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covered when the jug is full of carbonic acid; and as this gas is source of light, the sun, the centre of our planetary system, and half as heavy again as common air, it may be poured from the the great source of heat and light to the world. jug into the deep ale-glass in which the pill-box and gun-cotton Sir John Herschel has estimated that “the sun gives out as have already been placed: by this simple arrangement the trouble much light as 146 lime-lights would do, if each ball of lime of perforating a cork, and fitting it with a bent tube to a bottle were as large as the sun, and gave out light from all parts of its containing the materials for generating carbonic acid, is saved. surface;" and that "the heat evolved from every square yard of

The current of burnt gas and heated air that escapes from the sun's surface is as great as that which would be produced by the top of an argand burner is usually very hot, but does burning six tons of coal on it each hour." not evolve light, as it is estimated that a current of gaseous The heat and the light of the sun come from an envelope, matter may have a temperature of 2,000°, and yet not become called the photosphere, and this is supposed by eminent astroluminous.

nomers to be neither solid or liquid, but cloud-like and gaseous; If, however, a spiral of fine iron or platinum wire, or a bit of this they are almost certain, although the actual source of of asbestos, is held in the hottest part of the current of air, the heat and light of the sun is unknown. ignition of the solid thus employed takes place, and light is evolved. The increase of heat in the solid is seen better when the glass chimney of the argand burner is covered with

READINGS IN GREEK.-III. tin-foil to within two or three inches of the top, as the glare

DEMOSTHENES. from the lamp frequently overpowers the light from the in. candescent wire.

Of all the brilliant array of orators that Greece produced, In all cases where artificial light is obtained, the ignition of Demosthenes has always enjoyed the highest reputation. Living some kind of solid matter takes place; with gas or oil it is the as he did at a critical and eventually disastrous period of the carbon. The oxy-hydrogen or lime light is a remarkable illus- history of Athens, he took an active interest from a comparatration of the same fact, the mixed gases, oxygen and hydrogen, tively early age in political affairs, and throughout his life was hardly giving out any light when burnt alone; but if directed on constant in his endeavours to stir up and keep-alive the fire of to a piece of lime, the latter becomes gradually so hot that it patriotism and courage which had well nigh become extinct in emits the most dazzling rays of light. Even the electric light, the bosoms of his countrymen. The whole of Greece was which may be considered the most intense and brilliant of all gradually falling under the sway of Philip of Macedon, whose artificial lights, is produced by the ignition of two points of schemes of aggrandisement were afterwards carried out so charcoal, through which the current of electricity from a powerful extensively by his son, Alexander the Great; and it was chiefly battery is passed. The ignition of the carbon is wholly indepen. against the policy of the Macedonian king that the efforts of dent of the air ; no combustion is necessary. A transfer of Demosthenes were directed. But bribery and craft soon did solid particles of charcoal takes place from one pole to the their work; the Athenians offered but a half-hearted resistance other, which goes on quite as well, if not better, in the vacuum to the invader, and the year B.C. 338 witnessed the downfall of of an air-pump.

the liberties of Greece at the disastrous battle of Chæronea. Directly after the ball of lime has been used for the produc- The news of the defeat filled the Athenians with the utmost tion of the oxy-hydrogen light it sometimes continues to emit consternation, and at this terrible crisis, Demosthenes, in whom a very faint light. This is due to phosphorescence, another the people placed unbounded confidence, exerted all his energies and most curious source of light. Phosphorescence occurs for the defence of Athens. The crisis passed, owing in a great with certain living organisms; there are luminous animalculæ measure to the prudent forbearance of Philip--partly, also, no in the ocean, luminous insects, such as the fire-fly, and a lumi- doubt, to the energetic exertions of Demosthenes; and some nous worm, called the glow-worm, from which Matteucci ex seven months later an Athenian citizen named Ktesiphon got 2 tracted a yellowish phosphorescent substance. The decay of decree passed that a gold crown should be given to Demosthenes organic matter is usually the result of an oxidising process, but in recognition of his services to the state. For this action Ktesithe phosphorescence of certain fish, such as whitings and her phon was impeached by the Macedonian party in Athens, and rings, does not appear to be due to oxidation, because the light the indictment was entrusted to Æschines, the rival and deteris not reduced when the fish is placed in nitrogen or hydrogen. mined opponent of Demosthenes. Though directed nominally At the moment of crystallisation, flashes of faint light are some against Ktesiphon, the prosecution was, in faet, an impeachment times seen, and especially when the saline substance, such as of the whole political career of Demosthenes, and Æschines sulphate of soda, has been fused at a red heat, cooled, dissolved endeavoured to prove that his rival's policy was not only in water, and crystallised. Fusion or vitrefaction, followed by undeserving of commendation, but even positively censurable. subsequent solution in water, and crystallisation appears to be The reply of Demosthenes is contained in the magnificent orgaccompanied most frequently with these appearances of light. tion “ De Corona” (On the Crown), in which the great orator A brass button fitted on a cork, and rubbed violently against a unflinchingly accepts the challenge held out to him, and shows small piece of wood, soon affords enough heat to set fire to a triumphantly that Æschines and his party were the real traitors piece of phosphorus. The attrition of a flint against a hard to their country and the abettors of her ruin. The first extract metal, such as steel, is said to “strike fire ;” and in this case is taken from an early portion of the speech :friction becomes a direct source of light. On the Underground Railway sparks of fire generally accompany the application of

DEMOSTHENES.--"DE CORONA," $$ 12, 13. the as the train is brought to a standstill at the various

Τα μεν ουν κατηγορημένα πολλά, και περί ών ένίων μεγάλας stations. The sparks from the wheels, or the flint and steel, are

και τάς εσχάτας οι νόμοι διδόασι τιμωρίας του δε παρόντος αγώνος derived from minute particles of metal which are rubbed of by ή προαίρεσις αύτη εχθρού μεν επήρειαν έχει και ύβριν και λοιfriction, and being very hot burn in the air.

δορίαν και προπηλακισμόν ομού και πάντα τα τοιαύτα, των μέντου When electricity of high intensity-lightning-darts through | κατηγοριών και των αιτιών των ειρημένων, εί περ ήσαν αληθείς, the air in the discharging of electribed clouds, the lash of light ουκ ένις τη πόλει δίκην αξίαν λαβείν, ουδ' εγγύς· ου γάρ αφαιρείσθαι is most overpowering, and in some cases has caused blindness. | δει το προσελθεϊνί τώ δήμω και λόγου τυχεϊν, ουδ' εν επηρείας The nearest imitation of Jove's lightnings is that obtainable | τάξειθ και φθόνου τούτο ποιεϊν» ούτε με τους θεούς ορθώς έχουν ούτε from a great inductorium coil and some Leyden jars: the noise πολιτικών ούτε δίκαιόν εστιν και άνδρες Αθηναίοι αλλ' εφ' οίς of the discharge, the intensity of the light, its peculiar colour, the | αδικούντα με τώρα την πόλιν, ουσί γε τηλικούτοις ήλίκα νύν έτραrapidity with which it comes and goes, remind one of Juliet's podedo kal Otetner

, tals &K Tậv võuwv Truwplais rap aira rådechpretty speech :

ματαιο χρήσθαι, ει μεν εισαγγελίας12 άξια πράττοντά με εώρα,

εισαγγέλλοντα και τούτον τον τρόπον εις κρίσιν καθιστάντα παρ' "I have no joy of this contrast to-night:

υμίν, ει δε γράφοντα παράνομα, παρανόμων γραφόμενον.
It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden;
Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be,

NOTES.
Ere one can say "It lightens.'”

1. Katyy, the counts of the indictment are many. Supply doti.

2. Και περί ών. A contracted form of expression for τοιαύτα οε εεειεια All terrestrial modes of obtaining light, such as friction, che- epi v. And of such a nature that for some of thom. mical action, ignition of solids, phosphorescence, crystallisation, 3. Iposipeous means originally deliberato choice, and thus intention and electricity, sink into insignificance before the great natural | This is the intention of the present suit.

4. Επήρεια, trantom spite; έχει, it is full of.

15. Ενοι σαβοϊ-ύης άττης, Mystic cries in the ceremonial of initiation, 5. "E», for éveomt. It is not in the power of the state to exact a sufficient 16. Επoρχούμενος, beginning a dance to the cry of Attes Hyes!" penalty, nor anything like one. Siknu Aaßeīv, to exact a penalty, to punish. 17. Γραδιων, a dirminative of γραύς, implying contenapt, είie miteralla Jien douvas, to be punished.

old crones, 6. Tup. Supply it is simply spiteful,-for.

18. 'Eq' ols, etc., for which things who would not congratulate himself and 7. Το προσελθεϊν-λογου τυχεϊν are treated as substantives in the ac- | his good fortune ! cusative case after aparpeiolat. In other words, they are the objects to

The following eloquent appeal is one of many that occur Αφαιρείσθαι, λόγου τυχείν, to obtain a hearing. 8. Oud'évéanpeias táter, still less is it right to do so on the ground of spite.

in the speech :"Ex rater is a military term. So év éxOpoũ ráker, in a hostile manner.

DEMOSTHENES.—" DE CORONA," 180. 9. 'Etparadet kai drepjes, which he (Æschines) detailed in such a bombastic style. The first of the many allusions in this speech to schines former | και πάσας, όσοι την χώραν έχουσι την Αττικής, και τον Απόλλω

Καλώ δ' εναντίον υμών, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίαι, τους θεούς άπαντας profession as an actor. The phrase is equivalent to τραγωδών διεξήει, 10. Παρ' αυτά ταδικήματα. At the actual time clien the offences were com

τον Πύθιον, ός πατριός έστι τη πόλει, και επεύχομαι πάσι είtted. The present trial did not come of until seven years after the τούτοις, ει μεν αληθή προς υμάς είπoιμι, κι είπον τότευθύς εν decree had been passed by Ktesiphon.

τω δήμω, ότε πρώτον είδον τουτον και τον μικρόν τούτου του πράγ11. Χρήσθαι. Supply έδει from δεί in the previous sentence, he ought to ματος απτόμενον (έγνων γάρ, ευθέως έγνων), ευτυχίαν μοι δούναι have used.

και σωτηρίαν· ει δε προς έχθραν και η φιλονεικίας ιδίας ένεκ' αιτιάν 12. Εισαγγελίας. Two forms of procedure are mentioned in this sen- | επάγω τούτω ψευδή, πάντων των αγαθών ανόνητον με ποιήσαι. tence, of which Æschines might have availed himself to punish Demos

NOTES. . thenes: (1) εισαγγελία, a proceeding against offences not specifically provided for in the statutes, an impeachment; (2) γράφη παρανόμων, αη

1. Ocous is used as of two genders--all the gods and goddesses. indictment for proposing illegal or unconstitutional measures. T'paperv Tiva

2. Πυθιον, of Pytho, the old name of Delphi, where Apollo's most Tapavóuw is to institute such a proceeding. For a full account of the famous temple stood. forms of procedure in both cases the reader is referred to Smith's

3. Πατρωος. Αpollo was regarded as one of the tutelary deities of " Dictionary of Antiquities.” If he sau me proposing any illegal measures, Athens. A more especial relationship was found in the legend that he should have indicted me accordingly.

he was the father of Ion, the reputed founder of the Ionic race.

4. Kai citov, and I did speak out at once in the public assembly on that The next extract is a brilliant piece of invective, in which

occasion. Demosthenes draws a comparison between his rival's ante

5. Tovtovi. The « emphasises the word, and was probably accomcedents and his own :-

panied with a significant gesture towards Æschines. DEMOSTHENES.--"DE CORONA," 258_261.

6. Προς έχθραν, with a view to, by τεα, ο, hatred. Συ δ' δ σεμνυνόμενος ανήρ και διαπτύων τους άλλους σκόπει προς

7. 'Avóvntov, deriving no benefit from, unblest by. Generally the word ταύτην ποία τινι κέχρησαι τύχη, δι' ήν παίς μεν ών μετά πολλής is used in an active sense; as in Sophocles, ανόνητα σωματα (“ Ajax," ενδείας

ράφης, άμα τω πατρί προς τη διδασκαλείων, προσεδρεύων, 758) means useless bodies. το μέλαν τρίβων, και τα βάθρα σπογγίζων και το παιδαγωγείον For a specimen of Demosthenes' powers in a somewhat. κορών, οίκέτου τάξιν, ουκ ελευθέρου παιδός έχων, ανήρ δε γενό- | different style, we will take a short extract from the Olynthiae μενος τη μητρι τελούσης τάς βίβλους ανεγίγνωσκες και τάλλα orations, the object of which was to stir up the Athenians to συνεσκευωρού, την μεν νύκτα νεβρίζων και κρατηρίζων και take decided measures against Philip, who had began to enκαθαίρων τους τελουμένους και απομάττων10 το πηλό και τους πιτύ- | croach upon a small group of Athenian cities in the immediate ρους και ανιστάς από του καθαρμού κελεύων λέγειν, έφυγον κάκον, neighbourhood of Macedonia, of which the town of Olynthus εύρον άμεινον,” επι τω μηδένα πώποτε τηλικούτ' ολολύξαι σεμνυνό- I was the chief. In the following passage Demosthenes insists μενος!! (και έγωγε2 νομίζω: μη γαρ οίεσθ' αυτόν φθέγγεσθαι μεν | on the necessity of sending aid to the Olynthians :ούτω μέγα, όλολύζειν δ' ουχ υπέρλαμπρον), εν δε ταϊς ημέραις τους καλούς θιάσους άγων διά των οδών τους έστεφανωμένους το μαράθω13

DEMOSTHENES.—" OLYNTHIACS," III. 4. και τη λευκή, τους όφεις!4 τους παρείας θλίβων, και υπέρ της Τί ούν υπόλοιπον ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, πλήν βοηθείν ερρωμένως κεφαλής αιωρών, και βοών ενοι σαβού'5 και επαρχούμενος16 ύης άττης και προθύμως και εγώ μεν ουχ ορώ. Χωρίς γάρ της περιστάσης άνο άττης ύης, έξαρχος και προηγεμών και κιττοφόρος και λικνοφόρος ημάς αισχύνης, εί καθυφείμεθά τι των πραγμάτων ουδέ τον φόβον και τοιαύτα υπό των γραδίων17 προσαγορευόμενος, μισθον λαμβανων & άνδρες Αθηναίοι μικρών δρώ τον των μετά ταύτα, εχόντων μεν τούτων ένθρυπτα και στρεπτούς και νεήλατα, εφ' οίς18 τις ουκ άν ως | ως έχουσι Θηβαίων ημίν, άπειρηκότων δε χρήμασι Φωκέων, μηδενός αληθώς αυτόν ευδαιμονίσεις και την αυτού τύχην;

δ' εμποδών όντος Φιλίππω τα παρόντα καταστρεψάμενω, προς ταύτα NOTES.

επικλίναι τα πράγματα. Αλλά μην εί τις υμών εις τούτο ανα1. “Αμα τω πατρι. Atromitus, the father of Eschines, was a teacher | βάλλεται ποιήσειν τα δέοντα, ιδείν εγγύθεν βούλεται τα δεινά, in a small school; his mother, Glaukothea, made a living by presiding | εξόν ακούειν άλλοθι γιγνόμενα, και βοηθούς εαυτώ ζητεϊν, έξον νυν over certain religious rites chiefy attended by the poor; and Eschines | ετέροις αυτόν βοηθείν. served under both in a menial capacity.

NOTES.

. 2. Tpofwv, pounding and so preparing the ink.

1. Ουχ ορώ, sc. το υπόλοιπον, υλat remains for us ? 3. Balpa, the benches on which the scholars sat.

2. Tūs nepiotrons av, etc., the disgrace that would accrue to us. 4. Tán éxwv, holding the position of a menial, not that of a freedman's son.

3. Tøv poßov, and the danger which I foresee will ensue is no slight one. 5. Telovoy, as she performed the initiatory ceremonies. The allusions

4. 'Exóvtwv és éxovai, while the Thebans occupy their present attitude, a in this whole passage are to the Phrygian rites as praetised at Athens.

euphemism to express their hostility. *Exer is in this phrase really 6. Βίβλους, the sacred books containing the mystic formule.

equivalent to eivas. 7. Συνεσκευωρου, bore a part in all the rest of her κηαυίει mpostures (

imp.

5. Πρός ταύτα-τα πράγματα, Sc, to the affairs of Athens. from συσκευωρέομαι).

6. 'Egov, while it is in his power, nom. absolute. This construction is & Την μεν νύκτα. Αccusative of duration of time; opposed to έν δε

very frequently found in the case of several neut. sing. participles, ταις ημέραις below. 9. Ne Bpiów, clothing those undergoing initiation in fawn skins (véßpes). especially of compounded forms of cime. So also deov. Κρατηριζων, pouring them out drink from the goblet (κράτηρ). Both parts of the ceremony.

TRANSLATION OF EXTRACT 3 IN READINGS IN 10. 'AtouctTwv, etc., cleansing them with loam and bran.

GREEK.-II. 11. Σεμνυνόμενος-επί τω, priding yourself on the fact that no one ever

EURIPIDES.-« MEDEA,” 820-841. shouted out so loudly. 'OoAvědi, generally used of a ery of grief, is here

The sons of Eroctheus of old time have been prosperous, and the to be taken in its more original meaning of a jubilant religious ery. children of the blessed gods, feeding on the glorious wisdom of a land

12. Kai žywye. Here Demosthenes turns from Æschines to the audi- sacred, untrodden by the spoiler's foot; moving ever with dainty tread ence. "He must have had a splendid voice, judging from the exhibi- through the bright pure air, where erst, so goes the tale, golden-haired tion we have had to-day."

Harmonia gave birth to the nine Pierian Muses. And 'tis said that 13. Μαράθω, fennel; λευκη, ohite poplar.

the Cyprian goddess, when she had drunk a draught from the bright, 14. Tous õpets, etc., now pressing the coppered serpents is the translation sparkling Cephissus, sent the sweet gentle breezes breathing over the of one annotator, and rapeiar is said to be the same word as rapías, land; and, ever wreathing her hair with the fragrant garland of the from vápwos, copper-coloured. Aristophanes mentions snakes of this roses bloom, she

sends the loves that attend

on wisdom

the helpers colour as being sacred to Æsculapius.

in every kind of virtue.

LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XXIV.

The bass is on the lowest staff. The other parts are named at

the beginning of each staff. Learners should put a square In the following tune, reprinted from the "Pianoforte and note, to represent the place of DOH, on the middle line of the Full Score Edition" of Mr. Curwen's “People's Service of staff, except in the bass : there the Dou (or key-note) stands Soug," our pupils will find an exquisite example of the sub on the second line from the bottom, for the key is B flat. dominant transition. Notice the beautiful effect of ta in the Observe the dots, which indicate the repetition of music and third line. [Our friends who are studying the old notation the corresponding repetition of words.] It may as well be will notice that the air of the tune is written on the third staff stated, for the guidance of the pupil, that the arrangement is downward in large notes. The small notes are for the piano. | for two voices, and not for four.

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In the next exercise our readers will find in the new or sol-fathe old notation. From this may be gathered the advantages notation the exercise which has just been placed before them in the former possesses over the latter.

EXERCISE 41.- OBERLIN. (IN THE NEW NOTATION.) Key B Flat. M. 58.
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EXERCISE 42.-DELABORE. (TO ILLUSTRATE CHROMATIC NOTES.) KEY E. M. 66.

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The tane “Meloombe," which was brought under the reader's cellent practice for such of our pupils who desire to read and notice in our last lesson, and “ ' Edgeware" in this, will illus- write the old notation, as well as the new notation, with trate to our pupils the effect of transition into the key of the facility, to do this with every exercise that has been and may dominant. We have given them in the new notation only, be brought under their notice-namely, to write out in the in order that our pupils may have an exercise in copying these old notation exercises. given in the new notation only, and tunes as well as others into the old notation. It would be ex. I vice versa.

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2. Song from baser thoughts should win us;

Song should charm us out of woe;
SONG SHOULD STIR THE HEART WITHIN US,

LIKE A PATRIOT'S FRIENDLY BLOW.

3. Song should spur the mind to duty,

Nerve the weak, and stir the strong : EVERY DEED OF TRUTH AND BEAUTY

SHOULD BE CROWNED WITH STARRY Soxg!

or

Vivres,' } provisions.

À LA,

a, an, one.

n, one.

one.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LIII.

sition de; it is rendered in English by some or any, expressed

or understood :$ 11.-NOUNS WHICH HAVE NO SINGULAR IN THE SENSE HERE GIVEN. Du pain, m., some bread,

of the bread. De l'argent (m.), money, some money,

of the money. Arrhes, carnest money.

Entraves, difficulties.
De la viande, f., meat, some meat,

of the meat. Annales, annals.

Fiançailles, betrothing.

De l'argenterie, f., silver plate, some silver plate, » of the silver plate. Appas, charms.

Funérailles, funeral.
Des livres, m., books, some books,

of the books. Arrérages, arrears.

Frais, expenses, costs. Arrêts (étre aux), to be under Gages, wages,

(11.) The English indefinite article, a or an, is rendered in arrest. Gens, people.

French by un for the masculine, and une for the feminine ; but Assises, assizes.

Lunettes, spectacles.

when those words are connected with the preposition de, the e Broussailles, brushrood.

Moeurs, manners.

of the preposition is elided :Catacombes, catacombs.

Mouchettes, snuffers.
Ciseaux, scissors.
Pierreries, jewels, diamonds.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.
Confins, confines.

Pincettes, tongs.
Un homme, a man.

Une femme, a roman.
Denrées,

Pleurs, tears.

D'un homme, of or from a man. D'une femme, of or from a roman. Semailles, soeding time.

À un homme, at or to a man. À une femme, at or to a woman. Décombres, ruins, Ténèbres, darkness.

RÉSUMÉ OF THE ABOVE OBSERVATIONS.
Etrennes, new year's presents. Tenailles, pincers.

LE, before a masculine word beginning with a consonant,
Environs,
environs.
Vitraux, window-glass.

LA, before a feminino
Alentours,

L', before a word of either gender beginning with a vowel 'the. $ 12.-PROPER NAMES.

or h mute, (1.) Proper names, when not used figuratively, are invariable, LES, for the plural, in all cases, even when preceded by the plural article, les. *

Du, before a masculine word beginning with a consonant, of the,

DE LA, before a feminine L'Espagne s'bonore d'avoir produit Spain prides herself on having given

DE L' before a word of either gender beginning with a

from the les deux Senéque. birth to the troo Senecas. vowel or h mute,

80me, Les Locke, les Montesquieu, les J. J. Locke, Montesquieu, J. J. Rousseau,

any.

Des, for the plural, in all cases. Rousseau, en se levant en Europe, as they arose in Europe, called

Au, before a masculine word beginning with a consonant, ) appelèrent les peuples modernes upon modern nations to claim

feminine à la liberté. their liberty. À l' before a word of either gender beginning with a

to the. (2.) When proper names are used figuratively, they take the vowel or h mute, form of the plural:

Aux, for the plural, in all cases,
La France a eu ses Césars et ses Franca has had its Cæsars and its

Un, before a masculine noun,
Pompées.
Pompeys.

UNE, before a feminine noun,

D'un, before a masculine noun, of or from a,
That is-generals like Pompey and Cæsar.

D'une, before a feminine noun, )
Un coup d'oeil de Louis enfantait A glance from Louis produced À UN, before a masculine noun, at or to a, an,
des Corneilles.
Corneilles,

À UNE, before a feminine noun, S
That is-poets like Corneille.

Le père et la mère sont au déses. The father and mother are in des$ 13.-THE ARTICLE.

poir.

pair. (1.) The article is a word prefixed to a noun, or to a word L'amitié dans nos cæurs verse un Friendship pours a peaceful happi

bonheur paisible.

ness into our hearts. ased substantively, to determine the extent of its signification.

L'honneur au grands cours est Honour is dearer than life to noble (2.) Modern French grammarians recognise only one article, le. plus cher que la vie.

hearts. (3.) This article, contracted with the preposition de, is often Les filles et les garçons chantèrent The boys and girls sang in chorus. used before a word in a partitive sense. [$ 78.]

en chceur. (4.) The words un, masc., une, fem., answering to the indefi- Sur les rives du Gange on voit on the banks of the Ganges one sees nite article a or an in English, are now very properly † classed

fleurir l'ébène.

the ebony in bloom. with the numeral adjectives. We shall, however, for the sake La violette se cache timidement au The violet conceals itself timidly in

milieu des filles de l'ombre. the midst of the daughters of the of convenience, devote a few lines to them under this head.

shade. (5.) The article le, the, is la for the feminine, and les for the Le remords se réveille au cri de la Remorse is aroused by the cry of plural.

nature.

nature. (6.) The article is subject to two kinds of changes, elision La moitié des humains vit aux The half of mankind lives at the [$ 146] and contraction.

dépens de l'autre.

expense of the other. (7.) Elision is the suppression of the letters e, a, which are

$ 14-1.—THE ADJECTIVE. replaced by an apostrophe [?] before a vowel or an h mute (see $ 13 (11): thus:

(1.) The adjective serves to denote the quality or manner of L'esprit, the mind, instead of le esprit.

being of the noun. L'amitié, the friendship,

la amitié.

(2.) Adjectives are of two sorts, qualifying adjectives and L'homme, the man,

le homme. determining adjectives. L'humanité, kumanity,

la humanité. (3.) We call qualifying adjectives those which add to the idea (8.) Contraction is the union of the article le, les with one of of the object, that of a quality proper to it: as bon, good; the prepositions d, de. Thus, we say by contraction

noble, noble ; courageux, courageous. Au litre, to the book, instead of à le livre.

(4.) Determining adjectives are those which add to the idea of Aux fruits, to the fruits,

à les fruits.

the object, that of a particular limitation or determination : as Du livre, of the book,

de le livre.

quelque, some; tout, all; autre, other; mon, my; nul, no; an, Des fruits, of the fruits,

de les fruits.

one ; deux, two. (9.) The contractions au, du are not used before masculine

$ 14-2.-QUALIFYING ADJECTIVES. words commencing with a vowel, or an h mute, nor before

(1.) These adjectives may express qualities : 1. Simply; 2. feminine words :

With comparison ; 3. Carried to a very high degree. Thence À l'homme, to the man.

De l'homme, of the man. the three degrees of qualification: the positive, the comparaÀ l'ami, to the friend.

De l'ami, of the friend. tive, and the superlative. (10.) The article used before words taken in a partitive sense (2.) The positive is nothing but the adjective in its simplest [$ 78 (1)], comes in connection or contraction with the prepo- signification :

Moi, je suis à Paris, triste, pauvre, At Paris I am sad, poor, and so Often used by the French before the names of celebrated indi reclus.

cluded. viduals. + No difference can be made iu rendering English into French,

(3.) The comparative is the adjective expressing a comparison between a and one, so that in French un homme means a man or one between two of several objects. There is, then, between the man. The other unmeral adjectives might with as much propriety objects compared, a relation of equality, superiority, or inferiority. have beon called articles as this word un.

(4.) The comparison of equality expresses a quality in the

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