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It is convenient to regard a sunbeam as an assemblage of At this position the shadow of his body dwindles down to a waves, one only of which may be called a ray. Light distri- very small one, again increasing in height as he returns to his butes itself on all sides from a self-luminous body, like radii original station, close to and in front of the light. If three drawn from the centre of a circle; it must therefore follow that persons are stationed at unequal distances from the light, three each ray pursues a straight line, although diverging from the shadows are cast upon the screen, c, and the shadow of the one one by the side of it. As all the single rays forming a beam nearest the sheet may be so small that it is easily seen below of light diverge from each other, unless altered by special the Brobdingnagian stride of the shadow of the figure nearest optical contrivances, they may be represented by a fountain jet the light, who may place the shadow of his arm apparently in which the streams of water are forced out in straight lines, on that of the intermediate figure. (Fig. 4.) not parallel but diverging from each other. (Fig. 3.)

The shadow effect is still more ludicrous when the figures jump If the hand is held

over the light; and across the fountain

they appear to spring at A, all the water

up to the ceiling if issning from the jet

theyjump away from may be directed or

the screen and over thrown off to the

the light, or to come side ; at B only a

down from the ceilcertain number of

ing to the floor when the streams of water

they spring from impinge upon the

the back of the light hand; and at c the

towards the screen. number would be

(Fig. 5.) Wherever still less. By ana

these opaque bodies logy, the metal jet

cut the rays of light, may represent a lu

an equivalent to a minous point; the

solar eclipse is the streams of water the

result; the dark sharays of light issuing

dow moves across from it. At A all

the screen as that of the rays strike upon

Fig. 4,

the moon does upon the object, which

the earth ; and this would be highly

is called the path of illuminated; at B the object could not look so bright, because a | the shadow—a direction always known, and to which astronosmaller number of rays illumine it; and at c the light would mers go when they wish to observe a total eclipse of the sun. be still more feeble. In consequence of this divergence of the It is on this principle that photometers, or light-measurers, are rays from each other, light decreases in intensity as the distance used. from the luminous point is increased; and this fact is called the Two unequal lights will have the effect of casting two dif. law of inverse squares—the greater the distance, the less light, ferent shadows, one of which will be stronger than the other, and vice versa. The law is proved by observing the shadow if the lights are placed at the same distance from the wall. cast by an opaque body held in the beam of light; the more Alighted candle and the flame of a moderator argand intense the light, the darker will be the shadow. A board, one lamp will cast two shadows of a stick held in front of foot square, held at a certain distance from a bright light, them. One will be darker than the other, but if the candle is will completely

gradually brought Parow into shadow

nearer to the another board, 4

wall or sheet of feet square, held at

paper on which the twice the distance

two shadows are from the luminous

thrown, the dig. source; and this,

tances of the lights again, a third board,

may be so adapted 9 feets tsquare, placed

that the two shaat three times the

dows of the stick distance from the

shall be equally of light.

dark. It is now The law is easily

only necessary to reduced to figures :

measure the dig. the first distance is

tances of the two taken as unity, or

lights from the 1; at the second dis

wall,

and after tance, the square of

squaring the two 2 being 4, the shadow

measurements, is spread over four Fig. 5.-A. SPRINGING UP TO THE CEILING. B. JUMPING DOWN FROM THE CEILING.

the greater may times the area, and

be divided by the is four times less

lesser one, when intense on each square foot; at the third distance, the square the quotient will give approximately the illuminating power of 3 being 9, the shadow is spread over 9 square feet, and is of the lamp as compared with that of the candle. Thus, nine times less intense on each square foot, and so on to any suppose the lamp to be twelve feet away from the screen required distance. The law is demonstrated in a most amusing and the candle four, then 12 x 12 = 144, 4 X 4= 16, and manner by placing a very bright point of light, such as that 144 - 16 = 9. The lamp gives nine times more light than the obtainable from the lime-light, on the floor, and at a certain candle. distance, say 10 feet, from a transparent screen. Piuce a boy When bodies are illuminated they scatter or reflect the rays at 2 feet distance from the lime-light, when his body, intercept- of light from every part of their surface. If we draw straight ing all the rays, will cast a shadow as high as the screen. lines from each part of an arrow, and imagine these straight Now request him to walk double the distance, or 4 feet from lines to be reflected rays of light entering the pupil and lenses the light: and the shadow will be reduced considerably in of the eye, they necessarily form a cone, the point of which will height, and, if measured, would be found in accordance with impinge upon the retina. This fact will be considered more the law of inverse squares; and so on, as the boy walks away fully in the next paper, and especially in connection with the to a distance of 6, 8, or 10 feet, until he touches the screen. laws of reflection.

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FEMININE.

MASCULINE.

ININE.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LIV.

Exceptions to this, however, are the following:§ 15.-GENDER AND NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES.

MASCULINE,

FEMININE,
Débiteur, debtor,

débitrice. (1.) The adjective has, of itself, neither gender nor number :

Exécuteur, executor,

exécutrice. it must assume the gender and number of the noun to which it

Inspecteur, inspector,

inspectrice. belongs.

Inventeur, inventor,

inventrice. (2.) The termination of the adjective varies according to the

Persécuteur, persecutor,

persécutrice. gender and number of the noun which it qualifies or deter- 3rd. Those ending in érieur, also majeur, mineur, meilleur, mines :

follow the general rule, that is, add e to form the minine: MASCULINE.

FEMININE.
Un homme prident,
Une femme prudente,

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

extérieure.
A prudent man.
A prudent woman.

Extérieur, exterior,
Des hommes prudents,

supérieure.
Des femmes prudentes,

Supérieur, superior,
Prudent men.
Prudent tomon.
Majeur, of age, major,

majeure.
Mineur, minor,

mineure. § 16.-FORMATION OF THE FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES.

Meilleur, better,

meilleure. (1.) All adjectives ending with e mute remain unchanged in

(6.) Adjectives, as also nouns, indicating occupation chiefly the feminine

exercised by men, are alike in the masculine and the feminine :MASCULINE

FEMININE.
Auteur, author,

Littérateur, literary person,
Un homme agréable,
Une femme agréable,

(7.) The following adjectives, having two forms of the mascuAn agreeable man.

An agreeable woman.
Un mur solide,
Une maison solido,

line, form their feminine as follows:-
A strong wall.
A strong (well-built) house,

MASCULINE (2.) Adjectives not ending in e mute form their feminine by

(before a consonant). (before a vowel or I mute).
Beau,

bel,

belle, handsome. the addition of e:

Fou,

fol,

folle, foolish. MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

Mou,

mol,

molle, soft. Un garçon diligent, Une fille diligente,

Nouveau,

nouvel,

nouvelle, neu. A diligent boy.

A diligent girl.

Vieux,

vieil,

vieille, old.
Un homme polí,
Une da me polie,

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES.
A polite man.

A polite lady.

(8.) The following adjectives form their feminine irregu(3.) Exceptions.-Adjectives ending in el, eil, en, et, on, f, s, larly :and a, change those terminations for the feminine, thus :

FEMININE.
Absous, absolve!,

absoute.
MASCULINE. FEMININE.
MASCULINE.

Bénin, benign,

bénigne. Tel, telle, such. Bon, boune, good. Blanc, white,

blanche. Pareil, pareille, like.

Neuf, neuve, ner. Ancien,

caduque.
ancienne, ancient. Gras,

Caduc, decrepit, infirm,
grasse, fat.
Coi, quiet,

coite.
Muet, muette, mute.
Heureux, heureuse, happy.
Dissous, dissolved,

dissoute.

favorite. (4.) The following, although ending with these terminations,

Favori, favourite,
Frais, fresh,

fraiche. form their feminine otherwise :

Franc, free, frank,

franche. MASCULINE. FEMININE. MASCULINE. FEMININE.

Gentil, pretty, genteel,

gentille. Complet, complete, complète. Niais, silly,

niaise.
Grec, Grecian, Greek,

[tongue

grecque. Concret, concrete, concrète. Ras, close-shorn, rase.

Hébreu, Hebrew,

hébraïque, used only of the Discret, discreet, discrète. Doux, soft, sweet, douce.

Jouvenceau (obsolete), a stripling, jouvencelle.
Inquiet, uneasy, inquiète. Faux, false,

fausse.
Jumeau, twin,

jumelle. Secret, secret, secrète. Préfix, prefixed, préfixe.

Long, long, slove,

longue. Replet, replete, replète. Roux, reddish, rousse.

Maitre, master, masterly,

maitresse. Mauvais, bad, mauvaise. Tiers, third,

tierce.
Malin, cunning, malignant,

maligne.
Mulâtre, mulatto,

mulátre or mulitresse. (5.) Adjectives ending in eur, as also some substantives of the Muscat, muscat,

muscade. same termination, have three several modes of forming the Nul, null, none,

nulle. feminine :

Oblong, oblong,

oblongue. 1st. Those which are derived from the participle present of a

Pablic, public,

publique.

résolue. French verb by dropping ant, and substituting eur, change the

Résous, resolved, changed,

sèche. final (r) into se, as :

Sec, dry, barren,
Sot, silly,

sotte.
PRES. PART.
MASCULINE.

Traitre, traitor, treacherous,

traitresse. Dansant, whence danseur, and thence danseuse. Turc, Turkish,

turque. Trompant, trompeur, trompeuse. Vieillot, oldish,

vieillotte. Here, however, note that chanteur, when signifying a profes- (9.) The following have no feminine :-sional singer, makes in the feminine cantatrice. Like anomalies Artisan, mechanic.

Partisan, partisan. appear in the following :

Châtain, chestnut colour, Témoin, witness.
MASCULINE.
FEMININE.
Dispos, active,

Vélin, vellum, of rellum. Ambassadeur, ambassador,

ambassadrice.

$ 17.-FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES. Bailleur, lessor,

bailleresse. Chasseur, hunter,

chasseresse.

(1.) General Rule.--The plural of adjectives is formed 1 Demandeur, plaintif,

demanderesse.

the addition of s to the masculine or feminine termination :Défendeur, defendant,

défenderesse. Devineur, guesser, devineresse.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE,
Enchanteur, enchanter,

enchanteresse.
Sing. Grand, great. Plur. Grands. Sing. Grande.

Plur. Grande
Gouverneur, governor,

gouvernante.
Petit, small. Petits.

Petite."
Pécheur, sinner,

pécheresse. Serviteur, servant,

(2.) This rule has no exceptions for the feminine tera servante.

nation. 2nd. Those ending in teur and derived from the Latin, and con- (3.) With regard to the masculine termination, it is subje sequently not falling under the rule (1st.) just given, form the to the three following exceptions : feminine by changing teur into trice; as :

First Exception. --Adjectives ending in the singular with s MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

- do not change their form in the plural:-
Acteur, actor.
actrice, actress.

SINGULAR.
PLURAL.

SINGULAR.
Admirateur, admirer.

admiratrice, admirer.

Heureux, happy. Heureux. Dous, sicect, soft.

FEMININE.

Petites.

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PLURAI
Door

Bean, handsome, beautiful. "Beaux / Jumeau, tein.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

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SINGULAR,

PLURAL.

ma.

sa.

our.

MASCULINE.

FEMININE,

Second Exception.-Adjectives having in the singular the ter

EXAMPLES mination eau form their plural masculine by the addition of a :

MASCULINE SINGULAR.

FEMININE SINGULAR.

Ce soldat, this or that soldier. Cette femme, this or that women. SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

Cet ami, that or this friend. Cette épée, that or this sword. Jumeaux.

Cet homme, this or that man. Cette harpe, this or that harp. Third Exception.-Adjectives ending in al form their plural

PLURAL, masculine by changing al into auz, and they form the largest

Ces hommes, these or those men; ces femmes, these or those women. number :

(2.) When it is necessary to make, in French, a difference SINGULAR. PLURAL.

similar to that existing between the English words this and that, Libéral, liberal. Libéraux. Rural, rural. Ruraux. the adverbs ci and là must be placed after the nouns, and joined We quote from Bescherelle's “Grammaire Nationale" the

by a hyphen :

Ce livre-ci, this book (here). Ce livre-là, that book (there). adjectives which form their plural in als:

Ces livres-ci, these books. Ces livres-là, those books.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL.
Amical, friendly. Amicals. Labial, labial.

Labials.

$ 21.--POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. Bancal, bandy-legged. Bancals. Matinal, early. Matinals. (1.) The possessive adjectives, which are always joined to a Patal, fatal.

Fatals. Médial, medial. Médials. noun, relate to possession or property; they are :-
Final, final.
Finals. Naval, naval.

Navals.
SINGULAR

PLURAL.
Frugal, frugal. Frugals. Pascal, paschal. Pascals.

Masculine. Feminine. Both genders.
Filial, filial.
Filials. Pénal, penal.

Pénals.
Mon,

Mes,

my. Glacial, frozen, icy. Glacials. Théatral, theatrical. Théatrals.

Ton,
ta.
Tes,

thy.
Initial, initial.
Initials.

Son,

Ses,

his, her, its. Notre, notre.

Nos, $ 18.-AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.

Votre,
votre.
Vos,

your, (1.) The adjective must agree, in gender and number, with Leur,

leur.
Leurs,

their. the noun or pronoun which it qualifies :

(2.) In French these adjectives take the gender and number FEMININE.

of the object possessed, and not, as in English, those of the Singular. Plural.

Singular.

Plural possessor :Le beau jardin, Les beaux jardins, La belle maison, Les belles maisons, MASC. (Sing.). FEM. (Sing.). PLURAL (both genders).

The fine garden. The fine gardens. The fine house. The fine houses. Mon frère, my brother. Ma scur, my sistor, Mes cousins, my cousins. Le grand livre, Les grands livres, La grande carte, Les grandes cartes, Ton livre, thy book. Ta plame, thy pen. Tes maisons, thy houses. The large book. The large books. The large map. The large maps. Son papier, his or her Sa table, his or her Ses habits, his or her

paper.

table.

clothes. (2.) This agreement must take place, not only when the adjec- Notre cheval, our horse. Notre vache, our cow. Nos prairies, our meadows. tive immediately precedes or follows the noun or pronoun, bat Votre lit, your bed. Votre chaise, your chair. Vos crayons, your pencils. also when it is soparated by other words :

Leur foin, their hay. Leur paille, their straw. Leurs fermes, their farms. MASCULINE.

(3.) The adjectives mon, my; ton, thy; son, his or her, are Singular.

Plaise à Dieu de te Singular.-- L'honneur de passer used instead of ma, ta, sa, before feminine words commencing rendre assez bon pour mériter la pour bonne l'empêchait de se mon with a vowel, or an h mute, in order to prevent the meeting of vie heureuse !

trer mauvaise. May God render thee sufficiently The honour of passing for good two vowels, or of a vowel and an h mute; thus we say :good to deserve the blessed life! prevented her showing herself bad.

Mon épée, my sword, instead of ma épée. Plural.-Jamais, en quoi que ce Plural.-Loin de nous raidir con

Ton épouse, thy wife,

ta épouse. puisse être, les méchants ne sont tre les inclinations qui sont bonnes,

Son armée, his army,

sa armée. bons à rien de bon.

il faut les suivre pour servir Dieu. C'en est fait, mon heure est venue. All is over, my hour is come. The ricked are never, in any cir. Far from resisting our good incumstances, fitted (good) to perform clinations, we should follow them in

(4.) The possessive adjectives must be repeated before every chything good, order to serve God.

noun:

Mon frère, ma soeur et mes cou My brother, sister, and cousins (3.) When an adjective relates to two or more substantives, sins sont à Paris.

are in Paris. whether in the singular or the plural, and all of the same gender, it must agree with the nouns in gender, and be put in

$ 22.-NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. the plural :

(1.) There are two kinds of numeral adjectives—the cardinal

and the ordinal. Le riche et l'indigent, l'imprudent The rich and the poor, the imprudent et le sage, sujets à même loi,

(2.) The cardinal numbers indicate simply the number or and the wise, being subject to the subissent même sort. same law, experience the same fate. quantity, without any reference to order: as, un, one ; deux,

two, etc. (4.) When the words which the adjective qualifies are of (3.) The ordinal numbers mark the order or rank which different genders, the adjective must be put in the masculine persons and things occupy: as, premier, first; second, second, plural:

etc. L'ordre et l'utilité publics ne peu- Public order and utility cannot be We shall, for the purpose of comparison, place the cardinal vent être le fruit du crime. the fruits of crime.

and ordinal numbers in parallel columns :For special rules on this point, see § 23.

(4.) CARDINAL NUMBERS.

(5.) ORDINAL NUMBERS, Un, feminine une,

1 Premier, feminine première, 1st. $ 19.--DETERMINING OR DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. Deux,

2 Deuxième or secd, f. seconde, 2nd. There are four sorts of determining adjectives—the demon

Trois,

3rd, 3 Troisième, Quatre, 4 Quatrième,

4th. strative, the possessive, the numeral, and the indefinite.

Cinq,
5 Cinquième,

5th.
Six,
6 Sixième,

6th. $ 20.--DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.

Sept,
7 Septiême,

7th. (1.) The demonstrative adjectives are used when an object is Huit,

8 Huitième,

8th, to be particularly specified or pointed out. They are never, in Neuf,

9 Neuvième,

9th, French, used substantively, that is, without the nouns which Dis,

10 Dixième,

10th. they determine :

Onze,
11 Onzième,

11th.
Douze,
12 Douzième,

12th. Masculine.--Ce, this or that, placed before a word commencing with a

Treize,
13 Treizième,

13th. Quatorze,

14 Quatorzième, consonant.

14th. Quinze, 15 Quinzième,

15th. Cet, this or that, placed before a word commencing with a

Seize,
16 Seizième,

16th. vowel or an h mute. Feminine. — Cette, this or that, placed before all sorts of nouns.

Dix-sept,
17 Dix-septième,

17th,
Dix-huit,
18 Dix-huitième,

18th PLURAL.

Dix-neuf,
19 Dix-neuvième,

19th. Ces, these or those, for both genders.

Vingt,
20 | Vingtième,

20th.

SINGULAR.

FEMININE,

FEMININE.

Tel,

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LIV.

Exceptions to this, however, are the following:$ 15.--GENDER AND NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES.

MASCULINE.

YEMININE,
Débiteur, debtor,

débitrice. (1.) The adjective has, of itself, neither gender nor number : Exécuteur, executor,

exécutrice. it must assume the gender and number of the noun to which it Inspecteur, inspector,

inspectrice. belongs.

Inventeur, inventor,

inventrice. (2.) The termination of the adjective varies according to the

Persécuteur, persecutor,

persécutrice. gender and number of the noun which it qualifies or deter- 3rd. Those ending in érieur, also majeur, mineur, meilleur, mines :

follow the general rule, that is, add e to form the feminine :MASCULINE.

FEMININE.
Un homme prudent,
Une femme prudente,

MASCULINE.
A prudent man.
A prudent woman.
Extérieur, exterior,

extérieure.
Des hommes prudents,
Des femmes prudentes,
Supérieur, superior,

supérieure.
Prudent men.
Prudent women.

majeure.
Majeur, of age, major,
Mineur, minor,

mineuro. $ 16.—FORMATION OF THE FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES.

Meilleur, better,

meilleure. (1.) All adjectives ending with e mute remain unchanged in

(6.) Adjectives, as also nouns, indicating occupation chiefly the feminine:

exercised by men, are alike in the masculine and the feminine :MASCULINE.

FEMININE.
Auteur, author,

Littérateur, literary person.
Un homme agréable,
Une femme agréable,

(7.) The following adjectives, having two forms of the mascus An agreeable man.

An agreeable woman.
Un mur solide,
Une maison solido,

line, form their feminine as follows:
A strong wall.
A strong (well-built) house.

MASCULINE

FEMIXINE.

(before a consonant), (before a vowel or I mute). (2.) Adjectives not ending in e mute form their feminine by Beau,

bel,

belle, handsome. the addition of e:

Fou,

fol,

folle, foolish, MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

Mou,

mol,

molle, soft. Un garçon diligent,

Une fille diligente,

Nouveau,

noavel,

nouvelle, nou. A diligent boy. A diligent girl.

Vieux,

vieil,

vieille, old. Un homme poli,

Une dame polie,
A polite man.

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES.
A polite lady.

(8.) The following adjectives form their feminine irregte (3.) Exceptions.--Adjectives ending in el, eil, en, et, on, f, s, larly :and x, change those terminations for the feminine, thus :

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.
Absous, absolved,

absoute.
MASCULINE. FEMININE.
MASCULINE.

bénigne.

Bénin, benign,
telle, such.
Bon, bonne, good.
Blanc, white,

blanche.
Pareil, pareille, like.
Neuf, neuve, nou.
Caduc, decrepit, infirm,

caduque. Ancien, ancienne, ancient. Gras, grasse, fat.

Coi, quiet,

coite.
Muet, muette, mute.
Heureux, heureuse, happy.
Dissous, dissolved,

dissoute. (4.) The following, although ending with these terminations,

Favori, favourite,

favorite. form their feminine otherwise :

Frais, fresh,

fraiche. Franc, free, frank,

franche. MASCULINE. FEMININE, MASCULINE. FEMININE.

Gentil, pretty, genteel,

gentille. Complet, complete, complète. Niais, silly,

niaise.
Grec, Grecian, Groek,

grecque. Concret, concrete, concrète. Ras, close-shorn, rase.

Hébreu, Hebrew,

hébraïque, used only of the Discret, discreet, discrète. Doux, soft, sweet, douce.

Jouvenceau (obsolete), a stripling, jouvencelle.
Inquiet, uneasy, inquiète. Faux, false,

fausse.
Jumeau, tuin,

jumelle. Secret, secret, secrète. Préfix, prefired, préfixe.

Long, long, slou,

longae. Replet, replete, replète. Roux, reddish, rousse.

Maitre, master, masterly,

maitresse. Mauvais, bad, mauvaise. Tiers, third,

tierce.
Malin, cunning, malignant,

maligne.
Mulâtre, mulatto,

mulâtre or mulitresse. (5.) Adjectives ending in eur, as also some substantives of the Muscat, muscat,

muscade. same termination, have three several modes of forming the

Nul, null, none,

nulle. feminine :

Oblong, oblong,

oblongue. 1st. Those which are derived from the participle present of a

Public, public,

publique. French verb by dropping ant, and substituting eur, change the

Résous, resolved, changed,

résolue.

sèche. final (r) into se, as :

Sec, dry, barren,
Sot, silly,

sotte.
PRES. PART.
MASCULINE.

FEMININE. . Traître, traitor, treacherous, traitresse. Dansant, whence danseur, and thence danseuse.

Turc, Turkish,

turque. Trompant, trompeur, trompeuse. Vieillot, oldish,

vieillotte. Here, however, note that chanteur, when signifying a profes

(9.) The following have no feminine : sional singer, makes in the feminine cantatrice. Like anomalies Artisan, mechanic.

Partisan, partisan. appear in the following :

Châtain, chestnut colour. Témoin, witness.
MASCULINE.
FEMININE.
Dispos, active.

Vélin, vellum, of volun. Ambassadeur, ambassador,

ambassadrice. Bailleur, lessor,

§ 17.–FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES

bailleresse. Chasseur, hunter,

chasseresse.

(1.) General Rule.The plural of adjectives is formed 1 Demandeur, plaintif,

demanderesse.

the addition of s to the masculine or feminine termination :Défendeur, defendant,

défenderesse. Devinear, guesser, devineresse.

FEMININE,
Enchanteur, enchanter,

enchanteresse.
Sing, Grand, great. Plur. Grands. Sing. Grande.

Plur, Grande
Gouverneur, governor,

gouvernante.
Petit, small. Petits.

Petites

Petite.
Pécheur, sinner,

pécheresse.
Serviteur, servant,

(2.) This rule has no exceptions for the feminine tera servante.

nation. 2nd. Those ending in teur and derived from the Latin, and con- (3.) With regard to the masculine termination, it is subje sequently not falling under the rule (1st.) just given, form the to the three following exceptions :feminine by changing teur into trice; as :

First Exception. -Adjectives ending in the singular with MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

* do not change their form in the plural:-
Acteur, actor.
actrice, actress.
SINGULAR. PLURAL.

SINGULAR.
Admirateur, admirer.

admiratrice, admirer. Heureux, happy. Heureux, Doux, sweet, soft.

(tongue

MASCULINE.

PLURAL
Doar.

SINGULAR.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL,

ma.

my.

sa.

Ses,
Nos,

MASCULINE.

FEMININE.

FEMININE,

Second Exception. --Adjectives having in the singular the ter

EXAMPLES. mination eau form their plural masculine by the addition of a:- MASCULINE SINGULAR.

PEMININE SINGULAR.

Ce soldat, this or that soldier. Cette femme, this or that woman. PLURAL. SINGULAR. PLURAL.

Cet ami, that or this friend. Cette épée, that or this sword. Bean, handsome, beautiful. Beaux. Jumeau, twin. Jumeaux.

Cet homme, this or that man. Cette harpe, this or that harp. Third Esception.-Adjectives ending in al form their plural

PLURAL. masculine by changing al into aux, and they form the largest Ces hommes, these or those men; ces femmes, these or those women. number :

(2.) When it is necessary to make, in French, a difference

similar to that existing between the English words this and that, Libéral, liberal. Libéraux. Rural, rural. Ruraux. the adverbs ci and là must be placed after the nouns, and joined

by a hyphen :We quote from Bescherelle's “Grammaire Nationale” the

Ce livre-ci, this book (here). Ce livre-là, that book (there). idjectives which form their plural in als :

Ces livres-ci, these books. Ces livres-là, those books.
PLURAL

SINGULAR.
Imical, friendly. Amicals. Labial, labial,

Labials.

§ 21.--POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. lancal, bandy-legged. Bancals. Matinal, early. Matinals. (1.) The possessive adjectives, which are always joined to a fatal, fatal.

Fatals. Médial, medial, Médials. noun, relate to possession or property; they are:-
Emnal, Anal.
Finals. Naval, naval.

Navals.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. rugal, frugal. Frugals. Pascal, paschal. Pascals.

Masculine. Feminine. Both genders.
filial, filial.
Filials. Pénal, penal.

Pénals.
Mon,

Mes, hacial, frozen, icy. Glacials. Théatral, theatrical. Théatrals.

Ton,
ta.
Tes,

thy. sitial, initial. Initials.

Son,

his, her, its. Notre, notre.

our. $18.-AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.

Votre,
votre.
Vos,

your. (1.) The adjective must agree, in gender and number, with Leur,

leur.
Leurs,

their. le noun or pronoun which it qualifies :

(2.) In French these adjectives take the gender and number

of the object possessed, and not, as in English, those of the Singular. Plural. Singular.

Plural.

possessor: beau jardin, Les beanze jardins, La belle maison, Les belles maisons, MASC. (Sing.). FEM. (Sing.). PLURAL (both genders). The Åne garden. The fine gardens. The fine house. The fine houses. Mon frère, my brother. Ma scur, my sister. Mes cousins, my cousins. grand livre. Les grands livres, La grande carte, Les grandes cartes, Ton livre, thy book. Ta plume, thy pen. Tes maisons, thy houses, The large book. The large books. The large map. The large maps.

Son papier, his or her Sa table, his or her Ses habits, his or her paper.

table.

clothes, (2.) This agreement must take place, not only when the adjec- Notre cheval, our horse. Notre vache, our cow. Nos prairies, our meadows. le immediately precedes or follows the noun or pronoun, but | Votre lit, your bed. Votre chaise, your chair. Vos crayons, your pencils. o when it is separated by other words :

Leur foin, their hay. Leur paille, their straw. Leurs fermes, their farms. MASCULINE.

(3.) The adjectives mon, my; ton, thy; son, his or her, are singular,-Plaise à Dieu de te Singular.---L'honneur de passer used instead of ma, ta, sa, before feminine words commencing dre assez bon pour mériter la pour bonne l'empêchait de se mon with a vowel, or an h mate, in order to prevent the meeting of heureuse !

trer mauvaise. Lay God render thee sufficiently The honour of passing for good two vowels, or of a vowel and an h mute; thus we say : I to deserve the blessed life! prevented her showing herself bad.

Mon épée, my sword, instead of ma épée. wal.Jamais, en quoi que ce Plural.-Loin de nous raidir con

Ton épouse, thy wife,

ta épouse. e étre, les méchants ne sont tre les inclinations qui sont bonnes,

Son armée, his army,

sa armée. å rien de bon.

il faut les suivre pour servir Dieu. C'en est fait, mon heure est venue. All is over, my hour is come. The picked are never, in any cir. Far from resisting our good inwtarces, fitted (good) to perform clinations, we should follow them in

(4.) The possessive adjectives must be repeated before every thing good. order to serve God.

noun :

Mon frère, ma soeur et mes cou- My brother, sister, and cousins 3.) When an adjective relates to two or more substantives, sins sont à Paris.

are in Paris. ther in the singular or the plural, and all of the same

$ 22.-NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. der, it must agree with the nouns in gender, and be put in plural

(1.) There are two kinds of numeral adjectives--the cardinal

and the ordinal. iche et l'indigent, l'imprudent The rich and the poor, the imprudent

(2.) The cardinal numbers indicate simply the number or le sage, sujets à même loi, and the wise, being subject to the tbissent même sort. same law, experience the same fate. quantity, without any reference to order: as, un, one ; deux,

two, eto. 1.) When the words which the adjective qualifies are of (3.) The ordinal numbers mark the order or rank which rent genders, the adjective must be put in the masculine persons and things occupy: as, premier, first ; second, second,

etc. dre et l'utilité publics ne peu- Public order and utility cannot be We shall, for the purpose of comparison, place the cardinal nt être le fruit du crime. the fruits of crime.

and ordinal numbers in parallel columns :or special rules on this point, see § 23.

(4.) CARDINAL NUMBERS.

(5.) ORDINAL NUMBERS. Un, feminine une,

1 Premier, feminine première, Ist. 9.-DETERMINING OR DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. Deux,

2 Deuxième or secd, f. seconde, 2nd. Trois, 3 Troisième,

3rd. here are four sorts of determining adjectives—the demon

Quatre,
4 Quatrième,

4th. live, the possessive, the numeral, and the indefinite.

Cinq,
5 Cinquième,

5th,
Six,
6 Sixième,

6th. $ 20.-DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.

Sept,

7 Septième, .) The demonstrative adjectives are used when an object is Huit,

8 Huitième,

8th. e particularly specified or pointed out. They are never, in Neuf,

9th. 9 Neuvième, 10 Dixième,

10th. ich, used substantively, that is, without the nouns which Dix,

Onze,

11 Onzième, determine:

11th. Douze, 12 Douzième,

12th. Treize, 13 Treizième,

13th. Esculine. --Ce, this or that, placed before a word commencing with a

Quatorze,
14 Quatorzième,

14th, consonant.

Quinze,
15 Quinzième,

15th. Cet, this or that, placed before a word commencing with a

Seize,
16 Seizième,

16th. vowel or an h mute.

Dix-sept,
17 Dix-septième,

17th. minine.-Cette, this or that, placed before all sorts of nouns.

Dix-huit,
18 Dix-huitième,

18th, PLURAL,

Dix-neuf,
19 Dix-neuvième,

19th. Ces, these or those, for both genders.

Vingt,
20 | Vingtième,

20th.

7th.

SINGULAR.

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