considerable period to reach us. They cannot, of course, come powerful telescope. The higher powers of Lord Rosse's large direct to us, being prevented by the curvature of the earth; but instrument can, on this account, only be used at rare intervals, they pass through the upper layers of the air, and in so doing sometimes only for a few times in the course of the year. The get bent and reflected so as to reach the earth, and thus, for main effect, however, which we must speak of, is that known as some time after the sun has set, the whole sky is brilliantly refraction. If a ray of light in its course pass from any medium lighted. The floating particles of vapour in the atmosphere, into another differing from it in density, it becomes bent out of and, it may be, even the particles of the air itself, reflect many its original path. The simplest plan of showing this is to put of these rays, just as when a ray of sunlight shines through an a stick partly into a pond or a vessel of water, when it will aperture into a dusty room, the fragments of dust diffuse enough appear to be bent at the surface of the liquid, owing to the rays light feebly to illuminate the apartment. from the lower part being refracted as they leave the water. Were it not for this effect of the air, the sun would set, and
Now our atmosphere, though very rarefied when compared immediately the deepest darkness would overshadow and conwith bodies on the earth's surface, is much denser than the ceal everything, so that the period of sunset would be one of fluid which is supposed to pervade all space. The lower layers great danger. As it is, however, twilight continues until the of the air likewise are much denser than those more elevated, sun is 180 below the horizon, the light of day only gradually and hence the rays of light which reach our eyes from the stars giving way to the darkness of night, and thus we have the are more or less bent, so that we do not see these objects in the benefit of the sun's light for a much longer period than we places in which they really are. Now if we are to ascertain the should otherwise have. In our latitude, as a reference to the true position they occupy—and we must if we would calculate globe will show, the sun never descends 18° below the horizon their movements we must learn what the effect of refraction from the end of May to the middle of July, so that during all really is, and what allowance has to be made for it.
that period we have no real night; and in Arctic regions the Fig. 9 in the next page will make the matter more clear. Let twilight in some places lasts several weeks, so that it nicely the line ECT
represent a portion of the earth's surface, c being the relieves the monotony of the long dark night. The diffused position of the observer; the horizontal line u co touching the light of day is also owing to the air, and this adds in no small earth at this point will then represent his sensible horizon. degree to our comfort, causing the beautiful gradations of light Also let xD and U P represent the limits of successive layers of and shade in place of the dazzling light and black darkness the atmosphere, each being less dense than the one below it. which we should otherwise have.
s is the actual position of the sun or any bright star in the We must now master a few more terms and definitions which heavens, and we should at first suppose that it would be seen by we shall constantly be meeting with in the course of our study. a ray of light passing straight from c to s. This, however, is In order to mark out the positions of any places on a globe, it not the case; for as soon as this ray meets the atmosphere it is necessary for us to have some fixed points and lines to refer is bent downwards, and as it enters each successive stratum it them to. Thus, if we wanted to describe the exact position of is more and more deflected, so that it reaches the earth at a the point r in Fig. 10, and the only fixed lines we had to point situated some way to the right of c. The ray of light by refer to it were A B and CD at right angles to one another, we which the star is in reality seen, is one which, but for the air, could easily fix its place by drawing the lines FG and Ph perwould pass on to L. It is, however, refracted at A to the direc pendicular to a B and CD. We should then say its distance tion An, and again at B into the direction BC, each of these above A B was equal to FG, and its distance to the right of CD refractions bringing it more nearly into the vertical direction. was equal to Fi or G E, and by these distances we could at any
Now we always imagine an object to lie in the direction in time fix again on the exact spot. Or we might join F E, and which a ray from it reaches the eye. Hence, if we now prolong then we could fix the position of F, by giving the length of EF, CB, we shall find the apparent place of the star, s', differing and the angle F E G. considerably from its real place, s. We see thus that the effect Now if we attempt to draw a straight line on the surface of of refraction is to cause the heavenly bodies to appear more a globe, it will pass completely round it and form a circle. It elevated above the horizon than they really are.
is clear, then, that we must have some fixed circles on the earth The amount of alteration thus produced is greater when a or in the sky if we are to ascertain the
position of the various body is near the horizon, and diminishes as it ascends, till at heavenly bodies; and if we refer to an ordinary terrestrial globe the zenith, as at s", no effect at all is produced by it. All we shall find that there are several circles drawn upon it, but observations are accordingly, as far as praoticable, made when we shall also observe that these are of different sizes, the the star or planet has attained its greatest altitude, and this is, parallels of latitude near the poles, and the polar circles, being as has been explained, when it is on the meridian.
much smaller than those nearer the equator. These circles are