« 前へ次へ »
10. A man agreed to give a labourer 12s. a day for every day he been dispatched 5 days, when a second was sent after him, worked, but for every day he was idle he should forfeit 8s. travelling 75 miles a day. In what time will the one overtake After 390 days they settled, and their account was even. How the other ? many days did he work ?
35. A's age is double that of B, and B's age triple that of C, 11. Three persons, A, B, and C, draw prizes in a lottery. A and the sum of all their ages 140. What is the age of each ? draws £200, B draws as much as A, together with a third of 36. Two pieces of cloth, at the same price by the yard, but of what C draws; and C draws as much as A and B both. What is different lengths, were bought, the one for £5, and the other for the amount of the three prizes ?
£6}. If 10 yards be added to the length of each, the sums will 12. What number is that which is to 12 increased by three be as 5 to 6. Required the length of each piece. times the number, as 2 to 9 ?
37. A and B began trade with equal sums of money. The 13. A ship and a boat are descending a river at the same first year A gained £40, and B lost £40. The second year A time. The ship passes a certain fort when the boat is 13 miles lost of what he had at the end of the first, and B gained £40 below. The ship descends 5 miles, while the boat descends 3. less than twice the sum which A had lost. B had then twice At what distance below the fort will they be together ?
as much money as A. What sum did each begin with ? 14. What number is that, a sixth part of which exceeds an 38. What number is that, which being severally added to 36 eighth part of it by 20 ?
and 52, will make the former sum to the latter as 3 to 4? 15. Divide a prize of £2,000 into two such parts that one of 39. A gentleman bought a chaise, horse, and harness for £360. them shall be to the other as 9 to 7.
The horse cost twice as much as the harness, and the chaise 16. What sum of money is that whose third part, fourth cost twice as much as the harness and horse together. What part, and fifth part, added together, amount to £94 ?
was the price of each? 17. Two travellers, A and B, 360 miles apart, travel towards 40. Out of a cask of wine, from which had leaked } part, 21 each other till they meet. A's progress is 10 miles an hour, and gallons were afterwards drawn; when the cask was found to be B's 8. How far does each travel before they meet ?
half full. How much did it hold? 18. A man spent one-third of his life in England, one-fourth 41. A man has 6 sons, each of whom is four years older than of it in Scotland, and the remainder of it, which was 20 years, his next younger brother; and the eldest is three times as old in the United States. To what age did he live ?
as the youngest. What is the age of each ? 19. What number is that, į of which is greater than of 42. Divide the number 49 into two such parts, that the it by 96 ?
greater increased by 6, shall be to the less diminished by 11, as 20. A post is į in the earth, in the water, and 13 feet above 9 to 2. the water. What is the length of the post ?
43. What two numbers are as 2 to 3; to each of which, if 4 21. What number is that, to which 10 being added, of the be added, the sums will be as 5 to 7 ? sum will be 66 ?
44. A person bought two casks of porter, one of which held 22. Of the trees in an orchard, are apple-trees, to pear- just three times as much as the other ; from each of these he trees, and the remainder peach-trees, which are 20 more than drew 4 gallons, and then found that there were 4 times as many
of the whole. What is the whole number of trees in the gallons remaining in the larger as in the other. How many orchard ?
gallons were there in each ? 23. A gentleman bought several gallons of wine for £94 ; and after using 7 gallons himself, sold of the remainder for KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA, £20. How many gallons had he at first?
EXERCISE 26. 24. A and B have the same income. A contracts an annual debt amounting to of it; B lives upon of it; at the end of 2. * = (a + b) * (?- d).
1. x = 94.
5. x= 9-13, or x = 818.
6. x = 72. ten years B lends to A enough to pay off his debts, and has 3. z= 4.
7. = 7. £160 to spare. What is the income of each ?
abgm + adem-adgh
8. x= 10. 25. A gentleman lived single of his whole life ; and after 4. 2=
9. x= 70. having been married 5 years more than of his life, he had a
EXERCISE 27. son, who died 4 years before him, and who reached only half the age of his father. To what age did the father live?
1. = = } ( - )
3. x =(a+d) h – 45 26. What number is that, of which if $, j, and be added
4 (h - 1)
7. *= 2. + 2b.
8. = 3, together, the sum will be 73 ?
9. = 12. 27. A person after spending £100 more than 1 of his income, 2. x =
10. X = 2.
EXERCISE 28. was 10lbs. more than of the whole, the sulphur 4llbs. less 1. x= 104.
15. x= = 13. than , of the whole, the charcoal 2lbs. less than of the whole. 2. x= 3275.
16. x = 9. What was the amount of gunpowder ?
17. x = 7. 29. A cask which held 146 gallons, was filled with a mixture
18. = 4. of brandy, wine, and water. There were 15 gallons of wine more (abc-d) (-m-).
20. = 7. than of brandy, and as much water as the brandy and wine to
21. = 1. gether. What quantity was there of each ?
22. = 4. 30. Four persons purchased a farm in company for £4,755;
5. æ= mcd +
0 + c + 2 of which В paid three times as much as A; C paid as much as 6. x= 8.
2. = 4. A and B; and D paid as much as C and B. What did each abc (d - h).
25. X = 2. pay?
-ac + bc
26. I= 45. 31. It is required to divide the number 99 into five such parts 8. = 12.
4. = d +1.
c (h - m).
3. æ= (be - a) (m + m)
23. X = 6.
27. a= 23. that the first may exceed the second by 3, be less than the 9. x = 231. third by 10, greater than the fourth by 9, and less than the fifth 10. x = 253.
29. r = 40. by 16.
11. x= }(1-a).
30. = 19.
31. = 51. 32. A father divided a small sum among four sons; the third
12. x=-376. had 9 shillings more than the fourth, the second had 12 shillings
32. = 420.
33. x= 11.
EXERCISE 29. the sum which the youngest received. What was the sum
1. 7 and 4.
8. 2007 miles from 13. A's share, L416 divided ?
2. 5, 8, 2, 24.
138.40.; B's, £266 3. 48. 9. 16, 32, and 12.
135, 4d.; and C's, 33. A farmer had two flocks of sheep, each containing the
10. £116 138, 40, and £316 138. 4d. same number. Having sold from one of these 39, and from the
£93 6s." 8d. 14, 50. other 93, he finds twice as many remaining in the former as in 6 240 and 200. 11. £1,000.
15, 5,040. the latter. How many did each flock originally contain ? 7. 210 miles from 12. 45 and 15 years. 16, 25 and 19. 34. An express travelling at the rate of 60 miles a day, had London.
28. * = 12.
RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY. plant, and common throughont England, and some districts of
Siberia and Africa. It is found growing abundantly in hedge NIGHTSHADES.
rows, and about old walls and ruins. It is a woody-sternmed AMONGST botanists the nightshade family (Solani) are placed but trailing perennial plant, flowering in June and July. The in the class Pentandria, order Monogynia, natural order Lurida. flowers, which are of a bluish-purple, with a projecting yellow In a purely scientific point of view this arrangement is no spike in the centre, are followed by clusters of berries, which doubt very complete and intelligible to those who are far ripen in September and October. When ripe they present a too well informed to mistake a nightshade for any other plant; most attractive and tempting appearance, being of a rich full red but it is our object to lay before such of our readers as are not tint. A reference to Fig. 1 in the illustration on the opposite page acquainted with the anatomy and structural differences distin- will serve to show the form of the flower, leaf, stem, and fruit. guishing botanical species, enough information, aided by illustra- All parts of the plant are poisonous, and, as would appear by tions, to guard them from the fate which a short time since the lamentable catastrophe we have before referred to, the root unfortunately befel Captain Bawden and his party, whilst en must be most virulently so, to destroy the life of a strong, robust gaged in a search for minerals in the Isle of Man. Many of man in a few minutes. The shoots and young leaves of this our readers will remember that, feeling fatigued and thirsty, plant have been occasionally used in medicine, but we are not he and his companions pulled up from the earth a plant, the aware of their possessing any special quality to recommend them root of which bore some fanciful resemblance to that of a wild in a curative point of view. carrot, and ate & portion of it. In less than fifteen minutes Next in order we proceed to describe the plant known as the Captain Bawden paid the forfeit of his want of discretion with Deadly Nightshade "Dwale” (Atropa belladonna), and from which his life. The others, who partook more sparingly of the root, the so-called “nettle-berries before mentioned were gathered. fortunately procured milk, which they found alleviated their This is also a native of England, and is found growing wild in sufferings, and in time recovered. Some time since we remem. the hedges and woods of many districts. This plant, or rather ber being witness to extraordinary popular excitement and bush, is also a perennial, and not unfrequently reaches from consternation, caused by a number of people being taken five to six feet in height. The leaves are ovate and entire, and suddenly and dangerously ill, through eating tarts and puddings the flowers somewhat the shape of the common harebell of our made from an unknown fruit, which some stranger to the neigh. woods and hedges, but larger, and of a rich and lurid purple bourhood had been vending at a cheap rate, under the name of colour, each Aower springing alone from axis or union nettle-berries. An examination of some of the berries which between the leaf and stalk. As the flower passes away it is remained unconsumed showed them to be the fruit of the succeeded by the fruit, which, when mature, is about the size deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) of which we shall have of an ordinary cherry, black in colour, rich in bloom, and more to say as we proceed. Some members of the Solani of a sweetish and rather agreeable taste; but the growing with which we shall have to deal are indigenous to the soil plant when approached, particularly when the fresh dew of England; others have become acclimatised, and although of morning hangs on it, gives forth an oppressive and originally natives of a warmer climate, now grow freely in this faint odour. This plant, like 8. dulcamara, grows luxuriantly country. We will commence our remarks, then, with the most among fallen walls and the ruins of old buildings. Every important nightshade in the world, a plant which may be said part of the plant is both narcotic and poisonous, but in the hands to rank next to corn in food-yielding importance in most of the pharmaceutical chemist it yields products of great medi. civilised countries. Solanum tuberosum, the common potato of cinal value. Possessing, as its extract does, the curious property our fields and gardens, was first introduced by Sir Walter of dilating the pupillary opening of the eye, this property Raleigh, who brought the roots irom Quito, and caused them to is taken advantage of by the oculist as an aid in prosecuting be planted in his own garden at Youghal, in Ireland. On the his examinations as to the condition of the eye, and in the plants arriving at maturity, Sir Walter's old gardener, availing prosecution of such operations on that organ as may be himself of the privileges of his situation, gathered some of the requisite. It is also used extensively in both neuralgic and fruit, or “ potato apples," as they are now called, and tasted pulmonary affections; so that deadly nightshade, like many them. Those of our readers who have eaten of this particularly other justly dreaded natural productions, is found to possess unpalatable and unwholesome production will feel no wonder its good qualities as well as its evil ones, when we know that the ire of the old man should have been raised. Breaking how to avail ourselves of them. Fig. 2 in the annexed illusin unceremoniously on his master's studies, he exclaimed, “If tration represents the leaf, stem, flower, and embryo fruit of the this is your fine foreign fruit, I would not give it garden room, deadly nightshade. The term Belladonna applied to this plant not I!” “Well,” said Sir Walter, “if it is as bad as you say, appears to have been derived from the practice which was at dig it up at once ; but if you find any roots worth looking at, one time made of using the juices as a cosmetic; hence we bring them to me." It is, perhaps, needless to say that the roots have the name “ Beautiful Lady." Atropa we have from the proved very well worth examining. It was not, however, until name of one of the Fates, “Atropos ;” and Drale from the about 1732 that regular potato crops were cultivated in Scot- French deuil (grief), a figurative destination at which you are land. England followed the example set by the Scottish far- pretty sure to arrive if you partake of the atropa fruit. mers, and grew the new root. So deep was the prejudice There is a plant found growing abundantly in almost every existing against this plant in the minds of the ignorant, that hedgerow in England, which has been by popular error comwhen the Russian government issued seed potatoes to the native monly confounded with the plant just described, and incorrectly cultivators, with orders to attend to the increase of the crop, called deadly nightshade, or the " poison-berry." This plant is the new tubers were called the “Devil's apples," a name which, the Bryonia or Briony, but it is in no way related to the true in some remote districts of the Qural, they still bear.
nightshades or Solani, being a member of the family of Cucur In its wild state the potato grows its tubers very near and bitacea, to which melons, goards, vegetable marrows, cucumbers, often even on the surface of the ground. They are small, acrid, etc., belong. Most of our readers will have observed this trailand by no means tempting in appearance. The Spaniards and ing, climbing plant, vine-like in foliage and mode of growth, throw Portuguese
appear to have discovered its value before its intro- ing out its long corkscrew-shaped tendrils and greenish-yellor duction to England by Raleigh. The word " potato," pronounced flowers in the months of June and July. These are succeeded in by the Spaniards battata, is no doubt a corruption of the the autumn by clusters of very beautiful scarlet berries or fruit
, original 'native name. In addition to its value as a culinary which, from their currant-like and juicy appearance, are not upvegetable, the potato tuber is remarkable for producing by frequently eaten of by children and ignorant persons. Every part treatment an abundant supply of farina, from which a very of this variety growing in Great Britain is poisonous, although large quantity of the tapioca sold in our shops is manufactured. the young shoots of a plant of kindred species growing abroad are Potato flour or starch, under the name of arrowroot, has also boiled and eaten, just as we eat asparagus, with impunity. The a considerable sale. The potato plant is probably too root of our hedge-briony at times grows to a very large size, and familiar to our readers to need description. The blossom, although is not unfrequently mistaken for that of the mandrake, to be of larger size, closely resembles that of Solanum dulcamara, hereafter described. Fig. 3 represents the leaf, stem, and flower represented at Fig. 1. The potato fruit is about the size of the common Brionia. The berries are round, about the size of a large marble, and contains numerous seeds. Solanum of small peas, and contain an acrid, poisonous juice, which dulcamara, woody nightshade,
or bitter-sweet, is an indigenous has been highly extolled as a remedy for ringworm. The
root, too, has been much used in the treatment of the diseases nean Ports, much resemble these in growth and qualities, and of cattle. Next to this we have a true nightshade, Solanum are extensively used in cookery. The Mandrake or May apple rigrum (black or common garden nightshade), which is often (Mandragora) is a Solanum which has from very early periods found growing on the waste lands and in the rural districts of of history been regarded with much superstitious dread, which England. Few persons who notice wild
has probably arisen, partly from its plants will have failed to see it. The
poisonous properties, and partly from leaves are entire, and covered with fine
its large and irregularly-shaped roots, hairs. The flowers are white, the fruit
which at times grow in the upcouth almost black, and the stalk easily
form of a man. Shakespeare writesbroken. We are not aware of any use to which this plant has been applied.
Fig. 1. " And shrieks like mandraks torn out of
the earth, Henbane, or hogbane (Hyoscyamus
That living mortals hearing them run niger), is another true Solanum, and
mad." is found in many parts of England; it
The notion that prevailed in bygrows to about two feet in height, and is
gone days regarding the sounds of covered with fine bristles or hairs, which
complaint uttered by the mandrake give off a fetid odour. The flowers,
when being rooted up appears to have which are arranged in a double row
been widely entertained by the ignoon the stem, are most peculiar, being
rant. Misfortune of the most serious of a rich chocolate-yellow tinged with
kind was believed to be the portion brown, and veined with a perfect
of any one bold or rash enough to
members of the Solanum group to will cause all mice to at once depart.
be found in distant countries. Over The tomato or love-apple (Solanum
400 species have been already enumeLycopersicum), although not indigenous
rated by botanists. It is our object to England, is so well known as a
to deal more particularly with plants culinary vegetable that it could by
and flowers of the nightshade family 90 possibility be mistaken for anything else. The Egg-plant, which may, perchance, come under the immediate observation Jew's apple, or Mad apple (Solanum melongenæ), is also an of our readers at home. The plant-world, even in our little island exotic, but is used by Continental cooks as an ingredient in soups, home, is a tolerably large one, and we hope in a future paper to hashes, etc. “Bringalls,” a common vegetable of the Mediterra- | pay another visit to it, with our readers as pleasant companions.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XXXIX. Keltic race, occupying positions of dignity at the courts of
In a list given by the very learned German philologist Adelung THE Celtic element in the English language has received far (Mithridates II. 40) of genuine Celtic words found gathered less attention than it deserves. Till recently, indeed, its exist- from very ancient sources, and found in Teutonic tongues, the ence was scarcely known; and when at length it compelled following have representatives in the English of the present recognition, its appearance was restricted to names of places, day: particularly the great outlines of the country, such as hills, Aber, as in Aberconway and several other Welsh names, denotes the mountains, headlands, rivers, etc.
mouth of a river, the confluence of a river with the sea; and hence a The ordinary teaching of the schools was, that the original bay or harbour. It is found in the French Havre (Havre-de-Grace) British natives of these islands were extirpated by the invading and in the English harbour. and conquering Saxons to such an extent, that the former were
Alpes, the ancient Gallic designation for any high land; hence our able to sustain themselves only in the mountain fastnesses of Albion, so called from its lofty cliffs. the extreme parts of the country, Scotland in the north, Corn
Bard, the Gallic name for post, singer, prophet. wall in the south, and Wales in the west. In those parts, persons of low and unworthy birth.
Bastard, from the Welsh bas, low, and tardd, to come forth; hence, unquestionably, the native British successfully withstood their
Becco, Gallic, our beak. Saxon invaders, and there transmitted their vernacular tongue Beria, a level field, a plain; hence the numerous instances of bery us from generation to generation. Not less is it true that the a termination of English names of places. British element in the population of the lowlands was neither Braca, Gallic, a dam, a limit; Scotch, bray; French, braie, a hedge. uprooted nor absorbed. Extermination is a rare event in the Braccæ, Gallic, breeches. migrations and changes of tribes and nations. Scarcely would
Brace, i.e., corn, whence the Gauls made their beer; hence the words it be too much to affirm that extermination never takes place. brew, brewer, beer. And even absorption is only partial. Besides, if blood is ab- itself signifies in the Celtic a town, as in Boroughbridge.
Bria, briga, perhaps from the Welsh brig, brigyn, a hill-top. Briga sorbed, it does not lose its primitive qualities. Still less easy
Carn, a group of stones or rocks ; hence our Carn or Cairn and Corn. of absorption is a language. A living language--that is, a wall (stony Wales). language vernacular to the aboriginals of a country-stamps Carra, a Gallic four-wheeled carriage, a car, cart, to carry, carta. itself on the entire land and on the whole life of the people. Carruca, among the Gauls a convenient travelling carriage; French, That impression is all but indelible. Only the attrition and caroche ; English, coach. abrasion of centuries can wear the image down, much less Craig, in Welsh a rock, precipice; our crag. wholly efface it. The language of the cottage is one of the few
Druid, the Gallic name for priest, permanent things on earth; and when, by the extruding power
Dur, water ; Welsh, dur; as in Derwent, Derby, Dorchester. of the language of the court, and of books, and of commerce, fool; German, tou.
Fou, foolish ; Welsh, foll; French, fou; Scotch, fou (tipsy); English, it is compelled to withdraw into narrower and narrower limits,
Lancea, Gallic for lance. it ceases to be a language only to become a dialect and a patois Marga, marl; whence Marlborough and Albemarlı, (the language of the peasants of a province), and still maintains Nant, water, river ; whence Nantwich. an existence in what we call provincialisms and vulgarisms, Pen, a summit, head; as in Pencraig in Hereford and Pengover in when at length it is wholly banished from cultivated society. Cornwall, Penistone in Yorkshire, Penrith in Cumberland. Nor only there does it survive ; it lives on in the warp and woof
Rit, a ford; hence the ending rit as in Camboritum, Cambridge. of the spoken and written tongue. These allegations are borne
Soldurii (sol, bond, and ur, Latin, vir, a man), boundmen, or men out by the fact that in our present English, the original Celtic engaged to each other and to their leader in war ; our soldier.
Spatha, a two-edged sword; whence, through the German spate, is of these islands still remains to no inconsiderable extent.
our spade. The Celts (or, as the fashion now is, the Kelts), as far back as Tan, land, as in Britain (Britannia, the land of the Britti, or painted history goes, were the primitive inhabitants of England, Wales, people; so we say the blacks, the whites, the fair.) Scotland, and Ireland. The race at large, in an ante-historic The names father, mother, sister, and brother, are of necessity period, migrated from Central Asia into Europe, and, spreading among the first. They are also the most enduring. Consult, over its surface, penetrated to its western limits.
then, this table :The Celtic language is now acknowledged to have affinities
English. with the important group of languages denominated the Indo
Tad (dad), tad,
father, dad, daddy. Germanic, of which the Sanscrit, the Greek, and the German may
mother, mamma, mammy. be taken as representatives. At the same time, the Celtic lan
brawd, brother. guage, as being a language spoken by an independent family of Choar,
chwaer, sister. nations, possesses essentially independent features.
Our words father and mother come to us from the Indo-GerThere are still six Celtic tongues or dialects recognised in manic stem ; but the cottage words, the nursery words, the Europe. Of these, four belong to the British Islands. A fifth, words of intimate affection, dad, daddy, mam, mamma, mamany, the Cornish, now nearly or quite extinct, also pertained to the are derived from our British or Celtic forefathers. The oldest same insular home of the Keltai or Celts. The sixth, the Ar- forms of a language are found in the cottage and on the hill
. morican, belongs to Brittany, a country connected with Britain side. In both those spots, and in the provincialisms which still in history as well as in name.
in a measure survive, a considerable number of Celtic words
remain. These words are among the most expressive. Take THE CELTIC TONGUES.
the term mettle. Even Webster, after other great lexicographi1. THE GALLIC OR BRITISH, II, THE GAELIC OR ERSE, cal authorities, originally derived this from the Greek root including
including 1. Cymric or Welsh. 1. Fenic or Irish.
which gives us metal, namely, metallan, to scrutinise, to seek for 2. Cornish. 2. Gaelic or Highland Scotch.
by digging; as if a man of mettle and a man of metal were not 3. Armorican or Breton. 3. Manx.
as much opposed to each other as a high-spirited man and a
money-grub. Turn to the Welsh, and you find in meddwl (mind, The statements that have been made as to the survival of the courage, which by the vulgar is called pluck), the exact idea Celtic element in our national life and literature may be con- which mettle conveys; for examplefirmed by a quotation from an author of merit, whose studies
“The winged courser, like a generous horse, and whose subject would naturally incline him to give predomi Shows most truo mottle when you check his course." - Pope. nance to Saxon claims :-“Nothing is more common or less true than the exaggerated account of total exterminations and mise. word, giving rise to the general idea of making a thing good,
To fettle, is in the genuine Lancashire dialect a very expressivo rable oppressions in the traditional literature of conquered excellent, delicious; and, occurring in such instances as to fettie nations; and we may very safely appeal even to the personal a horse, "means to restore him to soundness; to fettle a wife appearance of the peasantry in many parts of England as evi- means to put her to rights ; fettled ale means ale warmed with dence how much Keltic blood was permitted to subsist and even spice, spirits, eggs, etc. The word,
together with our common to mingle with that of the ruling Germans; while the signatures to very early charters supply us with names assuredly not Teu • "The Saxons in England,” by J, M. Kemble, 2 vols. Sro, 180; tonic or Saxon), and therefore possibly borne by persons of Vol. I., p. 21.
IRISH OR FENIC.
IRISH OR FENIC.
k. In pre
the word ; thus, .bo The Times newspaper, Abel.
term fat, of which fettle is a diminutive verbal form, has its 186. Accent may be shown by writing a small cross close to origin in the Welsh Ffaeth, meaning luxuriant, ripe, rich. the vowel of the accented syllable; thus, arrows, at arose,
We have cast our eye down a page or two of an Irish dic- 7 renew'. It is, however, more convenient to use Phonetic Longtionary, and found these coincidences :
hand when marking the accent of a word. IRISH OR FENIC WORDS IDENTICAL WITH ENGLISH.
187. Emphasis is marked as in longhand, by drawing one, two,
or more, lines underneath ; a single line under a single word must be Abal, an apple. Apfel. Ball, a ball, globe.
made wave-like, thus Acra, an acre. Bann, a band of men.
to distinguish it from Acker.
Bande, Aer, air (Greek, aer).
Baran, a baron.
paring manuscript for the press, a single line thus drawn underneath, Aes, age (Latin, aetas).
Barc, a boat, barque. Barke. (wavy for a single word, and straight for more than one,) signifies Aire, e chest, ark (Latin,
Bard, a poet, bard. Barde. italic; two lines (which need not be waved) SHALL CAPITALS, and arca). Arche. Barra, a bar,
Barre. three lines LARGE CAPITALS. For ITALIC CAPITALS draw Airbhe, a rib. Rippe, ribbo. Be, life, being.
three lines, and write “Italic” in the margin. Aird, a country, carth Be, is, be.
188. AN INITIAL CAPITAL is marked by two short lines under (Scotch, yird). Erde. Beach, a bee.
Bien. Baban, a baby, infant.
Bear, a bear.
189. Figures are written as usual, or the words may be expressed (? Babel).
Plapperer. bring forth.
in Phonography. When the figures one and six are written by
beard (Latin, barba). Barbieren. themselves, they should be formed thus, 1, 6, that they may not Bairghin, a son, bairn. Beathach, abeast (French,
be mistaken for shorthand characters. Bairile, a barrel. éte).
REPORTING. Baitselear, a bachelor.
From the Welsh the following among other instances have 190. In the “Reporter's Companion " the reader will find further been given by the Rev. R. Garnett* :
principles of abbreviation that will enable him to attain the goal of COINCIDENCES BETWEEN THE WELSH AND THE ENGLISH.
verbatim reporting. As it is almost impossible for rapid writers of PhoBasged, a basket. Gwichet, a wicket (Fr, guichet).
nography, when corresponding with others less advanced, to adhere Bottwm, a button.
Hem, a border, hem (Sax, hem). strictly to the Corresponding Style, as developed in this series of Bran, skin of wheat, bran. Llath, a lath (Sax. latta).
Lessons, a list of the PRINCIPAL reporting grammalogues is given, Brat, a clout, a brat or pinafore. Matos, a mattock (Sax. mattuc). to assist in reading the Reporting Style. The figures denote the posiBrodiaw, to embroider (Fr, broder). Mop, a mop.
tions in which the words are written. (See par. 139.) Bwyell, a hatchet, a bill (Germ. biel). Paeol, a pail. Cab, caban, a hut, cabin (Fr, cabane). Pan, a bowl, pan (Sax. ponne).
LIST OF REPORTING GRAMMA LOGUES. Cne, an enclosure, quay (Fr. quai). Parc, an enclosure, park (Fr. parc).
CONSONANTS. K, 1 can, 2 come Ceubal , cobble, a boat (Sax. cuople). Polen, a littlo ball, pellet (Fr. pelote). P, 1 happy, 2 up, hope, 3 put
kt, 1 quite, act, 2 could Crochan, a pot, crockery (Sax.crocca). Piser, a jug, pitcher.
kn, 1 coin, 2 queen Crog, a hook, crook (Celt. crok). Rhail, a fence, rail (Germ. ralle),
ps-shn, 2 possession, 3 position
ks, 1 cause, because, 2 case Dantaeth, a choice morsel, dainty.
ps, 1 pass, 2 hopes, 3 peace, piece knt, 1 cannot, kind, 3 account Rhasg, a slice, rasher, Darn, a patch, darn (Sax, dearnan). a
pn, 1 happen, 2 upon, open
kl, 1 call, 3 equal-ly Filasged, flasket (Fr. Hasque). Tacl, instrument, tackle (German, pnt, I happened, point, opened, kr, 1 Christian-ity, 2 care, 3 accrue Pilaw, a shiver, flauc. takel).
krt, 1 according, 2 court Fiynel, a funnel. Tasel, fringo, tassel.
pr, 2 pray, 3 principle, principal
(in phraseography appear) A knowledge of the laws which affect the permutation of
G, 1 go, ago, 2 give-n
gd, 1 God, 2 good letters in words as they appear in different languages or dialects prt 1 particular, 2 opportunity
prf, 1 approve, 3 proof, prove
1 would disclose to the student many Celtic terms in English, of
gone, 2 again, gain
gl, 2 glory, glorify-ied which otherwise he would have no suspicion. I have given
gld, 1 glad, 2 gold clear examples. Other very clear examples could be added." IB. 1, by, 2 be, 3 to be
bt, 3 about
grd, 2 great shall for exercise subjoin a few Celtic words with their several bs, 2 base, 3 abuse meanings, leaving the student to discover the corresponding bv, 2 above
F, 1 off, half, 2 if, 3 few English terms.
ft, 1 after
bn, 1 combine, 2 been, 3 boon
ftr, 2 father, 3 if there
fr, 1 often, 2 Phonography Cic (kik),
bit, 2 able to, 3 build-ing a foot.
a youth, Cluder, a heap.
Llodes, a girl.
fr, 1 offer, 2 for Cnoc (knok),
ber-ed, 3 number
frtr, 3 for there, for their
brd, 1 broad, 2 bread, bred
Ifr, 2 from, 3 free
frtr, 3 further, from their Cocru, to indulge.
T, 1 at, 2 it, 3 out
V, 2 have, 3 view
un, 2 heaven, 3 even
vr, 1 over, 2 ever-y Filawg, a young mare. Tariaw, to loiter, stay. tr, 1 try, 2 truth, 3 true
vr, 2 very, 3 however Fug, deception. Tosiaw, to throw.
trt, 1 tried, 2 toward Fwrw, down. Tripiaw, to stumble.
(Light TH.) Glyn, a valley.
Troddi, to move for cards. D, i had, die, 2 do, day, TH, 1 thank, 2 think, 3 youth Gweddu, to unite.
Wyna, to bear lambs. dá, 3 did [3 different, difference tht, 1 thought Gwylaw, to weep.
df, 3 difficult-y
thr, 1 author dn, 2 done, 3 down
thr, 2 throw, 3 three, through LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XIII.
dnt, 1 had not, 2 do not, 3 did not thrt, 2 third
dr, 1 draw, 2 dear, 3 during PUNCTUATION, ETC.
(Heavy TH.) 185. Stops should be written in the usual way, except the Period, C#, 1 much, 2 which, 3 each
TH, 1 though, thy, 2 them, they, for which a small cross is used; thus, , ; :* The Hyphen is writ-chs, 2 which is, 3 choose
3 thee, thou ten thus, la two-fold; the Dash thus, H; Exclamation; chf, 2 which have, 3 chief
tht, 1 that, 2 without A smile.
chld, 1 child
ths, 1 those, thyself, 2 this, thus, chr, 2 chair, 3 cheer
thss, 2 themselves, this is (3 these
thn, 1 than, thine, 2 then * " Proceedings of the Philological Society," Vol. I., p. 171. In
thr, 1 either, 2 other these and the preceding examples, we have appended the correspond-J, 1 large, joy, 2 age, 3 advantage thr, 2 there, their ing words in German, French, and Saxon, in order to enable our js, 1 joys, 2 ages, 3 advantages, readers to judge for themselves. It is more than possible that many religious
s circle, 1 as, has, 2 is, his of these words in the Welsh are borrowed from the English. It is a in, 1 join, 2 general-ly, 3 religion s stroke, 1 saw, 2 so, us, 3 sce very difficult matter to separate the original words from those that jnt, 1 gentleman, joined, 2 gentle skr, 1 Scripture are borrowed.
jshn, 2 generation [men skrt, 3 secret