« 前へ次へ »
matter of metre than modern poets have done; and there are in part of Jean de Meun, two poets who lived, one nearly a a large number of his lines in which, though a certain rhythm century and a half, and the other nearly a century before is preserved, the syllables will not bear counting. The main Chaucer. The work is, as usual, an allegory, in which, under key to Chaucer's versification is to be found in what we the person of Amant or Lover, are detailed the adventures of have already explained the sounding of the final e. It must true love in its pursuit of the rose, the object of its affection. also be remembered that many words of French origin, such “ The House of Fame” is a dream and an allegory, like the as courage, menace, liquour, were not pronounced as we pro- preceding poems, but an allegory of a very different class. The nounce them, with a marked emphasis on the first syllable, poet is borne by a golden eagle to the temple of Fame, where courage, ménace, liquour, but as in French, with both syllables the goddess sits enthroned, and awards such measure of fame equally emphasised, courage, ménace, líquóur.
as she will to those who seek her honours, while the names of A thorough understanding of Chaucer's system of versification the great dead are inscribed in their appropriate places opou is of so much importance to any one beginning to read his the temple. This scheme' affords to Chaucer not only ample works, that we give here the first twelve lines of the Prologue space for brilliant and impressive description, but for kesti to the "Canterbury Tales” as they are commonly printed, followed discrimination of the characteristics of those to whom he assigne by a metrical arrangement of the same. Both the text and the a place in the temple; while the injustice of the goddess's metrical arrangement of it are taken from Mr. Bell's edition of decrees admits of that satiric treatment of which Chaucer was Chaucer :
a master. The general character of this poem is known to " Whan' that Aprille, with his showres swoote,
most readers through Pope's modernised version of it, wder The drought of Marche hath perced to the roote,
the name of “The Temple of Fame." And bathud every veyne in swich licour,
The long poem of “Troilus and Cressida," and the series of Of which vertue engendred is the flour;
tales published under the title of "The Legend of Good Women," Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth
are of a wholly different school. In them we find nothing of Enspirud hath in every holte and heeth
dream or allegory, nothing of the dreamy unreality of the The tendre croppes, and the yonges soune Hath in the Ram his halfe cours ironne,"
romance. The subjects, no doubt, are very remote from our And smale fowless maken melodie,
own time or from Chaucer's, but the interest of the poems That slepen alle night with open yhe, 10
is purely human and natural. “Troilus and Cressida,” thonghi So priketh hem nature in here corages, 11
many of its principal characters are Homeric, is founded on a Thanne longen folk to gon' on pilgrimages."
story wholly unknown to, and, indeed, quite out of harmony “Whán that | April | 18, with his schow | rès swoöte,
with the notions of classical times. Chaucer, no doubt, derived The drought of Marche hath per oëd to thě roote, the story from Boccaccio, just as Shakespeare afterwards borAnd bá | thud ēve / rý vēyne / In swish | licour,
rowed it from Chaucer. The "Legend of Good Women" consists of which | vērtu i èngôn | drěd is i thë flour ;
of a series of nine stories of women in ancient times famons for Whản Zē phạrūs, l eěk with | hys swed | tě breeth
their constancy and devotion in love. It is said that this book Enspi | råd hāth Yn éve / rý hölte | ind heeth
is one of the very latest of Chaucer's works; and there is Thể tên | drõ crop | pẽs, &nd | thế võn | gõ sõnne
internal evidence to support the view. There is also a tradition Håth in the Rám | his hal | le cours | fronde,
that the work was intended as a kind of apology to the fair And smá | lè fow | lès má kon më I lodie, Thăt slē 1 pěn al lě night with o | pěn ģhe,
sex to atone for any harshness with which he might have treated 88 pri | këth hêm nătüre in here corăges,
women in his earlier works. Thinne lön i gěn folk | to gon on pilgrimages."
There are many other shorter poems of Chaucer which our The most instructive classification of the writings of a great space does not allow us to examine. And he has left us one author is almost always that founded upon chronological order, separate work in prose, “ The Testament of Love," a work of forwuch an arrangement shows us not only the author's works, of much discussion, in consequence of an idea, probably without
no great importance in itself, but which has been the subject but the history of his mind as well. The history of Chaucer's foundation, that the book contains, under an allegorical guise, writings is so ill ascertained,
that no chronological arrangement the story of the author's own life. of them can be reliable. But they may usefully be grouped into certain classes, according to their general character. In Canterbury Tales," which we shall do in the next lesson.
It remains only to consider Chaucer's greatest werk, the the first place, we find a series of poems, some of them of considerable length, but by no means among the longest of Chaucer's poems, which distinctly belong, in subject, in form, THE UNIVERSITIES.–VII. and in treatment, to the school of the French romance-writers,
DUBLIN UNIVERSITY.-II. who, as we have seen, had from the first supplied the literary appetite of the Normans in England. They are almost all dreams HAVING passed his final Michaelmas Examination, the student and allegories of love or kindred subjects. They are full of is publicly admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts (Artium graceful fancy, ingenuity of invention, keen appreciation of the Baccalaureus), in the Senate House, by the Chancellor or Vicebeauties of nature, and sweetness of versification. But they
Chancellor of the University. do not show the higher and rarer qualities of Chaucer's genius. called a commencements.” The fee which has to be paid for the
The proceedings on the occasion of conferring degrees in To this class belong “The Court of Love," "The Assembly of Fowls," " The Cuckoo and the Nightingale,” « The Flower and degree of B.A. is £1; and three years after the taking of his the Leaf,” “Chaucer's Dream,” and “The Book of the Duchess." books in the meantime, can proceed to the degree of Master of
B.A. the student, without keeping his name on the college Of these, the last-mentioned two refer, the one to the marriage, the other to the death, of Blanche, John of Gaunt's first wife. Arts (Artium Magister) by payment of the fee of £9 168. 6d. To the same class is to be referred the long poem, "The Ro- admit the graduates of one university to the same degree (aul
The three older Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin maunt of the Rose.” This is a translation of a very famous eundem gradem) in the other on payment of a fee of £1. French romance, the production in part of Guillaume de Lorris,
From the outline which we have given of an undergraduate's 1 When. · The third person plural of the course in Dublin University, it will be seen that
the entire cost 1. His was used for its as well present indicative, like slepen in of his course (if he be non-resident) will be entrance, £15, and as for his; its being of much later the next line, and longen. The form eight half-years' fees (eight guineas each); making, altogether. introduction.
has been already noticed. £82 4s. To this, of course, must be added the expense of at $ Sweet.
least nine journeys to Dublin during the four years, and the * In such moisture as to form Nature so stimulates them in expense of stopping there each time about three days. the power (virtue) by, which the their passions. He, hem, kere, are flower is produced.
In the foregoing we have spoken only of what is the minimas the usual forms in the English of of examinations required for a degree: there are numerous $ Early. Chaucer's day for they, them, their. honours and prizes which the more ambitious student
may In the sign of the Ram. ? Past participle for run. The the usual form of the infinitive
is obtain in all the departments of a university education. These form has been already observed in en. Hence, by a natural con- we will now explain, first treating of those which are most likely upon.
the infinitive of go be. to attract the attention of those whose limited moans would * Small birds. comes gon, as in the text.
render the aid thus offered to them a valuable boon.
students during their undergraduate course, which we cannot Young men of limited means, on proving such in the here enumerate ; we have mentioned above the most important. form of an application to the Senior Lecturer before the 1st of In addition to the undergraduate course in Arts, which we June in each year, will be allowed to become candidates for a have explained, there are Schools in the various faculties of sizarship, the examination for which is held each year in Trinity Divinity, Law, Medicine, and Engineering, with professors and Term, and the sizarships are granted, according to the number of lecturers attached to each, and numerous and valuable prizes. Facancies, to the best answerers. A sizarship is tenable for four To mention the requirements in these schools for their respecyears from the date of a student's entrance, and candidates are tive testimoniums and diplomas would occupy too much space. allowed to " enter" as Sizars, instead of passing the ordinary
Before joining any of these schools, and so becoming a "proEntrance Examination, if they desire to do so. In case of a man fessional” student, the undergraduate must have passed a certain entering as a Sizar, the entrance fee is only £5 1s. 3d. The portion of his course in Arts, which varies for each school. privileges of a Sizar are that he has not to pay any annual fees, We may, in conclusion, mention that the University of Dublin and is allowed to dine in the College Hall free. In other words, was founded in the year 1591 by Queen Elizabeth, and since that any poor student who has sufficient ability to gain a sizarship, time has given to the United Kingdom some of her most obtains his whole academic education, and his dinner during illustrious sons in all departments of scientific, literary, and term for four years, free of charge. There are also
minor offices public life. The present Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the in the college, such as Chapel Clerkships, open to him; and one University are the Right Hon. Lord Cairns, LL.D., late Lord who obtains a sizarship is sure to be able to get pupils to read High Chancellor of England, and the Right Hon. Sir Joseph with him, and so defray his personal expenses. A sizarship may Napier, Bart., LL.D., late Lord High Chancellor of Ireland ; be obtained either in Classics, Mathematics, or Hebrew.
both graduates of Trinity College. The following are the subjects of examination for each kind of sizarship :Classical Sizars.-Greek and Latin Grammar, Ancient
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.-XIX. Geography, Greek and Roman History, English Composition,
VERTEBRATA. Greek and Latin Prose and Verse Composition, viva voce exami. nation in two Greek and two Latin books, selected each year In the last lesson we described those animals which occupy the from the Entrance Course (the two selected are announced each lowest scale of the vertebrate kingdom, live in water, and year in the University Calendar), and examination by papers in breathe by means of gills. the "Iliad" of Homer, Public Orations of Demosthenes (viz., Proceeding a step higher in the ladder of vertebrate life, we the "Olynthiacs," "Philippics,” “ De Coronâ,” “ De Falsá come to those animals which can live either on land or in water, Legatione ''), the four Plays of Euripides (edited by Porson), and on this account named the Amphibia (from the two Greek Xenophon, Horace, Virgil, Books i.--. of Livy, Terence, and words audi, both; Blos, life), living in two elements. The Am. the Orations of Cicero.
phibia constitute an intermediate form of life between the Mathematical Sizarships.-Geometry of the right line and strictly aquatic and the terrestrial animals. Cavier classified circle ; Algebra (including the theory of equations); and Trigo- them under the name of Batrachia in his fourth order of Repnometry (plane and spherical).
tilia ; but recent zoologists have justly objected to this clasCandidates for the Mathematical Sizarships are also examined sification, and now consider them as a distinct division of the in the Classics of the ordinary Entrance Course.
Vertebrata. Professor Huxley, in his recent work on the classi. Hebrew Sizarships.- The Grammar, the Second Book of fication of animals, follows out this plan after a method much Samuel, Psalms xlii.—Ixxii., and the Greek and Latin books ap. more scientific in its arrangement than that of any other recent pointed for the viva voce examination for Classical Sizarships. observer. We shall, therefore, follow out his system of classiSizars are required to reside in college.
fication as far as the limits of this lesson will admit. In order SCHOLARSHIPS.
to live in two such different media as water and air, it is requiScholars rank next to the Fellows of the College, and are fish, and also of that form of breathing apparatus which pre
site that these animals should be in possession of gills like the members of the Corporate Body of the University. The Scholar- dominates in the higher forms of vertebrate life, called lungs. ships, which are tenable until the M.A. degree may be taken, The latter consist of membranous bags, divided internally into are granted in both Science and Classics. (For the details of a number of small compartments or cells, over which the blood the examination, which is a very severe test of scholarship, we is carried by means of a delicate net-like arrangement of capilmust refer the reader to the University Calendar.) Scholars lary vessels, in order that the oxygen element, so essential to only pay half tuition fees, and receive a small annual allowance the welfare of the component tissues of the animal, may be in money from the college. They have their “commons " free, restored to the blood, and the carbonic acid removed from it. and only pay half the ordinary rent for their rooms. They must Nothing can exceed the beauty and extreme delicacy of the be resident students, and members of the United Church of Eng- mechanism
of the breathing apparatus, which, variously modiland and Ireland. "Non-Foundation" Scholarships are, however, fied, is seen to play such a useful part in the economy of the granted to Dissenters and Roman Catholics on the same terms, higher animals. The Amphibia possess the typical characters of and with the same emoluments, as the Foundation Scholarships. the Vertebrata, already described. Like fishes they are coldMODERATORSHIPS.
blooded. Their blood is red and corpusculated. Fig. V. illasInstead of proceeding to his B.A. degree by the ordinary trates two red blood corpuscles of the frog, magnified 700 times, Michaelmas Senior Sophister Examination, as already ex. after drawings made by Dr. Lionel Beale. The blood corpuscles plained, a student may become a candidate for a Mode of the proteus and the siren are the largest known. ratorship, and obtain his degree by passing in one or more of By Professor Huxley the Amphibia are divided into four the five Moderatorship Courses, which are as follow:-Mathe orders, as follows:matics and Mathematical Physics--Classics-Logic and Ethics 1. The Urodela, or those with persistent tails. 2. The Batra--Experimental and Natural Science and History, Political chia, or frogs. 3. The Gymnophonia, or Amphibia with naked Economy, and English Literature. For each of these Moderator- snake-like bodies. 4. The Labyrinthodonto, so called from the ships the course of reading prescribed is very extensive, and to labyrinth-like and complicated arrangement of their teeth. gain the first Senior Moderatorship is a high university honour. The first order comprises the newts, salamanders, proteus,
Two Studentships are given each year, one to one of the siren, etc. The second, toads and frogs. The third, those Senior Moderators in Classics, and the other to one of the Senior animals called by Linnæus, Cæcilia (cæcus, blind), or blind-worms. Moderators in Mathematics and Physics, the candidates being They are, however, not blind, as that naturalist supposed ; they selected in accordance with the distinction they have gained in have eyes, but very small ones, and nearly hidden under the some one other Moderator Course at least. Those who obtain skin. The fourth are a genus of gigantic fossil Amphibia. FootStudentships are paid £100 per annum by the College Board prints of these animals have been found in the new red sandfor seven years. They are not required to reside, and have no stone in different parts of this country: duties to perform. Thus these prizes are a great aid to those The Amphibia undergo a remarkable change or metamor of limited means in the early years of their professional career. phosis as they advance towards maturity. They are for the
There are numerous smaller distinctions and prizes given to most part developed from eggs deposited in the water and
afterwards fecundated. The resulting young are called tad again restored to it from the atmosphere, and to expel from the poles. In their early stage they resemble fishes. They breathe blood the carbonic acid which results from the waste products. by means of gills, which project from each side of the body It will be surmised that in those animals (for example, the behind the head. (Fig. II.) They have no fins, and in their frog, etc.) possessing only temporary gills, that, as the lungs early stage they are destitute of legs. (Fig. I., a.) As life ad usurp their place, a change must of necessity arise in the vances these external gills disappear, the animal breathing by arrangement of the blood vessels. This is the case. When the means of internal gills, which are suspended from arches, and lungs come into play, the blood is diverted to them and away bathed by the water in a similar manner as that arrangement from the gills. (Fig. IV.) In those Amphibia with persistent described in fishes. Presently a pair of legs (Fig. I., b) may be gills this change is only partial. In the frog tribe the skin also seen to grow from the sides of the body. The hind legs make acts as an organ of respiration by absorbing moisture. By their appearance first, and the fore legs subsequently, in the reason of this it is enabled to live for a long time deprived of frog. (Fig. I., c.) This is not always the case with the other food and air. This fact has given origin to many amusing tales Amphibia ; for example, in the salamander the order of leg. of toads being found alive entombed in coal-beds and blocks of appearance is reversed. In the siren the hind legs are wanting stone, where they had evidently existed (believe it who chooses !) As the legs approach to
for hundreds of years. wards a state of perfect de
The digestive and nervous velopment, the tail gradually
apparatus undergo a elight contracts and wastes (Fig.
increase in complexity from I., d), until it has completely
that described in the last disappeared. During this period changes are taking
Frogs are destitute of place in the internal as well
ribs, and consequently have as external economy of the
not an expansile chest. This body. Nature now prepares II.
necessitates them to breathe it for an extended sphere of
by swallowing the air. The action by endowing it with
skeleton of the Amphibia a pair of lungs, by which it
evinces decided advances is enabled to live either in
towards that of the higher its native element, or to ex.
Vertebrata. This is very eritend its peregrinations to
dent in the disposition and terrestrial soil, and live there
conformation of the bones also. This transition from
of the limbs-i.e., in those the larval to the frog con
which possess the latter. dition cannot fail to remind
The skull joins with the ver the student of another me
tebral column by means of tamorphosis-namely, that
two condyles, which, Profes. which the caterpillar un
sor Huxley remarks, sharply dergoes to become butterfly
distinguishes the Amphibis or moth. In the former
from the higher Vertebrata. the transit is from a strictly aquatic to a double form of
REPTILIA. life; in the latter from an
Far away beyond the conearthy to an aërial state of
fines of history-probably existence. It is by such
ages before the secondary metamorphoses as these
organisation—the earth was that Nature teaches man to 2
tenanted by gigantic speaspire to a higher degree of
cies of the class Reptilie. intelligence and usefulness.
The reorganisation of the The lesson comes with an
earth completed, and man equal force from the much
placed upon its surface, we despised toad-whose hoarse
find the reptile again playcroakings break the still. ness of the night in its quiet AMPHIBIA.-I. (a, b, c, d) SUCCESSIVE METAMORPHOSES OF THE FROG. II. ture debits the snake with
ing a prominent part. Scripreign of darkness over their
TADPOLE OF FROG, SHOWING EXTERNAL GILLS. III. SKELETON OF THE
the credit of inducing our marshy habitations—as it
DISTRIBUTION TO THE GILLS. does from the pretty but
V. BLOOD CORPUSCLES OF THE FROG first parents to commit the (HIGHLY MAGNIFIED).
sin of disobedience. Known irresolute butterfly, bask Refs. to Nos. in Figs.-IV. 1, artery arising from a single ventricle, and di- from the earliest times, ing to and fro in the sun viding
into six branches, which go to the three pairs of gills, 22, 33, 44. their ungainly appearance, shine of day. In the frogs,
their malignity of dispositoads, and newts the gills
tion, and the formidable entirely disappear, and for this reason they have been named attribute (poison-fangs) peculiar to an order of this class, bare Caducibranchiate Amphibia.* Others are called Perenni- rendered them objects of hatred and fear. They are regarded branchiate Amphibia, from the fact that their gills remain by every one-except the enthusiastic naturalist—as the most permanently, even after the formation of complete lungs. despicable part of the whole of Nature's handiwork. Shakespeare Such are the proteus and siren;
also the axolotl, to which drew from them an expressive illustration of dissimulation the Mexicans are partial as an article of diet, especially
"And Gloster's show when, as Dr. Baird remarks, dressed after the manner of stewed
Beguiles him, as the mournful crocodile eels, and served up with rich and stimulating sauces.
With sorrow spares relenting passengers ; The Circulatory Apparatus.-The heart of the Amphibia is
Or, as the snake, rolled in a flowering bank, indicative of progressive development. It consists of three
With shining checkered slough, doth sting a child, chambers or cavities. Two of these are reception cavities, and
That, for the beauty, thinks it excellent. named the systemic and pulmonic auricles ; the third is a pro- The Reptilia are now classified with birds as a sub-group of pelling one, and called
the ventricle. The object of the ventricle Vertebrata, which Professor Huxley calls the Sauropsida. is to propel the blood to the system and lungs—to the system for the purpose of carrying oxygen for the nutrition of the class differ materially from each other. The Crocodilia have tissues, and to the lungs so that the oxygen element may be their bodies covered with horny plates embedded in the
. * From caducus, casily falling ; branchiæ, gills.
Larpa, a lizard ; ovis, appearance.
They have very short legs and webbed feet. The alligators of a fourth, by a septal division of the ventricular cavity into have not webbed feet. Tortoises have a complete external two parts ; so that the blood, arterial and venous, still mixes. skeleton, covered with thinner plates, which represents a part of In some this intraventricular septum is almost complete, formthe skin. The snakes are destitute of these thick outward ing a quadrilocular heart like that of the higher vertebrates. investments, but have scales covering their bodies.
The blood corpuscles are not very numerous. They are oval The Teeth.—The dental apparatus varies according to the in shape and of large size, varying from ito ito of an inch in reptile's mode of life. The crocodiles have long jaws, armed the long diameter, and go to aboo of an inch in the short diameter. with a single row of conical teeth, held in bony sockets. In The nervous system does not indicate any considerable adalligators, the front teeth (canine) of the lower jaw fit into a pitvances in its general structure above that of the higher fishes. in the edge of the upper jaw. The Chelonia (tortoises, etc.) The brain is of small size in comparison with the skull. have no teeth. Their jaws are covered with a horny bill, which The young of the Reptilia are developed from eggs. Some serves the purpose of teeth. The teeth of the Ophidia (serpents) are hatched before being born, as in the viper. The majority, are not lodged in sockets. In the cobra, rattlesnake, viper, etc., however, deposit their eggs in the sand on river banks, and leave the teeth are grooved or per.
them to be hatched by the heat forated by a canal, which com
of the sun. The egg of the municates with a poison gland
crocodile is about the size of (see Vol. II., p. 176), and serves
that of a goose. The turtle to convey the poison into the
makes two or three visitations wound made by the animal's
to the shore in the course of bite. The opening of the
a year to deposit her eggs in canal is not at the extremity
a cavity she scoops out to reof the tooth, but at a point a
ceive them. Her eggs amount little above it, so as not to in
to about a hundred at each terfere with the cutting ac10
sitting. She carefully covers tion of the tooth. These teeth
them with sand, and leaves are attached to movable bones.
them. The mode of developWhen at rest, the poison
ment of the reptilian embryo fangs are hidden by a fold of
resembles that of the higher the gums. Behind them are
Vertebrata. The Reptilia radiments of other fangs, to
possess a completely ossified replace the former, if lost.
skeleton. The skull is small, The poison of these serpents 2'
the greater part of its bulk prove rapidly fatal to hot
being made up of jaws. The blooded animals when intro
head is articulated to the duced into the blood current
spinal column by means of through a wound. When
a single condyle. The ribs swallowed it is harmless.
are numerous in the crocoThe tongue in some of these
diles, lizards, and serpents. animals is very long. In the
In the snake they amount to well-known chameleon it is,
as many as three hundred when fully extended, nearly 12
pairs. In the latter they are as long as the body. By means
free at one extremity, the of an hyoid apparatus it can
breast-bone and limbs being protrude and retract it with
absent. amazing rapidity. It serves
The spinal segments form a as an organ of prehension.
series of ball and socket joints, The Alimentary Canal pre
80 as to allow considerable lati. sents few differences from
tude of motion. The tortoise that already described in the
is invested by a bony habita Amphibia. It is compara
tion, consisting of two plates, tively short, and usually of
united at the sides, to the inner great width. The gullet is
aspect of which it is immova. wide and extensible, especi.
bly fixed. The anterior and ally in the snake, which is
posterior extremities are open, said to be able to swallow
to allow the animal to protrude animals of greater bulk than
its head and limbs. The upper itself. The large and small
or back plate is called the caraintestines are very distinctly REPTILIA.—I. ANATOMY OF THE COMMON Snaks (AFTER MILNE-EDWARDS). pace; the under or ventralone, divided, and separated by à Refs. to Nos. in Fig. 1.–1,
glottis ; 2, gullet, cut across at 2 to the plastron. The upper plate curtain or valve. In a tor
show the heart, etc., in situ ; 3, stomach ; 4, intestine ; 5, cloaca ; 6, consists of eight ribs flattened toise of moderate size the
anus ; 7, liver ; 8, ovarium ; 9, ova, or eggs; 10, windpipe ; 11, prin out, blended together, and whole length of the alimentary cipal lung ; 12, little lung.
solidly fixed to the backcanal was found to be four
bone. The lower plate refeet. The small intestines were 204 inches, and the large 161 , presents the breast-bone, arranged in a similar manner. It is inches long. The stomach was 2 inches long. The intestines composed of nine pieces. The shoulder and pelvic bones, which terminate in a cloaca, which is generally also the common point afford attachment to the limbs, are situated in the interior of of termination of the urinary and generative organs.
this bony house. The neck and tail portions of the spinal column The Respiratory Apparatus.-The Reptilia never breathe by only are free. The bones of the (in Reptilia possessing) ex. gills at any period of their existence, like the two preceding tremities are well developed, and approach in character those of classes, but by lungs. These are two in number, and made up the higher Vertebrata. The toes are usually five in number on of numerous cells, usually of large size, aggregated together. each foot, movable, and armed with claws. In snakes and lizards the lung called the principal lung is much CLASSIFICATION.-Professor Huxley groups the Reptilia into larger than the other, and, in fact, the working lung. The the following orders :-(1) Crocodilia, comprising the modern smaller one, called the little lung, is either rudimentary or crocodiles, alligators, and caimans, and the extinct Teleosauria absent. Tortoises and turtles, like the ribless frogs, owing and belodonts; (2) Lacertilia, lizards, blind-worms, and the to their possessing immovable ribs, are necessitated to breathe chameleons ; (3) Ophidia, or snakes ; (4) Chelonia, turtles and by swallowing the air. The reptilian heart consists of three tortoises. Besides these, there are five orders of fossil cavities. There is an evident tendency in many to the formation Reptilia.