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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LIV.
Exceptions to this, however, are the following: $ 15.--GENDER AND NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES.
débitrice. (1.) The adjective has, of itself, neither gender nor number ;
exécutrice. it must assume the gender and number of the noun to which it Inspecteur, inspector,
inventrice. (2.) The termination of the adjective varies according to the
persécutrice. gender and number of the noun which it qualifies or deter. 3rd. Those ending in érieur, also majeur, mineur, meilleur, mines :
follow the general rule, that is, add e to form the feminine XASCULINE.
mineure. $ 16.-FORMATION OF THE FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES.
meilleure. (1.) All adjectives ending with e mute remain unchanged in
(6.) Adjectives, as also nouns, indicating occupation chiely the feminine :
exercised by men, are alike in the masculine and the feminine :MASCULINE.
Littérateur, literary person.
(7.) The following adjectives, having two forms of the masenAn agreeable man.
An agreeable woman. Un mur solide,
Une maison solide,
line, form their feminine as follows: A strong wall.
A strong (well-built) house.
(before a consonant), (before a vowel or I mute).
belle, handsome. the addition of e:
folle, foolish, MASCULINE.
molle, soft. Un garçon diligent, Une fille diligente,
nouvelle, neur. A diligent boy. A diligent girl.
vieille, old. Un homme poli, Une dame polie,
A polite lady.
(8.) The following adjectives form their feminine irregte (3.) Exceptions.-Adjectives ending in el, eil, en, et, on, f, s, larly:and a, change those terminations for the feminine, thus :
absoute. MASCULINE. FEMININE.
blanche. Pareil, pareille, like.
Neuf, neuve, mere. Ancien,
Caduc, decrepit, infirm, ancienne, ancient. Gras, grasse, fat. Muet,
dissoute. (4.) The following, although ending with these terminations,
favorite. Frais, fresh,
fraiche. form their feminine otherwise :
Franc, free, frank,
franche. FEMININE. MASCULINE. FEMININE
Gentil, pretty, genteel,
gentille. Complet, complete, complète. Niais, silly,
grecque. Concret, concrete, concrète. Ras, close-shorn,
hébraïque, used only of the Discret, discreet, discrète. Doux, soft, sweet, douce.
Jouvenceau (obsolete), a stripling, jouvencelle.
jumelle. Secret, secret, secrète. Préfix, prefixed, préfixe.
Long, long, slou,
longae. Replet, replete, replète. Roux, reddish, rousse.
Maitre, master, masterly,
maitresse. Mauvais, bad, mauvaise. Tiers, third,
mulâtre or mulátresse. (5.) Adjectives ending in eur, as also some substantives of the Muscat, muscat,
muscade. same termination, have three several modes of forming the
Nul, null, none,
nulle. feminine :
oblongue. 1st. Those which are derived from the participle present of a
publique. French verb by dropping ant, and substituting eur, change the
Résous, resolved, changed,
sèche. final (r) into se, as :
Sec, dry, barren,
traîtresse. Dansant, whence danseur, and thence danseuse.
turque. Trompant, trompeur, trompeuse. Vieillot, oldish,
vieillotte. Here, however, note that chanteur, when signifying a profes
(9.) The following have no feminine :sional singer, makes in the feminine cantatrice. Like anomalies Artisan, mechanic.
Partisan, partisan. appear in the following :
Châtain, chestnut colour. Témoin, witness.
Vélin, vellum, of vellum.
Dispos, active. Ambassadeur, ambassador,
$ 17.–FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES. Bailleur, lessor,
bailleresse. Chasseur, hunter,
(1.) General Rule.—The plural of adjectives is formed by Demandeur, plaintif,
the addition of s to the masculine or feminine termination : Défendeur, defendant,
défenderesse. Devineur, guesser,
devineresse. Enchanteur, enchanter,
Plur, Grandes Gouverneur, governor,
Petit, small. Petits. gouvernante.
Petite. Pécheur, sinner,
pécheresse. Serviteur, servant,
(2.) This rule has no exceptions for the feminine termi servante.
nation. 2nd. Those ending in teur and derived from the Latin, and con (3.) With regard to the masculine termination, it is subject sequently not falling under the rule (1st.) just given, form the to the three following exceptions :feminine by changing teur into trice; as :
First Exception. --Adjectives ending in the singular with ser MASCULINE,
z do not change their form in the plural:-
admiratrice, admirer. Heureux, happy. Heureux. Doux, skeet, soft.
(3.) Erceptions.—Adjectives ending in el, eil, em, et, on, f, s, and r, change those terminations for the feminine, thus:–
Absous, absolved, absolute.
(9.) The following have no feminine :
sional singer, makes in the feminine cantatrice. Like anomalies
(2.) This rule has no exceptions for the feminine to nation.
(3) With regard to the masculine termination, it is subo to the three following exceptions:–
First Erception.—Adjectives ending in the singular with z do not change their form in the plural:—
six goats. rtosa. Doux, street, soft. Doux.
Bean, handsome, beautiful. "Beaux / Jumeau, tein.
Second Exception.-Adjectives having in the singular the ter
EXAMPLES mination eau form their plural masculine by the addition of a :
Ce soldat, this or that soldier. Cette femme, this or that women. SINGULAR. PLURAL. SINGULAR.
Cet ami, that or this friend. Cette épée, that or this sword. Jumeaux.
Cet homme, this or that man. Cette harpe, this or that harp. Third Exception.-Adjectives ending in al form their plural
PLURAL, masculine by changing al into auz, and they form the largest
Ces hommes, these or those men; ces femmes, these or those women. number :
(2.) When it is necessary to make, in French, a difference SINGULAR. PLURAL.
similar to that existing between the English words this and that, Libéral, liberal. Libéraux. Rural, rural. Ruraux. the adverbs ci and là must be placed after the nouns, and joined We quote from Bescherelle's “Grammaire Nationale" the
by a hyphen :
Ce livre-ci, this book (here). Ce livre-là, that book (there). adjectives which form their plural in als:
Ces livres-ci, these books. Ces livres-là, those books.
$ 21.--POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. Bancal, bandy-legged. Bancals. Matinal, early. Matinals. (1.) The possessive adjectives, which are always joined to a Patal, fatal.
Fatals. Médial, medial. Médials. noun, relate to possession or property; they are :-
Masculine. Feminine. Both genders.
my. Glacial, frozen, icy. Glacials. Théatral, theatrical. Théatrals.
his, her, its. Notre, notre.
Nos, $ 18.-AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.
your, (1.) The adjective must agree, in gender and number, with Leur,
their. the noun or pronoun which it qualifies :
(2.) In French these adjectives take the gender and number FEMININE.
of the object possessed, and not, as in English, those of the Singular. Plural.
Plural possessor :Le beau jardin, Les beaux jardins, La belle maison, Les belles maisons, MASC. (Sing.). FEM. (Sing.). PLURAL (both genders).
The fine garden. The fine gardens. The fine house. The fine houses. Mon frère, my brother. Ma scur, my sistor, Mes cousins, my cousins. Le grand livre, Les grands livres, La grande carte, Les grandes cartes, Ton livre, thy book. Ta plame, thy pen. Tes maisons, thy houses. The large book. The large books. The large map. The large maps. Son papier, his or her Sa table, his or her Ses habits, his or her
clothes. (2.) This agreement must take place, not only when the adjec- Notre cheval, our horse. Notre vache, our cow. Nos prairies, our meadows. tive immediately precedes or follows the noun or pronoun, bat Votre lit, your bed. Votre chaise, your chair. Vos crayons, your pencils. also when it is soparated by other words :
Leur foin, their hay. Leur paille, their straw. Leurs fermes, their farms. MASCULINE.
(3.) The adjectives mon, my; ton, thy; son, his or her, are Singular.
Plaise à Dieu de te Singular.-- L'honneur de passer used instead of ma, ta, sa, before feminine words commencing rendre assez bon pour mériter la pour bonne l'empêchait de se mon with a vowel, or an h mute, in order to prevent the meeting of vie heureuse !
trer mauvaise. May God render thee sufficiently The honour of passing for good two vowels, or of a vowel and an h mute; thus we say :good to deserve the blessed life! prevented her showing herself bad.
Mon épée, my sword, instead of ma épée. Plural.-Jamais, en quoi que ce Plural.-Loin de nous raidir con
Ton épouse, thy wife,
ta épouse. puisse être, les méchants ne sont tre les inclinations qui sont bonnes,
Son armée, his army,
sa armée. bons à rien de bon.
il faut les suivre pour servir Dieu. C'en est fait, mon heure est venue. All is over, my hour is come. The ricked are never, in any cir. Far from resisting our good incumstances, fitted (good) to perform clinations, we should follow them in
(4.) The possessive adjectives must be repeated before every chything good, order to serve God.
Mon frère, ma soeur et mes cou My brother, sister, and cousins (3.) When an adjective relates to two or more substantives, sins sont à Paris.
are in Paris. whether in the singular or the plural, and all of the same gender, it must agree with the nouns in gender, and be put in
$ 22.-NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. the plural :
(1.) There are two kinds of numeral adjectives—the cardinal
and the ordinal. Le riche et l'indigent, l'imprudent The rich and the poor, the imprudent et le sage, sujets à même loi,
(2.) The cardinal numbers indicate simply the number or and the wise, being subject to the subissent même sort. same law, experience the same fate. quantity, without any reference to order: as, un, one ; deux,
two, etc. (4.) When the words which the adjective qualifies are of (3.) The ordinal numbers mark the order or rank which different genders, the adjective must be put in the masculine persons and things occupy: as, premier, first; second, second, plural:
etc. L'ordre et l'utilité publics ne peu- Public order and utility cannot be We shall, for the purpose of comparison, place the cardinal vent être le fruit du crime. the fruits of crime.
and ordinal numbers in parallel columns :For special rules on this point, see § 23.
(4.) CARDINAL NUMBERS.
(5.) ORDINAL NUMBERS, Un, feminine une,
1 Premier, feminine première, 1st. $ 19.--DETERMINING OR DETERMINATIVE ADJECTIVES. Deux,
2 Deuxième or secd, f. seconde, 2nd. There are four sorts of determining adjectives—the demon
3rd, 3 Troisième, Quatre, 4 Quatrième,
4th. strative, the possessive, the numeral, and the indefinite.
6th. $ 20.--DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES.
7th. (1.) The demonstrative adjectives are used when an object is Huit,
8th, to be particularly specified or pointed out. They are never, in Neuf,
9th, French, used substantively, that is, without the nouns which Dis,
10th. they determine :
12th. Masculine.--Ce, this or that, placed before a word commencing with a
14 Quatorzième, consonant.
14th. Quinze, 15 Quinzième,
15th. Cet, this or that, placed before a word commencing with a
16th. vowel or an h mute. Feminine. — Cette, this or that, placed before all sorts of nouns.
19th. Ces, these or those, for both genders.
OUR HOLIDAY. Vingt-deux, etc.,
22 Vingt-deuxième, etc., 22nd. Trente, 30 Trentième,
PRISONERS' BASE. Trente-et-un, 31 Trente-et-unième,
A GOOD out-door game which may be played without any appaTrente-deux, etc.,
32 Trente-deuxième, etc., 32nd. Quarante, 40 Quarantième,
ratus-requiring neither bats, balls, mallets, nor any other
40th. Quarante-et-un, 41 Quarante-et-unième,
instruments not always accessible—is a desideratum; and such
41st. Quarante-deux, etc., 42 Quarante-deuxième, etc.,
a pastime is found in the ancient game of Prisoners' Base. Any Cinquante, 50 Cinquantième,
50th. group of boys or young men possessed of nimble heels, and Cinquante-et-un,
51 Cinquante-et-uniême, 51st. pretty equally matched in point of strength and agility, may Cinquante-deux, etc.,
52 Cinquante-deuxième, etc., 52nd. join in this wherever there is a moderately large field or piece Soixante, 60 Soixantième,
60th of ground at their disposal, and find plenty of wholesome amuseSoixante-et-un, 61 Soixante-et-unième,
61st. ment and exercise. Soixante-deux, etc., 62 Soixante-deuxième, etc., 62nd.
The game, as we have said, is an ancient one. It is, in fact, Soixante-dix, 70 Soixante-dixième,
of an antiquity so remote, that its origin cannot be traced. In Soixante-onze, 71 Soixante-onzième,
71st. Soixante-douze, 72 Soixante-douzième, 72nd.
the fourteenth century, it was so constantly played around the Soixante-treize, 73 Soixante-treizième,
precincts of the palace at Westminster, that the senators of the Soixante-quatorze, 74 Soixante-quatorzième, 74th,
nation found themselves interrupted in their grave duties by Soixante-quinze,
75 Soixante-quinzième, 75th. the players, and a proclamation was issued to suppress it in that Soixante-seize, 76 Soixante-seizième,
76th. immediate locality. But Shakespeare alludes to the game in Soixante-dix-sept,
77 Soixante-dix-septième, 77th, such a way as to show an impression that it was of much older Soixante-dix-huit, 78 Soixante-dix-huitième, 78th.
date than this. One of his characters in “Cymbeline," describSoixante-dix-neuf, 79 Soixante-dix-neuvième,
29th ing a battle between the Roman forces and the Britons, says of Quatre-vingts, 80 Quatre-vingtième,
the latterQuatre-vingt-un, 81 Quatre-vingt-unième, 81st.
"An ancient soldier, Quatre-vingt-deux, etc., 82 Quatre-vingt-deuxième, etc., 82nd. Quatre-vingt-dix,
With two striplings-lads more like to run
90th. 90 Quatre-vingt-dixième, Quatre-vingt-onze, 91 Quatre-vingt-onzième, 91st.
The country base than to commit such slaughter
Made good the passage."
100th. And there are other allusions to the game in his works, as well Cent-un, 101 Cent-unième,
as those of our older writers. Deux cents, 200 Deux centième,
Formerly, districts and counties were matched against each Deux cent-un, etc.,
201 Deux cent-unième, 201st. Trois cents, 300 Trois centième,
other to play the game, as they now play cricket. The wide Trois cent-un, etc.,
301 Trois cent-unième, etc., 301st. popularity cricket has gained since its rise in the last century Mille 1000 Millième,
1000th. may have done much to throw prisoners' base into the shade, or Deux mille, 2000 Deux millième,
2000th. even into oblivion, in localities where it was previously very much Deux mille-cinquante, 2050 Deux mille-cinquantième 2050th. in vogue. It is still frequently played, but not so much as it Un million, 1,000,000 Millionième, 1,000,000th. deserves to be, and would be were it more widely known.
The people of different localities had somewhat different KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN FRENCH.
modes of playing it, and the game was called by various names. EXERCISE 152 (Vol. III., page 30).
Sometimes, as in the passage just quoted from Shakespeare, it 1. N'êtes-vous pas faché d'avoir perdu votre argent ? 2. Je suis was simply base or bays; at others it was bars or prison-bars; chagriné d'avoir perdu ma bourse. 3. De quoi remplirez-vous cette but prisoners' base or prisoners' bars came at last to be the bouteille ? 4. Je la ferai remplir d'encre. 5. N'est-il pas nécessaire names by which it was usually known. The origin of these de faire scier notre bois ? 6. Il est nécessaire de faire scier notre bois- different terms will be seen as we proceed with our description à-brûler. 7. Votre jardin est trop petit, n'est-il pas nécessaire de faire
of the game. arracher des pruniers ? 8. Il est nécessaire de faire abattre des pruniers. 9. Avez-vous rempli d'argent la bourse de votre ami? 10.
First, as to the older modes of playing it, which may still Je l'ai remplie d'or. 11. Toutes vos bouteilles sont-elles remplies de linger in some country places, although they do not give rise vin? 12. Elles sont toutes remplies d'encre. 13. Etes-vous fâché to such good sport as the way we shall presently recommend. d'avoir rempli d'encre vos bouteilles ? 14. Je suis bien aise de les Strutt gives the following account of it:avoir remplies d'encre, car j'ai besoin d'encre. 15. Etes-vous content “The performance of this pastime requires two parties of de ce livre? 16. J'en suis content. 17. Cette terre est-elle bonne à equal number, each of them having a base, or home as it is quelque chose ? 18. Elle n'est bonne à rien. 19. Cette dame est-elle usually called, to themselves, at the distance of about twenty chérie de ses enfants ? 20. Elle est chérie de ses amis et de ses enfants. 21. Etes-vous reconnaissant de ces services ? 22. J'en suis
or thirty yards. The players then on either side, taking hold reconnaissant. 23. N'est-il pas possible de fendre ce morceau de bois ? of hands, extend themselves in length, and opposite to each 24. Il n'est pas possible de le fendre. 25. Est-il agréable de voyager other, as far as they conveniently can, always remembering en hiver ? 26. Il n'est pas si agréable de voyager en hiver qu'en été. that one of them must touch the base. When any one of them 27. Il est facile de blâmer les autres. 28. N'est-il pas glorieux de quits the hand of his fellow, and runs into the field, which is mourir pour son pays? 29. Il est glorieux de vivre et de mourir pour called giving the chase, he is immediately followed by one of son pays. 30. En avez-vous rempli l'encrier? 31. Je l'en ai rempli. his opponents ; he is again followed by a second from the 32. Ne serait-il pas nécessaire d'arracher tous ces arbres ? 33. n ne former side, and he by a second opponent; and so on alternately, serait pas nécessaire de les arracher tous, car mon jardin est très- until as many are out as choose to run, every one parsning grand. 34. Henri Quatre était aimé de son peuple.
the man he first followed, and no other; and if he overtake EXERCISE 153 (Vol. III., page 68).
him near enough to touch him, his party claims one towards 1. Have you not shut the front door ? 2. We have shut it, but we their game, and both return home. They then run forth have not shut the back door. 3. Who arrived before me? 4. The again and again in like manner, until the number is comgentleman who is sitting before the window. 5. Who lives behind pleted that decides the victory; this number is optional, and, your house ? 6. There is no house behind ours. 7. Do you not think I am told, rarely exceeds twenty. It is to be observed, that that by dint of working he will grow rich ? 8. I do not believe that he will grow rich if he sells his goods so cheap. 9. Does he learn every person on either side who touches another during the music without the knowledge of his parents? 10. He learns it without chase, claims one for his party, and when many are out it their knowledge. 11. Did you marry without your sister's knowledge ? frequently happens that many are touched." 12. I married without her knowledge. 13. Our friend is not in the This is, perhaps, the oldest form of the pastime, and we trace house; he is out. 14. He is not out of the city; he is within. 15. here simply the term base, which, as we have seen, was applied Have you money about you ? 16. I have no money about me. 17. Do to it in ancient times. But the later addition of “prison" and you live in the back or in the front of the house? 18. We live in the prisoners" is explained in the description of the game as it front. 19. Has the cook put the plates upon the table, or under ? 20. used to be played in Essex :She has put the plates, dishes, spoons, and forks on the table. 21.
“They play this game with the addition of two prisons, How much do those potatoes cost you ? 22. I bought them at the rate of five francs the hectolitre. 23. Have you had the inside or the which are stakes driven into the ground parallel with the home outside of the house repaired ? 24. I have had the interior and the boundaries, and about thirty yards from them. Every person exterior repaired.
who is touched on either side in the chase is sent to one or