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from memory the Greek forms required, and assigning, also THE PARTICIPLE λελυκως, λελυκυια, λελυκος, Μανίκg loosed. from memory, the English significations.
λελυ-κως, λελυ-κυια, λελυ-κος. 1. Avwy. 2. Avreiy. 3. Aver. 4. AeAuka. 5. ERAUKEW. 6.
λελυ-κοτος, λελυ-κυιας, λελυ-κοτος. Λυσω. 7. Λυσοιτην. 8. Λυσοις. . 9. Avetw. 10. Avete. 11.
λελυ-κοτι, λελυ-κυια, λελυ-Κοτι. Elvov. 12. Avoel. 13. Avouev. 14. Elvetny. 15. Avoiju. 16. Acc.
λελυ-κοτα, λελυ-κυιαν, λελυ-κος. Evra. 17. A€Auke. 18. Elvoe. 19. Avoal. 20. Avoov. 21.
Dual. Λυσατων. . 22. Avoas. 23. A€Aukw. 24. AeAvkas. 25. Elev
Nom, and Acc. AENU-KOTE, λελυ-κυια, λελν-κοτε. 26. EAvoay. 27. A€Avkasi. 28. Avraite. 29. Avoys.
Gen. and Dat. λελυ-κοτoιν, λελυ-κυιαιν, 30. sepnyas. 31. Elites. 32. Altys. 33. Acrois. 34. ALTETU.
Plural. 35. Altwy. 36. lleonveval. 37. Entreprveis. 38. lednvoi. 39.
Nom. Λυσειε. 40. Λυσειαν.
λελυ-κοτες, λελυ-κυιαι, λελυ-κστα. Gen.
λελυ-κοτων, λελυ-κυιων, λελυ-κοτων. EXERCISE 75.ENGLISH-GREEK.
λελυ-κοσι, λελυ-κυιαις, λελυ-κοσι. 1. I have appeared. 2. Ye two left. 3. He might leave. 4.
λελυ-κοτας, λελυ-κυιας, λελυ-κοτα. Ye might leave. 5. They loose. 6. They may loose. 7. They If the formation of the present tense of Auw be compared with might loose. 8. Ye might have loosed. 9. Loose thou. 10. Let its Latin representative, solvo, their similarity will at once be them loose. 11. I have loosed. 12. Ye will loose. 13. They noticed. Solvo is the root of the English words solve, solution, may have loosed. 14. He might have loosed. 15. To loose. dis-solve, dis-solution, 16. To be about to loose. 17. Being about to loose. 18. Having
THE GREEK AUW AND THE LATIN solvo COMPARED. loosed. 19. He may loose. 20. They two had loosed. 21. Ye
PRESENT TENSE ACTIVE. two might loose. 22. Ye two may loose. 23. They have ap
Subjunctive Mood. peared. 24. Ye two have appeared. 25. He has appeared.
Latin, The student must also accustom himself to parse--that is, to sing. 1. Au-w, I loose; solv-o. Au-w, I may loose ; solv-8-m. assign or declare the several parts of the verbs (and of all
solv-a-s. words), as well as the grammatical relations they bear to other
3. Av-el, solv-i-t. Au-n,
solv-a-t. words. At present, however, we have to do with such exercises Plur. 1. Av-ouer, solv-i-mus. Au-w-yev,
solv-a-mus. as will best aid him to thoroughly master the conjugation of
solv-a-tis. the verb. In regard, then, to the active voice now set forth,
solv-a-nt. as well as to other parts to be hereafter given, he should write The occurrence of s as the constant sign of the second person down very carefully (and correct what he writes by the para- singular should be observed. This s is the origin of our s in the digm) the several parts of the Greek-English exercise, distin- second person singular, and is found in the French also--.g., guishing (1) the root, (2) the augment, (3) the tense-stem, (4) tu aimes (Latin, amas; English, thou lovest); tu aimeras (Latin, the tense, (5) the mood-vowel, (6) the tense-stem with the amabis). mood-vowel, (7) the person-ending, (8) the tense-stem, together with the mood-vowel and the person-ending. Take as an in
READINGS IN LATIN.-III. stance eBoulevrato, he took counsel. The word may be divided thus, e-Bov ev-r-Q-To. Of these elements, Bovlev is the root; e
SALLUST. is the augment; e combined with Boulev forms eBouleu-, whích CAIUS CRISPUS SALLUSTIUS, the Roman historian, vas born is the tense-stem of the imperfect indicative active; the o, the B.C. 86, and was a contemporary of Cæsar and the orator Cicero. tense-characteristic of the first aorist, and thus the stem of this At a comparatively early period of his life he began to take a part will be eBovlevo-; the a is the mood-vowel of the indica- prominent part in the political affairs of Rome, and filled several tive first aorist, giving us eBovlevoa-; finally, the to is the of the highest offices in the state; but having amassed a conperson-ending of the third person singular of an historic tense siderable fortune in the province of Numidia, whither he had of the middle voice, namely, eBovlevoa-To, being the third person been sent as governor, he retired from public life, and spent singular number first aorist middle voice, from Bovlevouar; the the remainder of his days in luxurious ease, dying B.C. 34. active form of which is βουλευω, and the chief parts are βουλευω, The works of Sallust which have come down to us are two Boulevow, BeBoulev-ka; for, in all instances, the root must be historical pieces, or monographs, as they are called—that is, given as found in the Lexicons, and the principal parts, as well narratives of a separate series of connected events--one on the as (1) the person, (2) the number, (3) the mood, (4) the tense, (5) conspiracy of Catiline, the other on the war with Jugurtha. the voice, of every verb and every form of every verb that is He is also said to have written a more complete contemporary met with
history of Rome, in five books, of which some extracts and The participles in the paradigm are-present, Avwv; future, detached sentences are all that remain to us. Avowv; second aorist, Aitw first aorist, Avoas; first perfect, Sallust is the first Roman author who appears to have paid AERUKWs ; second perfect, trepnuws. Of these, Auww, Avowv, and any very great attention to style in his writings. His diction is Airwv are declined like wv, which occurs in Lesson XXIV.; and by no means obscure ; but he delights in strong antitheses and The Nuws is declined like devkws. The forms of Avoas and short, nervous sentences, making a frequent use of the historical AeAukws will serve as a pattern for the rest.
infinitive in his descriptions. He appears also to have affected
ancient formations and methods of spelling. DECLENSION OF THE PARTICIPLE λυσας, λυσασα, λυσαν,
The “ Catilina,” from which our first extracts are taken, is an about loosing.
account of a conspiracy against the government of Rome by Singular.
Lucius Sergius Catilina, a profligate noble of broken fortunes,
who, supported by a body of followers in similar circumstances, Nom.
Au-oas, λυ-σασα, , λυ-σαν. discontented and turbulent like himself, hoped to recruit his Gen.
λυ-σαντος, λυ-σασης, λυ-σαντος. fortunes out of the general state of anarchy and disorder which Dat.
λυ-σαντι, λυ-σαση, λυ-σαντι. it was his object to create. The character of the man is Acc.
λυ-σαντα, λυ-σασαν, λυ-σαν. vigorously drawn by Sallust in the following lines :-
Lucius Catilina, nobili genere natus, fuit magnâ vi et animi Gen, and Dat. λυ-σαντοις, λυ-σασαιν, λυ-σαντοιν. et corporis, sed ingenio? malo pravoque, Huic ab adolescentia
bella intestina, 4 cædes, rapince, discordia civilis, grata fuere; Plural.
ibique juventutem suam exercuit. Corpug patiens inediæ, vigiNom.
λυ-σαντες, , λυ-σασαι, λυ-σαντα. liæ, supra quam cuiquam credibile est: animus audax, subdolne, Gen.
λυ-σαντων, Au-raowv, λυ-σαντων. . varius, cujus rei libet simulator ac dissimulator;& alieni appetens, Dat.
λυ-σασι, , λυ-σασαις, Au-raot. sui profusus; ardens in cupiditatibus satis eloquentise, sapienAec.
Av-cartas, λυ-σασας, λυ-σαντα. tiæ parum.9 Vastus 10 animus immoderata, incredibilia, nimis
alta semper cupiebat. Hunc post dominationem Lucii Sullæll circumstances under which a thing is done. Sometimes the preposi. lubido maximal invaserat reipublicæ capiendæ; neque id quibus tion cum is added.” (Madvig, Lat. Gr.) modis assequeretur, dum sibi regnum pararet, 13 quidquam pensi
5. Infestis, hostile. So opposing of Cæsar (Boll. Gall., vii, 51), habebat.'* Agitabatur magis magisque in dies animus ferox, “legiones infestis signis constiterunt."
6. Concurrunt-pila omittunt. inopia rei familiaris , 15 et conscientia scelerum; quæ utraque characteristic of the writer's style, and add force and vividness to the
The short, disjointed sentences are his artibus16 auxerat quas supra memoravi. Incitabant præterea
description, corrupti civitatis mores, quos pessima ac diversa inter sel7
7. Instare, the historical infinitive. Also a favourite construction mala luxuria atque avaritia, vexabant.
with Sallust, as noted above. A few lines below we find a number of
them. “The present infinitive is often used in the description of 1. Nobili genere, a distinguished family. Several members of the actions and emotions that follow in rapid succession." (Madvig.)
8. Illi, the other party; sc. the enemy. Of two things, ille always pens Sergia, to which Catiline belonged, had made themselves famous in
refers to the more remote. former years, and the family claimed descent from the Trojan hero,
9. Expeditis, literally unimpeded, disengaged ; and so light-armed troops. Sergestus, who was said to have come into Italy with Æneas. See Virg., Æn., v. 121: "Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen."
10. Contra ac, differently to what he had thought he would. Ac, or 2. Vi-ingenio, a descriptive ablative. "The ablative of a substan. atque, is found in the same way after secus, alius, etc. tive, combined with an adjective, is subjoined to a substantive (Cnti
11. Magna vi tendere, exerting himself vigorously. lina) by way of description, either immediately or with the verb esse [as
12. Cohortem prætoriam. The picked body-guard attached to the here), to denote the quality or character of a person or thing." general was so called. (Madvig, Lat. Gr.)
13. Alios alibi, some in one direction, some in another. 3. Pravo, crooked, distorted, as distinguished from malo, which means
14. In primis: either are among the first to fall, or fall fighting among bad in its essence.
the foremost. 4. Bella intestina, cædes, etc. The way these different substantives
15. Confertissimos, the part where the enemy's ranks-that is, the are thrown together without any connecting particles, is a charac army of the republic-were thickest. teristic of Sallust's style.
The “Jugurtha," from which our next extract is taken, is an 5. Ibique, and in them. Sc. iis rebus, the wars and broils just account of a war waged against a Numidian prince of that name, mentioned.
who had endeavoured by treachery to seize the possessions of 6. Corpus (supply fuit ei), he had a constitution, etc.
his kinsmen, to whom the Roman people had been appointed 7. Cujus rei libet; sc. cujuslibet rei. Sallust is fond of thus protectors. The extract describes an episode in the war, part separating the words. So Catil. lii., “ cujus rei cunque,” for "cujus- of an engagement between the troops commanded by Jugurtha cunque rei."
8. Simulator, dissimulator. Simulo is to pretend that a thing is and Bomilcar, and the Roman army under Metellus :what it is not; dissimulo, to pretend a thing is not what it is, so to
SALLUST.-“JUGURTHA,” lii. conceal. The difference between the two is given in this line"Quod non est simulas, dissimulasque quod es."
Eo modo inter se duo imperatores, summi viri certabant :
ipsi pares, ceterum opibusi disparibus. Nam Metello virtus 9. Satis-parum are both used as (lit.) substantives. Satis (fuit ei)
militum erat, locus adversus; Jugurtha alia omnia, præter eloquentia, he had a suficiency of eloquence, he was fairly eloquent.
milites opportuna. Denique Romani, ubi intelligunt neque sibi 10. Vastus, empty, desert, waste, and so monstrous, shocking. 11. Lucii Sallæ. Sulla, as supreme dictator, gained almost absolute perfugium esse, neque ab hoste copiam pugnandi fieri, et jam die3 power in Rome after the overthrow of his rival, Caius Marius, B.C. 82. vesper erat; adverso colle, sicuti præceptum fuerat, evadunt. 12. Maxima, more than any other man has felt.
Amisso loco, Numidæ fusi fugatique, pauci interiere ; plerosque 13. Dum pararet, so long as he was preparing.
velocitas et regio hostibus ignara tutata sunt. Interea Bomilcar, 14. Quidquam pensi habebat, did not care at all. Pensus, from quem elephantis et parti copiarum pedestrium præfectum ab pendo, to weigh, signifies prized, esteemed, valaed. Pensi is the geni. Jugurtha supra diximus, ubi eum Rutilius prætergressus est, tire of price; so in the "Jugurtha," chap. xli., “Neque pensi neque paullatim suos in æquum locum deducit; ac dum legatus ad sancti babere," to hold neither as esteemed nor holy.
flumen, quo præmissus erat, festinans pergit quietus, uti res 15. Inopia rei familiaris, want of property. 16. Artibus, sc. the evil courses he had taken to. The “bella,
postulabat, aciem exornat; nequere mittit, quod ubiques hostis cædes," etc., in which "juventutem suam exercuit."
ageret, explorare. Postquam Rutilium consedisse jam, et animo 17. Diversa inter se, contrary one to the other.
vacuum, accepit, simulque ex Jugurthæ prælio clamorem augeri ; The plot was fortunately discovered, mainly by the vigilance aciem, quam, diffidens virtuti militum, arcte statuerat, quo
veritus ne legatus, cognitâ re, laborantibus suis auxilios foret, of the orator Cicero, who was one of the consuls at the time. hostium itineri obficeret, latius porrigit. Catiline fled the city, and put himself at the head of an army
NOTES. he had raised. An army under Petreius was sent against him, and the final blow was dealt to the plot by the death of Cati
1. Opibus, either descriptive ablative, or an ablative absolute. lina in the battle described in the following extract:
2. Opportuna (ob portus), opposite the harbour, and so, convenient.
3. Die is the old form of the genitive diei, the evening of the day. SALLUST.-"CATILINA," lx. 4. Adverso colle, ablative of place.
5. Quod ubique. Supply hostis ageret with both of these. Sed abi, omnibus rebus exploratis, Petreius tuba signum dat, cohortes paullatim incedere jubet : idem facit
hostium exercitus, the enemy was doing, and where he was doing it.
6. Animo vacuum, freed from anxiety. Vacuum governing an Postquam eo ventum est unde a ferentariis prælium committi ablative, as if equivalent to the participle of a verb signifying deficiency, posset maximo clamores cum infestis signis concurrunt; pila which, according to the regular rule, would take an ablative. omittunt;o gladiis res agitur. Veterani, pristinæ virtutis me 7. Proelio, the part of the field where Jugurtha was. mores, comminus acriter instare:7 illis haud timidi resistunt: 8. Suis auxilio, double dative. maxima vi certatur. Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima 9. Arcte, in close array, acie versari, laborantibus succurrere, integros pro sauciis accer Translation of VIRGIL, "ÆNEID,” Book iv., Lines 173—188. sere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare, sæpe hostem ferire ;
(See page 83.) strenni militis et boni imperatoris officia simul exsequebatur. Petreius ubi videt Catilinam, contra acto ratus erat, magna vi Ramour, a cursed thing, than which no other flies more fast;
Off at once speeds Rumour through the great cities of Libya. tenderell cohortem prætoriam in medios hostes inducit ; eosque her nimbleness gives her strength, and she gathers power as perturbatos atque alios alibi's resistentes interficit, deinde utrim. she goes. Small at first and timid, soon she rises into the air, que ex lateribus adgreditur. Manlius et Fæsulanus in primis? and stalks along the ground, and hides her head amid the pugnantes cadunt. Postquam fusas copias seque cum paucis clouds. She it was whom Earth her mother, stung by the relictum videt Catilina, memor generis atque pristinæ dignitatis, anger of the gods, brought forth, her last offspring, as a sister to in confertissimos's hostes incurrit, ibique pugnans confoditur.
Cæus and Enceladus, swift of foot, and untiring of wing. A NOTES.
monster hideons and huge, who has for every feather on her 1. Hostium exercitus, the army of the conspirators with Catilina at body a watchful eye beneath-most strange to tell—for every 2. Ventum est unde (supply in locum), when they had come to a place By night she flies hissing in the darkness midway beneath earth
eye a tongue, for every tongue a busy mouth and ears attent. 3. Ferentarii (der. fero), light troops who fought with missile weapons.
and sky; by day she sits sentinel on the top of some tall pile 4. Chamore, the ablative of manner. “The ablative of a substan- or lofty tower, and makes great cities afraid; as apt to cling to tive, in convection with an adjective, denotes the accompanying I what is false and distorted as to proclaim the truth.
LESSONS IN ITALIAN.—XIII.
Animal, an-i-má-lo, m. Incontinence, in-con- Pleasantness, gio-comWe now set before our readers some exercises for practice, Beauty, bel-léz-za (ts), t. Intellect, in-gé-gno, m. Powerfully
disturb, with another of the colloquial exercises to which reference has Bird, uc-cel-lo, m. Intemperance, in-tem scon-cer-la-no been already made.
Body, côr-po, m.
Is generally, è or-di- Preserver, con-ser-192Acqua, water, Con, with. Osteria, public-house, Cause, ca-gió-ne, f. na-ria-men-te.
tó-re, m. Allegrezza (ts), joy, Disgrazia, misfortune, tavern.
Creation, cre-a-zió-ne, f. Is infinite, è in-fi-ní. Pride, or-go-glio, m. Amicizia, friendship. disgrace (per dis- | Paglia, straw.
Creature, cre-a-tú-ra, f. to.
Reason, Tu-gió-ne, Anima, mind, soul. gra-zia, unfortu- | Penna, pen.
Demands, vub-le. It wenkens, és-so in- Renders, rén-de. Animale, animal. nately). Per, for, through, on Deprives him, lo pri-va, de-bo-li-sce.
Requires, es-i-ge. Arte, art. Erba, herb.
Enemy, nie-mi-co, m. Large tree, grán-de ál- Riches, ric-chez-a (te), Assicurazione (ts), se- Faccia, face (di-re in Porta, gate, door. Envy, in-vi-dia, f.
f. (with the pl.) curity, insurance. fáo-cia, to tell one to Rupo, rock.
Equilibrium, e-qui-li- Light, lú-ce, f. Scope, scó-po, m. Aurora, aurora, dawn, one's face).
Sea, má-re, m.
busier, rifleman. Evident proof, pro-va Looks for, cér-ca. Self-love, e-môr préBallerina (f.), dancer. Fiume, river.
Sciocchezza (ts), folly. ma-ni-fa-sta, f. Lord, Si-gnó-re, m. prio, m. Bastone, stick. Foresta, forest.
Excess, ec-oés-so, m. Lust, pia-cé-re, m. Shadow, om-bra, t. Beccheria, slaughter- Idea, idea, notion. Settimana, week. Existence,es-i-stên-za,f. Man, uo-mo, m. Star, stél-la, f. house, shambles.
Immaginazione, imagi- Slitta, sledge. (nade. Father, pá-dre. Mechanism, me-ca- Superfluous, 52-perCarrozza (ts), carriage, nation. Spianata, plain, espla- Fish, pé-sce, m. (with nis-mo, m.
fluo, m. coach. Inferriata, iron-grate. Stolto, fool.
Misfortune, in-fo-li- Supreme, siz-pré-me. Chiesa, church. Insalata, salad.
Strada, street, road,
System, si-stá-ma, m. Ciera, mien, look, air Insegna, sign, arms, Su, sopra, upon.
Give more, dán-no piu. Nature, na-tri-ra, 1, Than, che. of the face.
God, Id-di-o, Di-o. Necessary (translate, The greatest damage, Città, town, city (no Locanda, inn, hotel. Valle, valley.
Health, sa-lú-te, f. the necessary), ne il più gran dán-tó, change in the pl.). Memoria, memory. Vigna, vineyard. Heaven, cid-lo, m. ces-sá-rio, m.
m. Collina, hill. Opinione, opinion. Vite, vine,
His most precious Nerve, nér-vo, m. Useful, ú-ti-le, m. EXERCISE 4.
good, il sú-o mi-gliór Only requires, non do- Vice, ví-zio, m. bé-ne, m.
mán-da che (that Virtue, vir-tì, i. 1. La me-mô-ria. 2. Dél-la ciê-ra. 3. Al-la col-lí-na. 4. Dál-la His power, la sú-a which is).
Weak, dé-bi-lo. spia-na-ta. 5. Le bec-che-ri-e. 6. Dél-le lo-cán-de. 7. Alle fôr-za, f.
Order, ór-di-ne, m.
Which, cho. pôr-te. 8. Dál-le strá-de. 9. In fác-cia. 10. Nél-la ví-gna. Homage, o-mág-gio, m. Outburst, a-gi-ta-zió- Who, che. 11. Nél-le fo-rê-ste. 12. Con pá-glia. 13. Cól-la ví-te. 14. 061- Humour, jú-i-do, m.
Wisdom, sa-pién-ca, t. le pén-ne. 15. Per dis-grá-zia. 16. Per la vál-le. 17. Per le
Hypocrisy, i-po-cri. Passion, pas-sið-ne, f. Work, 6-pe-ra, scioc-chéz-ze. 18. Súl-la car-rôz-za. 19. Súl-le rú-pi. 20. L'
Plant, pián-ta, f. World, Tom-do, B, au-rô-ra. 21. Dell' al-le-gr -za. 22. All' o-pi-nió-ne. 23. Dall'
EXERCISE 6. 0-ste-rí-a. 24. Le i-de-e. 25. Dell' êr-be. 26. Al-le ár-ti. 1. Hypocrisy is a homage which vice renders to virtue. 27. Dál-le cit-tà. 28. In i-slít-te. 29. Nell' im-ma-gi-na-zió-ne. 2. Nature only requires that which is necessary. 3. Reason de30. Nél-le á-ni-me. 31. Con á-cqua. 32. Coll' ún-ghia. 33. Cól. mands the useful, self-love looks for the agreeable, passion rele in-sé-gne. 34. Per a-mi-cí-zia. 35. Per l' as-si-cu-ra-zió-ne. quires the superfluous. 4. Large trees give more shadow than 36. Per le a-zió-ni. 37. Sull' in-sa-lá-ta. 38. Súl-le in-fer-riá-te. fruit. 5. God is the Father of men and the Preserver of 39. Un fan-ciúl-lo. 40. U-no stól-to. 41. Un a-ni-má-le. the creatures. 6. The stars of the heaven, the birds of the air, 42. U-na set-ti-má-na. 43. D'un fiú-me. 44. Ad ú-no schiop- the fish of the sea, the plants, the animals, are works of the pet-tiê-re. 45. Da ú-na bal-le-ri-na. 46. In ú-na chiê-sa. Lord. 7. The scope of the creation is infinite, the intellect of 47. Con un ba-stó-ne. 48. Per ú-no sco-lá-re. 49. Su d'un man weak. 8. The wisdom of God is like the light of heaven. sás-so, só-pra un sás-so.
9. The order, the beauty, and the pleasantness of the world are VOCABULARY.
evident proofs of the existence of a Supreme Being. 10. The Com-prá-to, bought. Ilgiar-dí-no, thegarden. Tu hai, thou hast. excess of the passions is generally the cause of the misfortune of E-gli ha, he has. Lo zi-o, the uncle. Ve-dú-to, seen.
11. The outbursts of anger, of envy, and of pride, powerE-gli-no han-no, they La xi-a, the aunt. V6-stro (m.), your. have. Nói ab-bia-mo, we have. | Với a-ve-te, you have.
fully disturb the equilibrium of the humours, the system of the I-o hó, I have. N6-stro (m.), our.
nerves, and frequently at length injure the mechanism of the
body. 12. The lust of intemperance and incontinence is the EXERCISE 5 (COLLOQUIAL).
enemy which brings to man the greatest damage; it weakens 1. I-o hộ un lí-bro e u-na pén-na. 2. Tu hai um buôn lí-bro e his powers, deprives him of riches, and injures his most preú-na buð-na pén-na. 3. Hð un buôn fra-tel-lo. 4. Hai ú-na cious good, the health. buô-na So-rel-la. 5. Hỗ nu gian lí-bro, mí-a SO-rel-la hạ án-cho un gran lí-bro. 6. Mí-o fra-têl-lo ha ú-na píc-co-la
pén-na. That he may clearly understand the difference between the two
We now come to some illustrative exercises of the use of di. 7. Hai tu ú-na so-rel-la ? 8. Hð ú-na so-rel-la ed un fra-têl-lo
. languages, the pupil will do best, wherever it is allowable, to 9. Hai ta la mi-a pén-na ? 10. Hð il tú-o lí-bro e la tú-a pén-na. translate these exercises by English compound nouns, or by 11. Ab-bia-mo un buôn pa-dre ed u-na buô-na má-dre. 12. Ab-combinations of nouns, or by adjectives preceding nouns. bia-mo án-che un buôn fra-tel-lo ed ú-na buô-na Sorel-la. 13. II giar-dí-no è grán-de. 14. Hð un píc-co-lo li-bro. 15. Hai tu
VOCABULARY. ản-che un lí-bro ? 16, Ab-biá-mo un gran giar-dí-no. 17. Il Abito, dress.
Calxoni (ts), m. pl., Colpo, blow, shot. mí-o pic-co-lo fra-tel-lo ha un buôn lí-bro. 18. La mí-a pít
Coltello, knife. co-la SO-rel-la hạ án-che un buồn lí-bro. 19. Ab-bia-mo un mont, head-dress. Campana, bell, clock Corpo, body.
(which strikes). gran lí-bro ed ú-na pío-co-la pén-na. 20. A-vé-te un buôn Aceto, vinegar.
Correzione, correction. Cane, dog.
Corsa, course, race. pá-dre ed ú-na buô-na má-dre. 21. A-vé-te vói án-che un fra- Appello, appeal.
Argento, silver. tel-lo ? 22. Hộ nn lí-bro. 23. Hổ com-pra-to un buôn lí-bro.
Capo, head, chief. Dioci, ten.
Cappotto, great coat or Diritto, duty. 24. Ab-bia-mo ve-du-to un gran giay-di-no.
Arrosto, roast meat.
Disegno, drawing. ha án-che ve-dú-to un gran giar-dí-no. 26. Hô com-prá-to ú-na Bicchiere, glass. Carne, meat,
Domani, to-morrow. pén-na. 27. Hai tu com-prá-to ú-na buô-na pén-na? 28. Hai Biglietto, note, ticket. Carta, paper, card.
Finestra, window. tu ve-du-to il mí-o lí-bro ? 29. Hô ve-du-to il tú-o lí-bro e la | Bia, beer.
Fior, (for fió-re), Bower. tú-a pén-na. 30. A-vé-te voi ve-dú-to la mi-a píc-co-la so-rel-la ? Bollo, official seal, Cassa, box.
Formaggio, cheese. 31. Mí-o pá-dre ha com-prá-to un giar-dí-no. 32. Tú-a so-rel-la stamp.
Cava, pit, mine, quarry. Francesco, Francis, ha com-pra-to un pic-co-lo lí-bro.
Borgogna, Burgundy. Cavallo, horse.
Ghirlanda, garlande A being, un És-se-re Air, d-ria, f.
fi-re dam-meg-gia-no cia, 1.), arm, ell, yard. Certificato, certificate. Giomo, day. (un En-te), m. And, e. án-che spés-80. Butirro, butter. Che, that.
Giovanni, John. Agreeable, di-ket-te. And frequently at And injures, e guá-sta. Cafè, coffee.
Chicchera, cup. Giuoco, game, vo-le, m. length injure, & per Anger, i-ra, f. Calze (ts), stocking. Cinque, five.
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-XI.
EXERCISE 2. great, large. Opera, work. (cap) d' only, single,
1. The father and the mother. 2. The brother and the sister. Grande, great. opera, master-piece). Sole, sun.
3. The father is good, the mother is good. 4. The good father, the Grano, corn. Ora, hour, Stivale, boot.
good mother. 5. The brother is good, the sister is good. 6. The good Gurdia, guard (corpo di Ordino, order(military). Strada, road, way, brother, the good sister. 7. My father ; my good father. 8. My gardia, mainguard,or Pajo, m. (pl. le pá-ja, route.
mother; my good mother. 9. My father is good; my mother is main guard-house). f.), pair.
Struczo, ostrich. good. 10. My brother and my sister. 11. My good brother and Ho comprato, I have Pane, bread.
my good sister, 12. My brother is good, my sister is good. 13. A bought. Panno, cloth.
Tabacco, tobacco, snuff. father, a mother, a brother, a sister. 14. A good father, a good Ignorante, ignorant. Pecora, sheep.
mother, a good brother, a good sister. 15. My father is a good father, Impero, empire. Penna, pen. Tazza (ts), cup.
my mother is a good mother. 16. My brother is a good brother, InÁniti, innumerable Pezzo, piece.
Tá (pronounced té), tea. my sister is a good sister. 17. Thy father is good, my father is also multitude. Pietra, stone, Tela, linen.
good. 18. Thy mother is good, my mother is also good. 19. Thy Inghilterra, England, Pipa, (tobacco) pipe. Tocco (pronounced tốc- father has a good sister, thy mother has a good brother.
20. My Irlanda, Irelnnd. Pistola, pistol.
co), piece, bit. brother is thy father. 21. My father is also thy father, and my Isola, island. Piuma, feather.
Tocco, touch, blow, mother is also thy mother. 22. The book is good, the pen is good. Lana, wool. Posta, post.
23. My book is small, my pen is large. 24. Thy father has a good Latte, milk (fior di Prendetemi, take me. Tonnellagio, commo- book, thy sister has a good pen. 25. My brother is tall, my sister latte, cream). Presa, pinch.
dity preserved in is little. 26. Thy little brother and thy little sister. 27. Thy sister Levar (for ls-vá-re, to Presidio, guarnigione, casks (diritto diton has my pen, and thy brother has my book. 28. Thy little book is a rise), rising. garrison.
nellagio, tonnage). good book.
Tramontar, (for tra-
mon-tá-re, to set, KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-XII. Lapo, wolf, Quantità, quantity. disappear), setting.
EXERCISE 3. Maestro, master, Quarto, fourth part, Tratto, throw, cast, teacher. quarter (of a pound). stroke.
1. Il levar del sole. 2. Lo spuntar del giorno. 3. Il ritorno della
5. La bellezza del fiore. 6. Maggio, May. Rada, road, road - Tribunale,
primavera, 4. Il calore dell' aria. tribunal,
L'oscurita della notte. 7. L'abisso dell'errore. 8. La fertilità dei Mantello, cloak, stead.
court. Manzo, young ox.
campi. 9. I colori del arcobaleno. 10. I sensi del uomo. 11. Gli Razza, race, species, Truppa, troop. Marmo, marble.
errori di giovani. 12. Il danaro è l'anima di commercio. 13. L'uso Mae, month, Regno, kingdom. Vecchio, old.
è il legislatore delle lingue. 14. Il padrone del giardino non è qui, 15. Miglio, n. (pl. le mi-glia, Sardegna, Sardinia. Vena, vein.
Il palazzo appartiene al principe. 16. Ecco le camere dello zio. 17. Gli f.), (Italian) mile (of Scarpa, shoe.
Ventina, number of
abiti appartengono alla cugina, e non alla zia. 18. Il fratello dice alla 3,000 paces), also an Scherma, fencing.
sorella la volonta del padre. 19. I fanciulli devono sempre obbedire
twenty, score. English, German, or Sciampagna, cham- Vetro, glass, pane.
ai genitori. 20. I medici dicono, il disordine accorcia la vita. 21. French mile.
Il moto giova al corpo e allo spirito. 22. La fisonomia è lo specchio pagne,
dell'anima. 23. La quiete dell' anima è il colmo della felicità. 24.
Vista, sight, view. Moggio, bushel.
La temperanza è il tesoro del savio. 25. Il vero ornamento del soldato Sei, six.
Zecchino, sequin (gold Monte, mountain, soi, thou art (pezzo d'
è il coraggio. 26. L'esercizio conduce alla perfezione. 27. L'interesse,
coin current at pawnbroker's (or ignorante, blockhead, Venice and in Turil piacere, e la gloria, sono le tre motivi delle azione e della condotta Mont de Piétà). dunce).
key, about 98.).
degli uomini. Yuta, team.
Sentesi, one hears, is Zio, uncle.
ROWING.-III. 1. Il man-têl-lo dello zio. 2. L'á-bi-to di Gio-ván-ni. 3. The style of a man's rowing is always more or less affected by La cá-sa di mi-a so-rêl-la. 4. Il le-vár, il tra-mon-tár del só-le. the character of the water in which he pursues his practice. It 5. Il no-me di Giús-to, di Grán-de. 6. Lá-na di pê-co-ra. must be obvious to all that the same method that may be pur7. Pún-to di vi-sta. 8. La cá-sa di cor-re-zió-ne. 9. Sên-te-si sued on a river will not answer for the rough surface of the sea ; un colpo di pis-to-la. 10. Cá-ve di piê-tra e di már-mo. 11. Il and it may easily be understood that a very shallow stream or sú-o cá-po d' o-pe-ra. 12. Il côr-po di guár-dia. 13. Con un sol pond does not afford the same facilities for the proper manipulatrát-to di pén-na. 14. Un tóc-co di cam-pá-na. 15. Vé-tro di tion of the oar that are offered by a flowing river. On a river, fi-nê-stra. 16. Fior di lát-te. 17. U’-na ghir-lán-da di fió-ri. where the oarsman knows there is plenty of water beneath him, 18. Pêz-zo d' i.gno-rán-te che sêi! 19. La pún-ta di col-têl-lo. he does not hesitate in dipping the blade of his oar well in, and 20. U'na vé-na d' ar-gên-to. 21. Do-má-ni è giór-no di pô-sta. taking a full grip of the water, or, as it is technically termed, in 22. Ma-ê-stro di di-sé-gno, di schér-ma. 23. Tri-bu-ná-lo d' catching the water firmly in his stroke; and in the same way he Ap-pel-lo. 24. Bi-gliét-to di lôt-to, del món-te. 25. La pô-sta can carry his blade well through the water without fear of the di ca-vál-li. 26. Cer-ti-fi-cá-to & uf-fício. 27. Im-pê-ro consequences. But it is a different thing when there is merely Aú-stria. 28. Ré-gno d' In-ghil-têr-ra, di Scô-zia, d'Ir-lán-da. sufficient water to float the vessel in which he operates. Then 29. La cit-tà di Lôn-dra, d'È-din-búr-go, di Dub-lí-no, di Man. he is constantly fearful that the blade may strike the ground ob-stria, di Li-ver-pú-la, di Bir-min-ghe-mio, di Gla-scô-via. immediately that it is totally immersed beneath the surface; 30. Il mé-se di Gen-ná-jo, di Mág-gio. 31. Il nó-me di Giu- and the same misgiving mars the freedom and fulness of his sep-pe, di Fran-cé-sco. 32. L' 1-80-la di Si-cí-lia, di Sar-dé-gna. stroke. Hence he is not likely, so long as his practice may be 33. Un quár-to & 6-ra. 34. U'-na ráz-za di cá-ui. 35. Cór-sa
di confined to that particular locality, to become a finished carsman. Ca- vál-li. 36. Le trúp-pe di pre-sí-dio, di guar-ni-gió-ne. 37. La He will necessarily contract faults in his manner, however rá-da di Triê-ste. 38. Il di-rít-to di ton-nel-lág-gio. 39. Tás-sa anxious he may be to excel. He will either not catch the water di ból-lo. 40. Un giuô-co di cár-te. 41. Piú-me di strúz-zo. at the beginning, or not pull through his stroke to the end, as he 42. L'ac-con-cia-tu-ra del cá-po. 43. L' 6r-di-ne del giór-no. might have done had he exercised from the first on water of 44. Diê-ci brác-cia di té-la, di pán-no. 45. Un ba-ri-le do-glio, considerable depth; and both these faults are common, whilo di a-cé-to. 46. U-na líb-bra di cár-ne, di for-mág-gio. 47. Un they seriously detract from the oarsman's proficiency. cen-ti-ná-jo di zúc-che-ro, di caf-fè. 48. Un môg-gio di grá-no. We have supposed, for the sake of illustration, an extreme 49. Un pêz-zo di pâ-ne, un tôc-co d' ar-ró-sto. 50. U'n quàr-to case, in imagining that the water on which the young rower di bu-tír-ro. 51. Un bic-chiê-re di ví-no, di bír-ra. 52. Hð performs may be only just sufficient to float his boat. But the com.prá-to diê-ci bot-ti-glie di Bor-gô-gna e sei di Sciam-pá-gna. same conditions frequently arise on very considerable
rivers. 53. U'-na cás-sa di pl-pe. 54. un gran nú-me-ro di lů-pi. Tako, for instance, the case of the Thames itself, as low as 55. Una quan-ti-tà di pê-co-re, di-mán-zi. 56. U’-na in-fi-ni-tà Twickenham or Richmond. No worse water could be found, for di
: gên-te. 57. U'n pá-jo di scár-pe vêc-chie. 58. Dú-e pá-ja di practice in real oarsmanship, than the river here at certain states eti-vá-li, di cal-z6-ni, di cál-ze. 59. U'-na ven-ti-na di zec-chi-ni. of the tide, on account of the numerous shallows, which none but 60. Cín-que mí-glia di strá-da. 61. U-na chíc-che-ra di caf-fe. adepts can thread. The full sweep of the car is not possible déste-mi la mi-sú-ra d' un cap-pôE-to e d' on pá-jo di cal-z6-ni. would select such a place
for his rowing ground would act very 65. Una mú-ta di ca-vál-li.
OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE ROWING.
manly and honourable emulation, without one party attemptOur readers, from these remarks, may be able to understand ing by any means to obtain an undue advantage over another
. something of the discussions which frequently arise, as to the To attempt, for instance, to start before the signal is an comparative merits of the rowing at the Universities of Oxford unworthy practice; but it is nevertheless necessary to practisa and Cambridge. It is notorious that a different style charac- starting, so that the oars may get into full swing at the earliest terises the oarsmanship of each University. The Oxford men possible moment. Where the water is not sufficiently wide to have usually a deep, full swing of the oar, and a steady, power- allow two or more competitors to race side by side, time races ful stroke, which in a long race tells greatly on the issue. The or bumping races may be resorted to. These expedients are Cambridge men snatch at the water, rather than pull steadily usually adopted by University men, in racing upon the narthrough it; their grip of the water is less firm, and, although rower parts of the rivers at Oxford and Cambridge. In time they take their strokes more quickly, they do not follow each races, each boat has its own starting-point and its own goal stroke to the end. Hence their efforts, although as plucky and sufficient distance separating the two vessels in the contest. determined as those of their opponents, are not as a rule so suc- They start at an appointed signal
, and the boat which first cessful over a lengthy course.
reaches its goal-post is declared the winner. In bumping races, The reason of this difference in style is to be found in great the boats are ranged one in front of the other, each alongside of measure in the different nature of the waters on which the two its own starting-post, and a short distance only separating them. classes of oarsmen practise. At Oxferd the Isis is a deep In the race each boat tries to "bump" the one in front of it, by stream, affording all the facilities for a good stroke, of which running its bow against the other's stern. When this is done, we have previously spoken ; but at the sister university the the bumping boat is held to have beaten
the other, and takes it
: Cam is a shallow and sluggish water, which in many places place on the river. In this way the rowing-men of the different makes it necessary for the rower to feel his way with care, and colleges are pitted against each other ; but a bumping race is not to a certain extent cripples him in his action. Smarting under so good a guide to the respective merits of crews as the ordinary continual defeat, the Cambridge oarsmen and their friends are to the established rules which experience has found necessary
breast race. All rowing matches should be conducted according now making every exertion to improve their river, as a necessary and
we therefore subjoin the laws by which school and university preliminary to a radical improvement in their style of rowing. Many thousands of pounds have been subscribed for this
matches are regulated :
purpose, and the improvement of the Cam by dredging, etc., is
1. All boat races to be started by a signal, which shall be now rapidly proceeding. So great is the interest taken at the given when the starter is satisfied that the competitors are present day in rowing as a beneficial exercise and amusement,
ready. and so inseparable are held to be the character of the water and recall the boats to their stations, and any boat refusing to start
2. If the starter considers the start false, he shall at once that of the style which will be formed upon it.
again shall be considered beaten. THE CHALLENGE FROM THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY. 3. No fouling whatever shall be allowed. (See Rule 6.) While on the subject of university rowing, and the
4. It is the province of the umpire when appealed to, but not trast afforded by the styles of Oxford and Cambridge, we before, to decide a foul, and the boat decided by him to have may mention the much-talked-of contest which is approach fouled shall lose the race. ing belween our own countrymen and those of Harvard shall direct the non-fouling boat to row on, and it shall in every
5. In case of a foul, the umpire, if appealed to during the race, University, in the United States. There, aş here, athletic pursuits are taking a prominent place, as a means of pro
case row over the remainder of the course in order to claim the moting the mens sana in corpore sano; and challenge to friendly rivalry from the rowing men of the American university
6. It shall be considered a foul when, after a race has com to those of our own country is one of the indications of this menced, any competitor, by his oar, boat, or person, comes in movement. Our chief object in mentioning the matter is to contact with the car, boat, or person of another competitor; and point out a material difference in the American custom in the nothing else shall be considered a foul. composition of boating crews, to that which universally prevails
7. Any competitor who comes in contact with another compehere. In this country every four-oared or eight-oared crew is titor, as defined by Rule 6, by crossing into his opponent's water
, accompanied by a coxswain, whose chief business, as we have commits a foul; but when a boat has once fairly taken another before explained, it is to direct the course of the boat. In boat's water by a clear lead, it has a right to keep the water so America the services of such a functionary are dispensed with;
taken. (See Rule 9.) and what is lost in the coxswain's services, and the consequent
8. A boat shall be held to have a clear lead of another boat necessity that the oarsmen shall keep a look-out and steer when its stern is clearly past the stern of that other boat. themselves, is gained, or more than gained, in the sacrifice of one
9. It shall be held that a boat's own water is the straight or person's dead weight in the boat, and the lighter freight which true course from the station assigned to it at starting; but if consequently has to be propelled through the water. Each
two boats are racing, and one fairly takes the other's water by a system has, therefore, its own advantages to those who practise clear lead, it shall be entitled to keep the water so taken to the under it. But, in order to place the competitors on an equal end of the course; and if the two boats afterwards come into footing, we believe it is arranged that in the approaching the boat whose water has been so taken shall be deemed to have
contact while the leading boat remains in the water so taket, “ international" contest, the Harvard men shall conform to the English plan of carrying a coxswain in the boat.
committed a foul; but if they come into contact by the leading
boat's departing from the water so taken, that boat shall be ROWING UPON THE SEA.
deemed to have committed the foul. With regard to rowing upon the sea, the learner will there
10. The umpire shall be sole judge of a boat's straight or true find style a matter of minor consideration. The rules given for course during every part of a race. the use of the oar in river water are only in part applicable to
11. If in any race in which more than two boats start a foul rowing in salt water. The grasp of the oar must be much the takes place, and the boat adjudged by the umpire to have been same, but if anything still firmer ; the dip of the
oar must take fouled reaches the winning-post first, the race shall be decided place between the crests of the waves, surface rowing being out of as the boats come in ; but if the boat fouled loes not come in the question from the character of the water ; and feathering is first, or if the umpire is unable to decide which boat has com
also impracticable. We may add that the thowl-pins in boats mitted the foul, the race shall be rowed over again ; unless the ' used on the sea are unlike those in river boats, consisting umpire shall decide that the boat which came in first had a sus
merely of two rounded pieces of wood firmly secured in the ficient lead of the boats which fouled, at the moment of the ford, wale ; and the rowlook is thus less liable to accident from rough to warrant its having the race assigned to it. usage.
12. Whenever the umpire shall direct a race to be rowed over RACING AND ITS LAWS.
again, any boat refusing so to row again shall be considered
beaten. In conclusion, we will advise the learner, when proficient 13. Every boat shall stand by its accidents (i.c., no accident with the oar, and able to take part in a race, to remember occurring to any boat after the start shall be considered to affect that all such contests shonld be conducted in a spirit of its ultimate position in the race).