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BC.

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D

middle points of OB, oc, be joined, then will DEGF be a the cocoa-nut, driven before the gale from some distant shore, parallelogram. For by the last proposition, since E, G are the comes floating along in its dense, tough, boat-like case; and middle points of AC, CO, the sides of the triangle ACO, EG is as the breakers dash in on the newly-formed strand, it is cast parallel to A 0; and since D, F are the middle points of the sides high and dry amongst the very elements best suited to its

A B, BO of the triangle A BO, there development and growth. Warmed by a tropical sun, the germ fore DF is parallel to Ao; but EG rapidly shoots forth. The fibres of the old husk help to shelter is parallel to A o, hence, by Euc. I. the new rootlets, until the young palm, in its pride of life and 30, EG is parallel to Dr. Again, vigour, shoots boldly up heavenwards, bears its crops of rich because D, E are the middle points and massive treasures, which, falling on virgin and fertile soil, of BA, A C, the sides of the triangle in their turn shoot up, fructify, and in turn die, to furnish BAC, therefore DE is parallel to vegetable elements to the earth by their decay. As the seasons BC; and because F, G are the middle pass on, and tropical storms sweep across islands and conpoints of the sides Bo, 0 C of the tinents, land birds, driven from their homes by stress of weather,

triangle BOC, therefore Fg is par take refuge in our cocoa-nut grove, and bring with them in

C rallel to BC, and D E is parallel to their crops the undigested seeds of the trees and plants indiFig. 42.

Therefore, by Euc. I. 30, DE genous to the land they have strayed from. These, falling to

is parallel to FG; hence, since the earth, grow, blossom, seed, and pass away, to be replaced by a opposite sides of the four-sided figure D E G F have been proved crowd of descendants. Other visitors, bird and insect, follow parallel, it is a parallelogram. Q. E. D.

in due course, until man, discovering the new land, claims it as PROPOSITION XLIII.-If in the last proposition H, K (Fig. 42) his own, rears his hut amongst the cocoa groves, and avails be the middle points of 0 A, B C respectively, the six-sided figure himself of the results of Nature's unerring handiwork. DFKG EH shall be equal to one-half the triangle A BC. For, Thus without labour, or the aid of the appliances of semiby Proposition XLI., since F, G, K are the middle points of the civilised life, savage man can find the means of subsistence sides of the triangle OBC, the triangles OFG, FGK are each prepared to his hand. The cocoa-nut palm, however, like most equal to one-fourth of the triangle o BC. Therefore the whole other valuable vegetable productions, has had a great deal of parallelogram O FKG is equal to one-half the triangle o sc; attention paid to its cultivation and management. Few trees similarly, the parallelogram O GRE H is equal to one-half the of this description thrive well at a greater height above the sea triangle o c A, and the parallelogram o H D F is equal to one than 600 feet. The range of the cocoa palm is very extensive, as half the triangle o A B; hence by addition the whole hexagon it is found in Africa, the East and West Indies, South America, DFKGEH is half the triangle

and throughout the countless clusters of islands which dot the ABC. Q. E. D.

southern seas. Little or nothing is known in this country of PROPOSITION XLIV.-If D

the different varieties of nuts produced in different regions; (Fig. 43) be the middle point of

but by the native cocoa-nut growers they are as well understood BC, the side of a triangle ABC,

'as distinctive differences between apples and pears grown in our and AD be joined, then, if DA

own gardens. In the island of Tahiti (in the Society group), the be equal to D B or DC, the angle

natives describe six kinds of cocoa-nuts, all of which are known at A is a right angle. For since

by some particular name. In the island of Ceylon four descripDA=D B, therefore, by Euc. 1. 5,

Fig. 43.

tions of nuts are found, each kind possessing some peculiar and angle DAB equals angle DBA;

well-marked quality. The tembili, for example, is an extremely again, since DA=DC, angle D Ac equals angle DCA, therefore, attractive, rich-looking nut; it is of oval form, and of a by addition, angles D A B and DAC are together equal to angles warm orange tint. Great numbers of tembili trees are usually DB A and D CA. But angles D A B and DAC make up whole angle cultivated by Buddhist priests in the vicinity of their temples, BAC; hence angle Bac is equal to the two angles A BO and in order that a number of acceptable offerings to place at ACB. But the three angles together are equal to the right the disposal of the charitably disposed traveller may be always angles (Enc. I. 32), hence BAC, the half of the whole, is equal | at hand when wanted. There are several sub-varieties of the to one right angle. Q. E, D.

tembili. Then there is the edible-skinned cocoa-nut, or namasi; With this proposition we conclude our "Exercises in Euclid." this is of brighter colour than that just described, and is re

markable for the peculiar character of its husk. When the RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.

outer skin is removed, the inner rind quickly changes to a light

red colour, when it is eaten without further preparation. This THE COCOA-NUT PALM.

nut is slightly heart-shaped. Another description is remarkable It would be difficult to find amongst the legion of priceless gifts for its smallness and round form ; whilst the most common is with which Nature has enriched the human race, one more mar- the ordinary commercial cocoa-nut. vellous in its range of usefulness than the cocoa-nut palm (Cocos Most of our readers who are in the habit of visiting museums nucifera). Not only are its numerous products capable of being or collections of curiosities, will not have failed to observe utilised in an almost endless number of ways, but the tree itself specimens of a large, dark-coloured and double-shelled cocoamay be viewed in the light of a pioneer amongst vegetable pro- nat; the two cavities or bodies being held together by a sort ductions, by whose aid the first links of the great chain of plant- of band, much as the Siamese Twins are united, only that in the life amongst the newly-formed islands of the southern and case of the nuts the union consists merely of shell, instead of eastern seas are established. In order to see how this great vital tissues. The origin of these double or sea cocoa-nuts, as work is accomplished, we must first direct our attention to they have been called, long remained enveloped in a cloud of one of the so-called reef-ponds of the South Seas. The irregular dense obscurity, and all that was known of them was, that ring of coral reef that encircles the central mirror-like pool in after the prevalence of certain winds, they were to be found all but one narrow space which affords access to the interior, has stranded on the coasts of the Maldive Islands, and that fortubeen formed by the coral insect, which is always at work, rear- nate mariners sometimes discovered them floating on the waves ing his structures directly upwards until the surface is gained. far at sea. Such nuts as reached the shore were considered the But the action of the waves often breaks down part of his work, sacred property of royalty, and any attempt at concealment and the broken fragments of tide and tempest help to fill up the on the part of the discoverer was punished by immediate death. cavities between the surrounding rocks, and bring the general Extraordinary virtues were in early days attributed to these mass nearer the true sea-level. Shingle, sand, dead and empty double nuts. Their contents were considered unfailing antidotes shells, and sea-weed all help in filling up the deep rock pools, to the most virulent poisons, whilst the fast-waning powers of and form lurking-places for crustaceans who feed on the dead the aged were supposed to be completely restored by a medicine and stranded fish, whose bones, with the cast-off carapaces of prepared from the sea-nut. The value attached in past times the crabs, and the thorn-covered crust of echini, gradually but to this production appears in these enlightened days perfectly certainly tend to fill up and make the rugged surface level. fabulous. We are informed that the Emperor Rudolph II., Sea-fowl, wearied by their long and devious fights, now take when in treaty for one of these much-coveted rarities, caused their rest on the newly-formed deposits, and add recent guano, 4,000 florins

to be offered, but that sum being considered by the feathers, and dead birds to the increasing store. At length vendors insufficient, it was refused. We find another instance

in which 2400 was mainly offered for a specimen; and a third, shoots upwards and the head increases in altitude. This con

bere negotiations served at a more satisfactory termination by dition of matters is taken advantage of by the cocoa-nat growers, a merchant shup registed and stored complete," being offered. as we shall see as we proceed, and it is not these alone who Lansare and superstation waleng hand in hand, as they are avail themselves of the uneven, rasp-like nature of the palm 2 ay sumi > is, agents of the widest character were not trunk as a means by which the treasure of the crown may be waong » aut ani mystery site history of the potent reached. duzoie aus viesprad bezet ing pretailed that far down If the reader will accompany us on a ramble through a wild

szeri se je ses : besten ges green groves of en- cocoa-nut grove situated on one of the coral islands we have SANTOS .ms nei miei sway from the vision of any diver endeavoured to describe, we will show him piles of riven cocoaIhree munges » Attempt = ei tiem; and that amongst nut husks, broken shells, tufts of tangled coir or cocoa fibre

, use usus DNS puitis insed by day, but congregated and numerous deep subterranean burrows beneath the roots of a zgnes rst me ani. were they made victims of such the trees. The fragments of husk, shell, and fibre we have wants smi sa sinur way. To these submarine seen are the results of the depredations of the ou ou, or great sus was actritei se power of luring ill-fated barks cocos-nut crab, the Birgus latro of naturalists, and the holes in win a my sa munce, when the hapless mariners the earth are its dwelling-places. The annexed illustration re*** :ans 2 mai siups were instantly devoured. Baeked presents one of these robber crabs. We are not of opinion that, 29 ruese v orgons and royal prerogative, it is not as some observers have stated, the crab possesses the power

of ascending trees but slightly ont of the perpendicular; we rather incline to the belief that the

fruit of trees groFmis supposite

ing at a consider able angle, and that

naturally falling to was ered to be

the earth, constitute the principal food supply of the crab. The immensely

powerful and heavy We read that

nippers possessed by this creature en

able him to rend usof duen pounded

asunder the tough

envelope of the enboy athugs red

cased nut with the verdual, and some

greatest ease. The

husk being torn and was able of Tec Puty Gurguit age

slit open, the nut is laid bare; this the

crab attacks by per on the shell is ku ish reputa

forating one of the

three round marks the roliglona

found on the end of kuse en almi

every nut. These

are devoid of shell, A nation till

and are easily wevadia that there

broken throngh and infance

converted into one ocifice by a series of heavy and well

directed blows THE COCOA-NUT CRAB (Birgus latro).

which des fcame the receta over the most

trously delivered by lucah maid a form of truth lie hidden in this Old World use of his large nippers as a hammer, and when the shell gives

the crab, who makes fum non conub wholle would be still at a premium. way, inserts his narrow-pointed or extracting nippers, and pro

e entirely cleared away the mist which so long ceeds to feast on the dainty, won by cunning and strength of Murer Mia angin of the interesting production, which is claw. Such cocoa fibre as may be formed during the process of

Mwing to the Boychello Islands, is now known to na- nut opening, the Birgus latro carries carefully away to his den, y del Hoychellarum, and has been on minute cards it up, and lays it aside, to be used as a shelter or nest in fund ta contain no virtues whatever to recom- when the period of shell-shifting and seclusion arrives; and it is

and then ponowned by any other member of the most curious that as this period approaches a natural reservoir Vamily Wa votum, then, to the common cocoa-nut of placed beneath the tail gradually fills with clear, limpid oil, to

MA #, when growing in favourable localities, and the extent of a quart or more in large specimens. "This oil Influence of the won brooze, reaching an altitude of serves by absorption to supply the waste of the tissues during i dulity foot trubio farure to find a stem measuring a species of hybernation which takes place during the formation diameter at the base of the tree.

of the new shell, just as the fatty deposits laid up in the representing palms of this description tissues of the bear during his autumn feastings on ripe fruits

** W rave indood that one can be found and honey, enable him, like a lamp slowly burning, to support www eldevably from the perpendicular. the feeble flame of life until spring and plenty come again to

imaginable angle of inclination may be earth and him. The cocoa-nut crab, although a denizen of the Googknut palms trade and other pre- grove, pays occasional visits to the sea, near which his infant Jilonging these line of droop or direction. progeny are brought to light. He performs some rather odd

and Mod tinture of the bark, which pre- freaks on these sea-side excursions, but a consideration of them,

nult of the trunk, depends on the pro- together with a further history of the cocoa-nut and Cocos-nut of the old and matured fronds, as the tree consumers, must be reserved for our next paper.

[graphic]

are

OF

THE

H

H' stars.

M

B

ASTRONOMY.–VIII.

to recede from it. In about 12,000 years the brilliant star Vega,

in the constellation of the Lyre, will be very close to the pole, PRECESSION EQUINOXES-NUTATION-SOLSTITIAL

and serve as pole-star. POINTS-COLURES LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE - ALT

A strange circumstance has been discovered in connection AZIMUTH INSTRUMENT—PROBLEMS WITH THE GLOBES.

with this change in the position of the pole-star. Nearly 4,000 If we look to the celestial globe we shall find that, though the years ago the star Etanin, the third in magnitude in the conmark y signifying the commencement of the sign Aries is placed stellation Draco, was very near the pole. About this period at the intersection of the equinoctial and the ecliptic, yet the many of the pyramids of Egypt were built, and it is found that portion of the zodiac commencing at that sign is in reality several of these have openings on their north sides inclined at occupied by the constellation Pisces. The stars forming Aries an angle of about 26° to the horizon. These passages are all are moved 30° to the east, occupying the place assigned to directed towards the meridian, and their inclination is such that Taurus, and, in the same way, Taurus and all

an observer standing at the bottom of any the other zodiacal constellations are moved

z

one of them would have been able to see tho one sign to the east.

pole-star at the time of its crossing the meriThe reason of this is the precession of the

dian below the pole. This corroborates tho equinoxes, which has already been referred to

calculations of astronomers, and at the same as having been discovered by Hipparchus.

time confirms the idea that the ancients were The points of intersection of the equator and

attentive observers of the motions of the ecliptic, or, as they are frequently termed, the nodes, do not remain constantly in the

Fig. 11 represents the position of the globo same place, but are slowly moving towards

to an observer in the latitude of London, the the west, that is, in a retrograde direction.

angle at which the axis ns is inclined to the This was first observed by noticing that

horizon H ' being just 511°; z is the zenith, the right ascension of all stars was slowly

and n' the nadir. The great circle AGBI and uniformly increasing : this could only

represents the equator, and EGDI, inclined be accounted for in one of two ways---either

Fig. 11.

to it at an angle of 234°, the ecliptic, g and they must all be slowly moving for

I being the nodes; G is sometimes wards, or the point from which we

called the ascending node, as at this measure their right ascensions must

point the sun passes north of the be moving backwards. The latter of

equator, and I is the descending node. these explanations, being by far the

There are also two other points E most simple, has been adopted. The

and p in the ecliptic specially distinrate of this motion is but slow, so

guished, and known as the solstitial that its effect on the position of the

points. These are situated midway 'stars from year to year can only be

between the nodes, and are at the ascertained by the most careful and

commencement of the signs of Cancer delicate observations. When, however,

and Capricornus. The term solstitial we compare the position of a star with

Fig. 12.

Fig. 13.

is derived from sol, the sun, and stare, that assigned to it by observers a few

to stand, and is applied to these points centuries ago, we soon become con

because when the sun reaches them it scious of the change. The most care

has attained its greatest north or ful observations fix the annual amount

south declination, and appears to stand of this motion at 50:2", so that the

Fig. 14.

still for a few days before commenctime occupied by the nodes in making

ing to retrace its steps. Two great a complete circuit of the heavens

circles are drawn on the celestial globe would be a little more than 25,800

passing through the poles, the one, years. By reckoning back it is found

NGSI, passing likewise through the that the constellations and the signs

equinoctial points, and the other, of the zodiac corresponded with one

NESD, through the solstitial points, another about the year 370 B.C.

and these are known as the equinocThe explanation of this phenomenon re

tial and solstitial colures. They divide the quires a higher degree of mathematics than

ecliptic into four equal portions, and mark could be introduced into these lessons. We

the divisions of the seasons of the year. On may, however, state generally that it arises

most globes there is on the wooden horizon a from the accumulation of matter at the earth's

circle in which the days of the month are equator. On account of this the sun and

marked, so that by it the sun's actual place moon exert a more powerful attraction on

in the ecliptic can be found for any day of that part of the earth than on the poles, and

the year, and by reference to this we shall thus the position of the axis is slightly ΑΙ

find that the days on which the sun is at the altered and the changes spoken of are pro

solstices are the 21st of June and the 21st of duced.

December, and these are respectively the In addition to this motion of the pole,

longest and shortest days. there is another of much smaller amount,

Two small circles, CD and E F, parallel to which is known as nutation, or the nod.

the equinoctial, and passing through the sol. ding of the pole. It arises from the fact that the earth’s dis- , stitial points, are known as the Tropics, that to the north being tance from the sun varies at different times of the year, and distinguished as the Tropic of Cancer, while the southern one is thus the amount of precession varies slightly from day to day. called the Tropic of Capricorn. These are, however, of more The effect of this variation is to cause the pole to describe in importance in the use of the terrestrial globe than in that of the course of about eighteen and a half years a very small the celestial. There are also two circles, K L and mo, situated ellipse, the longer axis being about 18}" and the shorter nearly at a similar distance from the poles, which mark the limits of 14". This motion, combined with the other, produces a slightly the polar regions, from which the sun is sometimes hidden for wavy or undulating movement of the pole ; it is only, however, more than a complete day. These are known as the Arctic and in very accurate observations that this has to be considered. Antarctic circles. The shading in Fig. 12 represents the extent

One important effect of the precession of the equinoxes is to of the earth's surface which is illuminated when the sun has change the position of the pole-star. That at present known by attained its greatest south declination, at which time, as will ha this name is distant about 14° from the true pole; its distance seen, the Antarctic circle is completely illuminated, w" is, however, gradually diminishing, so that in the course of sun is altogether hidden from the Arctic. Fears it will be within half a degree, and it will then commence The most usual way of describing the position of an VOL. IV.

104

[graphic]
[graphic]

the heavens is by giving its declination and right ascension, as the globe from the outside, while we gaze on the vault of described in our last lesson, the distances being reckoned from heaven from a point within it, and thus the relative positions the equinoctial. Sometimes, however, these distances are mea of the stars are reversed. If, however, we take an ordinary sured from the ecliptic, and are then called the latitude and pencil with a flat end, and place it on the star's place on the longitude. Parallels of latitude are frequently drawn on the globe, so that its head may be directed backwards to the centre celestial globe to enable the latitude to be found without diffi- of the globe, the pencil will point to the star, and thus it may, culty; the pole of the ecliptic is, of course, the centre of these after a little practice, be found without difficulty. circles. Longitude, like right ascension, is reckoned from the Now we have already learnt that at the equator the pole-star point Aries, and, like it, is reckoned only in one direction, from appears to be in the horizon, and as we recede from it this star 0° to 360°. Terrestrial longitude, on the other hand, is reckoned increases in altitude; the first thing, then, which we have to from 0° to 180°, east or west.

do is to elevate the pole above the horizon as many degrees 28 In Fig. 13, if I represents the place of any heavenly body, are equal to the latitude of the place at which we are. We will and o be the point or in the ecliptic, then the number of degrees suppose that London is the place of observation, and, as its in the aro I will give its latitude, and the number in o R will latitude is 51%, we will elevate the pole this amount above the give its longitude.

north point of the horizon. We next find the position of the Another way in which the position of a star may be described sun in the ecliptic on the day by referring to the wooden is by giving its altitude and azimuth ; as, however, these vary horizon of the globe. Let us suppose the time of observation greatly from hour to hour, the exact time must be given like is eleven o'clock in the evening of the 3rd of June. We first wise, and then they afford an easy way of ascertaining its posi- find June 3rd on the horizon, and opposite to it we shall find tion in the heavens, without reference to a globe or to any other the 13th degree in Gemini. Now refer to the ecliptic, and, stars. It is also easier for the amateur to note these measure having found this place on it, bring it to the brass meridian, ments than to describe the position in either of the other ways and adjust the brass circle round the pole, called the hour mentioned.

circle, so that XII. on that shall be under the meridian. The To determine the altitude, a great circle of the heavens is globe then represents the position of the heavens at noon on supposed to pass through the star and also through the zenith, the day, but it is constantly turning towards the west, and we or part of the sky vertically over head, and the nadir, which is must, therefore, turn it westward till the hour circle shows that diametrically opposite to the zenith, and is the part of the eleven hours have been passed over, and the hour XI, comes heavens directly under our feet. We then measure the arc of under the meridian. Fixing the globe in this position we now this circle contained between the horizon and the star, and this place it in the open air, so that the north pole points to the is its elevation above the horizon, or, as it is called, its altitude. north or to the pole-star, and we have it then accurately It is, in fact, the angle contained between lines drawn from the representing the visible sky. observer to the star, and to the point of the horizon directly When the globe has been set thus, we fix the quadrant of under it.

altitude to the brass meridian, exactly in the zenith. As one Having measured this, we must then ascertain the distance side of the brass meridian is graduated towards the pole, and of the point where this circle cuts the horizon from the north the other from it, this is easily done by fixing it at the degree or south points, and this distance is called its azimuth. As which marks the latitude, that is, at 511, and by bringing the will easily be understood, to an observer at the poles the graduated edge of it to any star we can at once read off the altitude of a star will exactly correspond with its declination, altitude; the point, too, where it cuts the horizon will show its and remain unaltered, while the azimuth will be continually azimuth. Thus, with the globe in this position, we will find the changing, as it is reckoned from a point of the earth, and not altitude and azimuth of the bright star Regulus in the constelfrom a fixed point in the sky. At the equator, the azimuth lation Leo. On bringing the quadrant of altitude against its remains the same, but at all other places both vary constantly. centre, we find its elevation above the horizon to be about 1239

A telescope may easily be mounted so as to indicate at once This, therefore, is its altitude at the hour named, a trifling the altitude and azimuth of any star, and an instrument of this allowance being made for refraction, the extent of which for kind will be found very useful. In actual practice a great each degree of elevation is shown in refraction tables. On many modifications and additions are made, but the form of referring now to the inner circle of the wooden horizon, we mounting sketched in Fig. 14 will serve well to explain the con shall find that the degree of it indicated by the quadrant is 84° struction, and guide the student should he resolve on making west of the north point ; this, then, is its azimuth, and its place such an instrument for himself. The base consists of a flat is fully known when we say that at eleven o'clock in the circle of wood, and is fitted with levels and levelling screws, 80 evening of the 3rd of June its altitude is 121°, and its azimuth that it may be placed perfectly horizontal. This circle is accu-840 west of north. rately divided into degrees, reckoning each way from the north We will give one more problem of the same kind. On the and south points, and in use must be adjusted so that these 15th of November, at half-past seven in the evening, a bright points are due north and south.

star is observed at London, whose altitude is about 17}, and The telescope, with its stand, is fixed to another circle, which its azimuth is 85° east of north ; find the star. On referring, turns on the lower one, and has marked on it a line exactly as before, to the globe, we shall learn that the star is Aldebaran, corresponding with the direction of the tube. A microscope, A, situated in the head of Taurus, or the Bull, and in close placed at the extremity of this, serves to read off the azimuth. proximity to the V-shaped cluster of the Hyades. This the

A similarly graduated circle is attached to the tube of the student should verify for himself by reference to the globe. telescope, so as to turn vertically with it. The divisions on this Occasionally, the polar distance of a star is given, that is, are so placed that, when the tube is perfectly horizontal, a the arc contained between it and the pole. A moment's thought, second microscope placed at B shall read 0°, and thus when the however, shows that this is merely the complement of the tube is pointed to any star, and clamped in that position, its declination, or the amount required to make it up to 90°. Ina altitude and azimuth can at once be ascertained. A telescope similar way, the amplitude of any object is the complement of thus mounted is called an alt-azimuth instrument.

its azimuth, or its distance from the east and west points of the As the sky appears to be in constant rotation, it will easily horizon. It is only applied to the sun or a star when rising or be seen that these measures are continually altering ; by setting, and signifies the arc of the horizon included between noticing, however, the

exact time of observation, we shall be their position at that time and the east or west points. At the able to assign the place of the star on the globe.

period of the equinoxes the sun rises dae east and sets dne To do this we must first bring the globe into such a position, West; in the winter months, however, he rises some distance to as exactly to represent the appearance of the sky at that par- the south of the east point, and sets a similar distance to the ticular time. This is a problem of very easy solution, but south of the west; while in the summer, when he has north attention should be paid to it, as it will very freqnently prove a declination,

he rises and sets to the north of these

points. The great help to the student to place the globe in this position exact position of its rising and setting on any given day care when he is endeavouring to become familiar with

the constella- very easily be found. We have only to elevate the pole of the tions. If the globe is correctly adjusted, and placed so that globe to the latitude of the place, and

then, having found the its brass meridian points exactly north and south, any desired sun's place in the ecliptic, turn the globe slowly round, and

or can easily be found. The only difficulty is that we look at note where this point cuts the eastern horizon in rising and the

cence

western in setting. Thus, for example, it is required to find at In-sie-me con lui, together with him. what points of the horizon the sun will rise and set at Madras In-sie-me con un ál-tro, together with another. on the 1st of January. Having elevated the pole 13° 10' above I'-o in-sie-me con mi-o pá-dre, I together with my father.* the horizon (that being the latitude of Madras), we find the It is obvious that it is not allowed to translate with by con sun's place on the given day to be 10° in Capricornus, and, whenever this preposition does not represent any of the abovebringing this point successively to each side of the horizon, we stated meanings for example, I am satisfied with him, só-no find it rises 24° south of the east, and sets a similar distance con-tên-to di lui; I am delighted or greatly pleased with you, south of the west. These measurements are chiefly employed mi ral-le-gro di voi. In these cases, to translate with by con in testing the accuracy of the compass.

would completely alter the sense. Só-no con-tên-to con lui, and The magnetic needle, though commonly said to point due mi ral-le-gro con lui (di qual-che -sa), would mean, I am north, does not in reality do so, as may be easily seen by com- satisfied along with him (i.e., as well as he), and I am delighted paring the direction as shown by it with that of the pole-star, or greatly pleased along with you (i.e., as well as you = I conThis deviation of the compass from its true bearing is called gratulate you on something). the variation of the compass, and is found to vary from year to

Con, with a noun following, frequently supplies the place of year; it is likewise different in different parts of the world at adverbial expressions. For example :-Con pru-dén-za, with the same time.

prudence; con ci-vil-td, with politeness; con so-brie-tà, with About the year 1660 the variation was zero, the needle then sobriety; con su-per-bia, with haughtiness, etc.: for pru-den-tepointing due north; previous to this it had pointed east of the mén-te, prudently; ci-vil-mén-te, politely; so-bria-mén-te, north, but since that time it has pointed west of it. The soberly; su-per-ba-men-te, haughtily, etc. variation then gradually increased till in 1818 it had attained a Con, before an infinitive, which in this case occupies the place maximum of 243°; since then it has been diminishing, and at of a real noun, is quite an idiom, and will be best translated by the present time it points about 21° west of the north point. the prepositions by, through, by the conjunctions while, when, A line is usually drawn on a compass-card at the right angle for as, and particularly and, or by the present participle of the the year in which it is made, and when the needle is parallel English verb. For example :with this the compass-card indicates the correct bearings.

Collan-dd-re a spás-so non si può ar-ric-chi-re, by taking walks (i.e., We append a few problems for the student to solve by the aid of the globe.

by idling) one cannot get rich.

E'-gli si scu-sò con di-re ... he excused himself by saying, saying, 1. Find the declination and right ascension of the stars Vega in and said, while he said Lyra, and Arcturus in Bootes.

E-gli fé-ce te-sta-men-to con fár-mi e-ré-de di tút-to il sú-o, he made 2. Give the latitude and longitude of Aldebaran in Taurus, and Sirius his will, and constituted (or constituting) me heir of all his in Canis Major.

property. 3. What star has 32° N. decl, and 111° R.A. ?

VOCABULARY, 4. Find the altitude and azimuth of the star Rogulus in Leo, as seen Andar, to go, going, Magnificenza, magnifi- | Salve, m, salva, L., at Paris at 8 P.x. on the 3rd of February. 5. In a place situated in 45° N, latitude, a star is observed at 9.30

pace, walk, course.

(con

ogni safe, secure, saved, P.M. on the 25th of October; its altitude is found to be about 349 N.,

Botione, button.

magnificenza, most unhurt. and its azimuth 56° E. of N. Find the star.

Coda, tail.

magnificently or Se, himself, him. 6. What is the sun's amplitude in London on the 24th of June ?

Colore, colour.

superbly).

Sembiante, visage, face, Colpo, blow, knock, Me, me.

conntenance, apshot. Meco, with me.t

pearance, air, as

Con sua buona grazia, Mi disse, he told me. pect.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-XIX.

with your kind per Non s' accordano, do Si netta, he wipes bim-
mission.
not match.

self clean,
THE PREPOSITION CON.

Egli lo prese, he took Occhio, eye (guardar Studio, study, ditWHEN the preposition with denotes company, society, union, it.

uno colla coda dell' gence, care (con community, connection, or when it denotes the instrument or Favorite, please.

occhio, to look at istudio or a studio, means by which something is effected, it coincides with the use Fazzoletto, handker one from the corner on purpose, intenof con in Italian. In the former case, the ords together with,

chief, pocket-hand of one's eyes, gene tionally).
kerchief.

rally from con- Stupore, astonishment, besides, to, or similar ones, and in the latter, the words by

Forza, power, strength, tempt, also from surprise, means of, by agency of, by dint of, by, through, are frequently

force (con ogni forza, suspicion or envy, ment. equivalents of with, and are translated by con. For example : or con tutta la forza, to look askance or Te, thee. An-dú-re col fra-tel-lo, to go with the brother.

with all one's might, cast a suspicious Temperare, to mix, Si as-so-ciò con un mer-cán-te, he entered into partnership with a

with might and

dilute. glance at one, to

main, by main look at one with an Tempo, time (coll' andar merchant. És-se-re, stárre con u-no, to be with one, to belong to one ; i.e., to

force).
evil eye).

del tempo or col one's family, company, etc.

Fu ucciso, he was Ogni, each, every, all. tempo, in time, in

killed. Con chi stá-te voi 7 with whom are you? (i.c., in whose service are

Parlando, speaking time to come, here. you ? or, with whom are you on a visit ? or, with whom do you

Garbo, good grace,

after). (con rispetto par.

pleasing stay and take dinner? etc.)

lando, with respect). Turbato, disturbed, Vén-go con voi, I come with you.

(bel garbo, address, Pistola, pistol.

alarmed, troubled. Com-but-te-re col ne-mi-co, to fight with the enemy.

skill).

Poco, little (poco garbo, Venia, f., remission,

want of good grace, forgiveness (salta Con-giú-gne-re un sog-get-to col sú-o pre-di-cá-to, to join a subject to Grazia, grace, charm, its predicate.

favour, kindness, unskilfulness, awk venia, with your

permission, grace wardness). Co-cer-ta-re i-na cổ- sa con tí-no, to concert a thing with one.

permission). fulness. Porta, carry.

Venir, to come. Pa-ra-go-na-re -na cổ-88 com mo al-tra, to compare one thing with

Guardar, to look, Rispetto, respect, re Via đi qua, away with, another.

Lanterna, lantern. Con qué-ste má-ni, with these hands.

gard, deference. Vino, wine. Con gran fa-ti-ca, with great pains.

EXERCISE 21.
Con fró-de ed in-gán-no, with fraud and deceit.
Con un col-tel-lo, with a knife.

1. Si nét-ta col faz-zo-lét-to. 2. Guar-dár col-la (con la) Con un scu-do gua-da-gnár-ne tre, with one crown or dollar to gain có-da dell' ôc-chio. 3. Tem-pe-rár il ví-no coll’á-cqua. 4. Fathree.

vo-ri-te di ve-nír con me (or mé-co). 5. Pôr-ta tó-co (con te) la La-vo-ra-re col-la Uma, col pen-nê-lo, col scar-pel-lo, to work with the file, with the pencil, with the chisel.

* It is also allowable to separate in-sié-me from con, and to place it Fé-re -na cô-8a con pia-cé-re, con do-16-te, con fa-ci-li-tà, con dif-fi- after the case governed by con. For example, con lui in-sié-me, together col-tà, con do-strés-za, con buon gár-bo, to do a thing with with him; mé-co (i.e., con me) in-sie-me, together with me. The adverb pleasure, with grief, with ease, with difficulty, with skill, with in-sie-me-men-te also means together with, but it is not so much in use good grace.

as in-sie-me con,

+ In the place of con me, with me; con te, with thee; and con se, The adverb in-siê-me, together, very frequently has the pre- with himself, herself, itself, themselves, meco, teco, and seco, are freposition con after it, and exactly coincides with the English quently used; and in elegant style con as a mere expletive, con meco, together with. For example :

con teco, con seco.

amaze

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