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Systems.
Epochs or Periods.

Formations. NATURAL HISTORY OF COMMERCE.

Miocene.
CHAPTER III.

TERTIARY

(Upper Eocene. CAINOZOIC.

Eocene. THE EFFECT OF GEOLOGY ON THE INDUSTRY OF THE BRITISH

Middle Eocene.

Lower Eocene.
PEOPLE.

Chalk.
Introduction-General Physical Geography of England as dependent

Upper Greensand. on its Geology-Geological Distribution of Mineral Products.

Cretaceous

Gault. The soils of a country necessarily vary with the varying

Neocomian.

Wealden. nature of the subjacent strata; and to appreciate the

Purbeck. inflnence of the former on the industry of the inhabitants

Portlandian. of any particular district, its geology must be carefully SECONDARY

Kimmeridge Clay. studied; for, apart from climatic effects, the constituents

Coral Rag. of different soils determine, to a great extent, the

MESOZOIC.
Jurassic

Oxford Clay.

Cornbrash. distribution of plants. The attachment of some

Great Oolite. species of these to certain kinds of rock is illus

Inferior Oolite. trative of the statement. Arenaria Norwegica, Ceras

(Lias. tium alpinum, and Arabis petræa are confined, in the

Keuper, Shetlands, to serpentine rock; Orobanche rubra, in

Triassic or New Red ) Muschelkalk (absent in Ireland, to the basalt; Erica vagans marks, in Cornwall,

Sandstone

England).

Bunter. the course of many metalliferous veins; and the prevalence of other species on sandy, clayey, chalky, or cal.

( Permian. careous beds is well known.

Coal Measures. Carboniferous

Millstone Grit. Great Britain presents in its rock-groups an epitome

Mountain Limestone. of the geological structure of Europe, if not of the known

PRIMARY world, and offers, accordingly, material for the most

Devonian and Old Red

Sandstone. fruitful and interesting study. Nowhere can better be PALEOZOIC.

Upper Silurian. seen the connection between geological influences and

Silurian

Middle Silurian,

Lower Silurian. mining, manufacturing, or agricultural industry. At

Primordial Silurian. the first glance, a map of England shows that west of a

Cambrian. line drawn from the mouth of the Tees on the north

(Laurentian. east, to Lyme Regis on the south-west, the chief occupations are mining and mining and manufactures, while

In the west, in Devon, Cornwall, and in Wales; in the east of the same line agriculture is the staple. The north-west, in Cumberland; and in the Pennine chain, people of the north, too, are distinct from those of the which stretches from Northumberland to Derbyshire, we south.

have what form the mountain and hilly tracts of Eng. The intelligent reader will naturally inquire into the land and Wales ; all of which are composed of palæozoic causes of these phenomena. We will at once direct rocks, elevated by the disturbances to which they have attention to them, and offer some generalisations on the been subjected. geological distribution of the minerals, plants, and

If we pass from the older rocks of South Wales and animals most useful to man.

the border counties in an easterly direction, as from the I. General Physical Geography of England as depen- neighbourhood of Gloucester to London, to the newer dent on its Geology.

and less disturbed rocks, we find that they present low The rocks of Great Britain are divided, according to undulating grounds and plains of new red sandstone the origin of their present condition, into two great classes and lias, succeeded by two great escarpments, the edges and one sub-class--viz., aqueous rocks, formed by the of table-lands, of not more than 1,000 feet above the sea, action of water; igneous rocks, formed by the action of sloping toward the east. The western escarpment, as heat ; and metamorphic rocks, which, originally stratified seen in the Cotswold Hills, is formed by the colitic, or aqueous, have since been changed in their texture by and the eastern by the cretaceous or chalk strata; igneous action.

the tertiary, comprising on the east the London, Igneous and metamorphic rocks comprise only a small and on the south the Hampshire basins, overlies the proportion of the rocks of England and Wales. In North chalk. Wales they appear largely in the counties of Merioneth,

This physical structure of England is represented in Carnarvon, and Anglesea; and for twenty miles east- the following generalised section :ward of St. David's Head igneous rocks are variously W.

E. distributed. Rocks of these groups constitute the Gram

Chalk Tertiary

Wales.-Paleozoic Rocks. Cotswolds. Downs. Basin. pians, the South Highlands of Scotland, the Cheviots, and the Malverns; they occur tov in Derbyshire, Worcestershire, Charnwood Forest, Devon, and Cornwall, whilst the midland, southern, and eastern parts of England are devoid of them.

Fig. 1. Aqueous rocks, constituting by far the greater proportion of the rocks of the entire world, form in our If we examine the country farther north, say from island a number of beds arranged in succession one upon Snowdon to Flamborough Mead, the arrangement of the other, each set of beds, or formations, presenting strata will be found very similar to that observed in the peculiarities which enable the geologist to recognise and line of the southern sections. Thus in the west rise the place them in a serial order, which order is irreversible. disturbed palæozoic strata which form the mountain The following table exbibits the series of formations region of North Wales; in Flint and Denbigh car. composing the stratified rocks of England :

boniferous rocks appear; then in Cheshire, lies the

great plain of new red sandstone, from underneath Epochs or Periods.

Systems,

Formations. TERTIARY

Post-Pliocene.

which rise, in Derbyshire, the carboniferous strata, or Pliocene

Newer Pliocene. forming the high grounds in that country; these are CAINOZOIC. Older Pliocene. succeeded by the low escarpment of the magnesian lime

93

VOL. IV.

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stone ve *** Foto -r-cum ani am come pisins & specimens collected by Count Strzelecki, along the zev meet in scarement aszra chain of Australia. Seeing the great similarity er rorum

permuts 2 rocks of those two distant countries, I could

here üstle difficulty in drawing a parallel between surse henger siers.. shem; in doing which, I was naturally struck by the *L;

in ons 2326 ci circumstance, that no gold had yet been found' in the Tigent E. - w tra ir Sevlani far Australian ridge, which I termed in anticipation the

PATUT unst ilan to the Cordillera.' Impressed with the conviction that gold

*** arv na ur country is would, sooner or later, be found in the great British i

mos telt waris -he west. All the colony, I learned in 1846 that a specimen of the ore had 出RSS

ALIVE hu Severn and its been discovered. I thereupon encouraged the unemLanges 9911

e vjerman Ucuan. The plains ployed miners of Cornwall to emigrate and dig for

de muncile and east of England gold, as they dug for tin in the gravel of their own Bunda "rers, and from the nature district. These notices were, as far as I know, the Left:120n of canals has been a first published documents relating to Australian gold.”

(“Siluria.") ourtdieute?ufo. Vineral Products. Influence of Igneous Pocks in the Development of

Rece of minerals are in veins or Minerals in Veins. tode da or Tregular beds, and in connection Mineral veins occur in igneous rocks as well as in with Jerizal matters. The consideration of the dis- aqueous rocks; but the intrusion of an igneous mass Wribution of minerals will be treated of under these among stratified deposits appears to have rendered their

lodes richer than when conditions otherwise similar 1. Mizorale in Veins

obtain. 'Though it is ditlioult, in the present state of our know- Gold is usually found in a quartz matrix, traversing ledyo to woortuin tho laws regulating the deposit of palæozoic shales, chiefly those of the lower Silurian motalliterou mutton, yot we are able, from general ob- epoch; and the auriferous lodes are frequently richest in wwwvilion of the geological structure of the earth, to say the vicinity of eruptive rocks. But the precious metal Want here now'ch may be made for minerals with some is found also in secondary rocks, such as those of Calihow mucces, and that there exploration will be futile. fornia, Peru, etc., yet under circumstances exceptional to Hidroca of thousands of pounds have been expended the usual mode of association of gold. It appears that who pulng up of mineral districts; a large propor- where certain igneous eruptions, diorite especially, have the sum utterly without profit.

penetrated the secondary strata, the latter have been Cont Britain possesses a rich supply of minerals; we rendered auriferous for a limited distance only beyond have old, silver, copper, lead, tin, zinc, antimony, nickel, the junction of the two rocks; and it is concluded that

Wismuth, uranium, chromium, and other of the all secondary and tertiary deposits (except the auriferous la cabals, besides vast stores of iron; our coal beds detritus of the latter), not so specially affected, never

angrmous, and earthy minerals are in great variety contain gold. and value Statistics show that in Great Britain 350,000 The lodes carrying copper and tin in Cornwall and warene sve actually engaged in mining operations, ex- Devon are richest about the junction of the killas (local

of quarries of all kinds, and that the produce is name for the slaty rocks of the Devonian formation in a minimum annual value of £40,000,000.

this district), and the bosses of granite, and where they Wodies from which we derive our chief supply of are intersected by granitic dykes, termed elvans. It is

bals are almost wholly confined to palæozoic rocks. worthy of remark that these metalliferous reins have de coeurrence may be sketched as follows:

a course or strike nearly east and west, and that these Wa Silurian formation in North Wales, in the Isle of phenomena are not confined to this area, but are exhibited Ma Bumberland, in the lead hills of the south of in Saxony and elsewhere.

and in parts of the Highlands, and in parts Other examples might be adduced, but these will Jedand, contains metalliferous veins which yield suffice to show that intrusive rocks influence the metalwad, www of copper, lead, silver, antimony, arsenic, and liferous richness of veins.

2. Bedded Mineral Deposits. Who racku of the Devonian formation in Devon and These include coal and iron ore of primary importance (wcwall camtain rich tin, copper, and lead lodes. and salt, gypsum, cement-stones, coprolites, iron-pyrites

, Waffumiferous limestone in Derbyshire, ranging up bituminous shales, etc., of secondary value. Ma Wi mwth England through Cumberland and the (a.) Coal occurs in many formations; it has been mined wwcom comentác#, also of the Mendips, and in Devon, for upwards of a hundred years at Brora, in Sutherland Www ele deponitory of our lead ores. The same for- shire, in rocks of the colitic epoch, and is worked at

Mon comptna large and rich deposits of hæmatite, Bovey Tracey, Devonshire, in Miocene beds. An anthra w obronna in the Forest of Dean and Somerset- cite occurs in the Devonian rocks in Spain; there are

good workable coals of the age of the trias in Virgin wowchont the world, all the metalliferous lodes, and Hindostan, and of that of the lias in Hungary; and while peonilian exceptions hereafter to be mentioned, less valuable coals, chiefly brown coals, occur in tertiary w wheredities or the associated igneous rocks, not strata in Austria and other parts of Germany. But by

wa We Permian. It is thus that one generalisa- far the richest and largest supplies are drawn from the w wwe inquiry is arrived at, viz., that of the period carboniferous system in Great Britain, Belgium, United

which the lodes carrying our richer metals States, Nova Scotia, Australia, etc.
w Geology, like the more exact sciences, is In Great Britain no coal is found below carboniferou

advancing philosophical inductions to very strata, but it does occur in newer strata. In the mid
resnius. "Sir Roderick Murchison was en- land and south-western counties of England, and in South
1814, from the study of the
gold-bearing tracts Wales, it is confined

to the true coal measures underlair to predict the discovery of gold in Australia. by the millstone grit, locally called the " farewell rock, es Sir R. Murchison, "in the year because, in the language of the miner, when that rock i

Urned from the auriferous Ural Moun- reached, one bids farewell to the coal. But in the north lyantage of examining the numerous of England and in Scotland workable coal seams oacu

[graphic]

in the inferior formations of the carboniferous system, as CORRESPONDENCE IN FRENCH.-V. well as in the coal measures.

17.-FORM OF ADVICE OF A TRAVELLER'S VISIT. The right understanding of the law of superposition of rocks in relation to our coal-bearing strata, is of Messrs. Smith, Cook & Hyde, London.

Lyons, March 28th, 1864. value not only to the man of science, but to every speculator in mines, and to every landed proprietor who cares Roche will wait upon you to submit to your inspection samples

Gentlemen,-We beg to inform you that our Mr. Robert to understand the mineral value of his property. Not of our latest manufactures in Dresses and Shawls, Waistcoatlong ago considerable funds were spent at Tullygirvan, ings, Cravats and Handkerchiefs. Co. Down, in a useless search for coal. The adventurer

Trusting soon to be favoured with a large order, had set to work in black Silurian shales, their mineral

We remain, Gentlemen, aspect resembling that of certain coaly strata, with which

Your obedient Servants, he was, perhaps, familiar; but had he possessed even

LECOUTEUR, GASPARD & Co. a slight acquaintance with organic remains, he would

Lyon, le 28 Mars 1864. have abandoned his experiment at the commencement, Messieurs Smith, Cook & Hyde, à Londres. for the shales were charged with graptolites. Now Messieurs,-Nous avons l'honneur de vons annoncer que notre the scientific miner knows that rocks containing M. Robert Roche se présentera chez vous pour vous soumettre graptolites, trilobites, etc., existed untold ages before les échantillons de toutes nos nouveautés pour 'robes, chales, the epoch of the coal strata; so that when he meets étoffes pour gilets, cravates et foulards. with those remains, he concludes that money spent

Dans l'espoir de recevoir bientôt une bonne commande, in search of coal beneath them will be turned into

Nous vous présentons, Messieurs, irredeemable dust, for they occupy, in the irreversible

nos salutations empressées, order of deposits, a position thousands of feet beneath the

LECOUTEUR, GASPARD & Cie, coal measures. Lord Londonderry bored in the old red sandstone, 18.—LETTER ADVISING DESPATCH OF Goode, AND ENCLOSING

INVOICE at Mount Stewart, Co. Down, in search of coal: here,

London, April 10th, 1866. though no fossils occurred, yet the position of the sand- Phillip Teesdale, Esq., Dublin. stone strata above the previously mentioned Silurian Dear Sir,---Enclosed please find invoice of Cotton Goods shales, and overlaid as they are by mountain limestone, forwarded to-day in a case marked PT No. 5. proved the impossibility of coal being found.

The amount of this invoice In the neighbourhood of Carrickfergus are two silent

£450 please place to my credit. witnesses of the folly of sinking for coal where the geolo- Awaiting your further orders, to which my best attention gical structure of the country precludes the possibility of shall always be given, I remain, dear Sir, its presence, or of its occurrence at reasonable depths.

Yours truly, Trial shafts had been sunk in new red sandstone,

A. LONSDALE. which was pierced to a depth of about 1,000 feet, when

Londres, le 10 Avril 1866. the adventures were abandoned. Before coal could be Monsieur Phillip Teesdale, à Dublin. reached, the Permian strata would have to be passed

Cher Monsieur,-Ci-joint j'ai le plaisir de vous remettre hrough; and from the unconformability of the new facture à des Cotonnades qui vous ont été expédiées ce jour dans ed sandstone to the Permian, and of that set of strata une caisse marquée PT No 5. o underlying formations in this district, it was even

Pour le montant de cette facture venillez me reconnaître de loubtful if coal could be reached at all.

£450. But coal has been successfully reached by the pene- soins,

Dans l'attente de vos ordres ultérieurs qui auront tous mes

Je vous présente, cher Monsieur, ration of newer unconformable strata; thus in the

Mes salutations sincères, lomersetshire coal field, the coal shafts pass through

A. LONSDALE. ew red sandstone, the Permian strata being absent. he famous Monkwearmouth pit passes through 330 feet 19.-LETTER REQUESTING FURTHER ORDERS. loverlying Permian rocks.

Lyons, Dec. 30th, 1865. In these and other instances that might be adduced Messrs. Dufour & Co., Paris. le undertakings had been commenced at the sugges- Gentlemen,-It is now more than three months since we had ons of those who were perfectly satisfied, from an ex- any orders from your firm ; nevertheless, we are persuaded that nination of the surrounding country, of the feasibility of the fault does not lie with us, or the manner in which we have e venture. Yet, on the other hand, attempts have been executed your last. ade to reach coal from below secondary rocks, when, We are more vexed than you at the rise in velvet, and we ith but a broad knowledge of the geological structure know that your sale must in consequence be hampered. If you, the country, the trials should have been at the outset however, realise that throughout France and Italy cocoons have andoned. Thus, at Kingsthorpe, near Northampton, fetched from 6 fr. to 6 fr. 90 c. per kilogram-that is to say, shaft was sunk through the lower oolite and lias, at an 18% more than last year, and that consequently silk costs us penditure of nearly £30,000; the adventurers desisted more than 18% above last year's prices-you will see the len they reached the new red sandstone. A similar necessity of our raising the price of our velvet in proportion. al took place near Lyme Regis, the lias being bored stock, and we subjoin our price list

.

You will find in our parcel some samples of what we have in coal at an expense of several thousand pounds; the

Our Mr. Marchand will be in Paris next Tuesday, and will ception was fostered by the accident of passing through have great pleasure in giving yon further details. viece of lignite.

We are, Gentlemen, 6.) Iron Ores.

Truly yours, Certain ores of iron occur in lodes in primary strata,

JAMES MARCHAND, BRIGAUD & Co. t others, especially the spathic and brown hæmatite :s, are intercalated as bands among shales and lime. Messieurs Dufour & Cie, à Paris.

Lyon, le 30 Décembre, 1865. nes of the carboniferous, liassic, oolitic, wealden, and

Messieurs,-Il y a plus de trois mois que nous n'avons reçu itaceous strata; but by far the largest supply is d'ordres de votre maison ; nous ne pouvons, pourtant, imaginer ained from the carboniferous system, the one shaft que la manière dont nous vous avons traités dans le dernier en communicating with both coal and iron-stone envoi, ait pu diminuer la confiance que vous nous avez rkings, and the same group of rocks furnishing lime- accordéo. ne.

Nous sommes plus fâchés que vous de l'élévation

"prix que vont subir nos velours, et nous sentons bien que cela | Mr. J. Muirhead, et dont vous nous enverrez les reças, permetvous gênera pour la vente. Figurez-vous que les cocons se sont tez-nous de vous exprimer d'avance nos plus vifs remerciements payés partout en France et en Italie de 6 fr. à 6 fr. 90 le kilo- des attentions que vous aurez pour notre recommandé et sa gramme--c'est-à-dire, 18 % plus cher que l'an dernier-les famille. soieries de toute cette campagne vont donc nous coûter 18 % Nous éprouverons toujours le plus grand plaisir à vous rendre de plus que l'an dernier, et il faut que nous augmentions nos le réciproque, ainsi que tout autre service qui dépendra de nous, velours en proportion.

et vous prions de disposer librement de notre ministère. Vous trouverez dans notre envoi quelques échantillons de ce Agréez, Messieurs, l'assurance de la plus haute considéraque nous avons de disponible en magasin, et ci-joint notre note tion de de prix.

Vos obéissants serviteurs, Notre M. Marchand sera à Paris Mardi prochain, et aura le

SPIELMAN & CTE. plaisir de vous entretenir plus longuement de tous ces détails. Messieurs N. N. à Berlin, Vienne, Trieste, Agréez, Messieurs,

Venise, Rome, Naples.
Nos saluts empressés,
JACQUES MARCHAND, BRIGAUD & CHE

21.-LETTER OF INTRODUCTION,

Stuttgard, Jan. 1st, 1840.

Gentlemen (Sir),-We beg to introduce to you the bearer, 20.-CIRCULAR LETTER OF CREDIT, ETC.

Mr. --, whom we recommend to your kindness.

London, March 4th, 1863. We at the same time open in your account a credit of Gextlemen, - This circular letter of recommendation and £1,000, to which amount please furnish Mr. with the credit will be remitted to you by James Muirhead, Esq., of sums he requires upon his receipts, which please send us, when Edinburgh, a gentleman for whom we claim from you a friendly debiting our account for your payments. reception, and we beg you to give him an opportunity of enter Accept beforehand our best thanks for the services you ing into business relations with the large landholders of your will render Mr. --, and believe us to be, Gentlemen (Sir), country. Mr. Muirhead belongs to one of the richest families

Faithfully yours, in Scotland, and himself superintends his extensive and flourish

J. WEBER & Co. ing estates. As he intends looking over the land in the neigh Mr. --, London. bourhood of your metropolis, you will oblige us by paying every Valid for -- months. * attention in your power to his family, who, having accompanied

Slutlgord, le 1 Janvier, 1810. him thus far, will remain a few weeks in your city during his Messieurs (Monsieur),-Nous prenons la liberté d'introduire short absence.

chez vous par ces lignes, et de vous recommander à un accueil As to the funds which Mr. Muirhead will require, we beg to obligeant, M. open a credit with you in his favour for the sum of £5,000 (five Nous l'accréditons chez vous pour la somme de £1,000 (nous thousand pounds sterling), which you will please to pay, indorsing disons mille livres sterling). Veuillez bien payer jusqu'à cette on this letter each of the sums he will have received to the full concurrence l'argent dont M. aura besoin, et nous en débiter amount of his credit. Please add to the amount your com. sous envoi de ses quittances. mission and all other expenses, and draw on us for the whole Nous vous remercions d'avance, de ce que vous voudrez faire sum at the best possible rate of exchange, and at the date en faveur de M. ---, et vous prions d'agréer l'assurance de "customary in your town.

notre parfaite considération, Assuring you that due honour will always meet the drafts for

J. WEBER & CE the payments you will make to James Muirhead, Esq., the M. , à Londres. receipts for which you will be kind enough to send us, we beg to

Valable pour

mois. thank you beforehand for the attentions you will show to this 'gentleman and his family.

We shall always have the greatest pleasure in rendering you CIVIL SERVICE PAPERS.-IV. similar or other services, and begging you to command the same

GROUP III. at any time, We are, Gentlemen,

GROUP III. will be treated in this and one or two subsequent Your obedient servants,

papers. It is the largest of the groups, and comprises the SPIELMAN & Co.

British Museum, the Charity Commissioners, the Civil Service Messrs. N. N. at Berlin, Vienna, Trieste,

Commissioners, the House of Lords Office, the House of ComVenice, Rome, Naples.

mons Office, the Copyhold and Tithe Commission, Ecclesiastical

Commission, Emigration Office, Lunacy Commission, Mint,

Londres, le 4 Mars, 1863. National Debt Office, Patent Office, Paymaster-General's, Record Messieurs,

Office, and General Registry Office. La présente lettre circulaire de recommandation et de crédit Specimens of some of the examination papers that might be vous sera remise par James Muirhead, Esq., d'Edimbourg, set to candidates for offices in this group are annexed, in con* auquel nous vous prions de vouloir bien faire un accueil obli- tinuance of the plan announced at the beginning of the series. geant, et lui procurer en même temps la possibilité de se The importance of dealing with these papers in the manner mettre en relation d'affaires avec les grands propriétaires de there suggested cannot be exaggerated. They should be not votre pays. Mr. Muirhead appartient à une des plus riches only worked out as carefully as if the student were actually familles de l'Écosse, dont les terres prospèrent sous sa direction. about to stake his career on the solution of them, but caro Vous nous obligerez infiniment, Messieurs, si vous pouvez aussi should be taken to secure their correction by some able person. contribuer aux agréments d'un séjour de quelques semaines Such a person might also be induced to frame other papers que la famille de notre recommandé fera dans votre capitale, from the specimens, and these fresh papers should be indetandis que Mr. Muirhead lui-même visitera les terres voisines fatigably worked out. Where no such friend is at hand, the de la métropole.

best way for a student is to arrange to work the papers conQuant aux fonds dont Mr. Muirhead aura besoin, nous l'accré. jointly with some one else in his own position; that is to say, ditons chez vous pour une somme totale de £5,000 st. (nous each student should work out the questions to the best of his disons cinq mille livres sterling), qu'il vous plaira de lui payer, en ability, and then compare his answers with those of his fellow. marquant sur le dos de cette lettre chacune des sommes qu'il Should they, having worked thus independently, arrive at the aura touchées jusqu'à épuisement de son crédit. Vous voudrez same result, the probability is strong in favour of the answer bien chaque fois ajouter à ces paiements votre commission de being right; should they differ, there will be good exercise for banque et tous les autres frais, en vous remboursant sur nous au both in finding out which of them is wrong. There can be meilleur cours possible et à l'échéance qui conviendra aux usages little difficulty in working out the arithmetic papers by this de votre place.

method. A little more trouble may be occasioned by verifying En vous assurant, Messieurs, que le meilleur accueil sera tou historical and geographical and such-like matters; but there * jours préparé à vos traites pour les paiements que vous ferez à | will be found in the various manuals which have been published,

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3. English Composition.

4. Bookkeeping by Double Entry. 2.-THE CHARITY COMMISSION.

Salaries :-Junior clerks, £100 to £250, by £10 a year ; &SThis office is in York Street, St. James's Square. It is charged sistant clerks, £300 to £600, by £15 a year; senior clerks, with the detail of the duties thrown upon the Commissioners by £650 to £800, by £20 a year. The prizes are the principal the Act of Parliament which, in 1853, empowered them to deal clerkships, with salaries ranging from £850 to £1,000, by annual with lands and money left for charitable purposes in such a

increments of £25. way as would most thoroughly promote the objects of charity without reference to the special objects named in the bequests.

5. COPYHOLD, ENCLOSURE, AND TIThE COMMISSION. Patronage in the Commissioners. Office staff small. Third Office in St. James's Square. Commissioners assist in the class clerks get £90 to £150, by increase of £10 a year; second- enclosure and utilisation of waste lands; in the commutation class clerks get £160 to £280, by £15 a year; first-class clerks of tithes, and in arranging for payment of fines to lords of get £300 to £500, by £15 a year. Inspectors get £800 a year; manors. Their work is a purely artificial one, created by Acts and these appointments, with that of the secretary, worth £800 of Parliament to meet exigencies arising out of a change in 2 year, constitute the prizes of the office. Subjects of examina- English home policy. There is a great deal of purely profestion:

sional work for surveyors, architects, and lawyers, but the 1. Handwriting and Orthography.

clerical staff is small. Office patronage in the Commissioners. 2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).

Qualifications :3. English Composition.

I. CLERKS AND ASSISTANT RECORD KEEPERS. 4. Précis, 5, Two at least of the following:

1. Writing from Dictation.

2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions).
(a) Latin or a Modern Foreign Language.

3. Correspondence.
(6) English History.
(c) Elementary Mathematics.

II. ARCHITECTURAL SURVEYOR.

The three subjects above, and 3.-Civil Service COMMISSION.

1. Designs of Structures and Preparation of Working Drawings

2. Measurement and Estimate of Builders' Work, In Cannon Row (formerly in Dean's Yard, Westminster).

3. Knowledge of Quality and Strength of Materials. Instituted in 1855 for the purpose of testing educational acquirements of candidates for the Civil Service. Clerical staff

III. PERMANENT DRAUGHTSMEN, Assistant SURVEYORS, AND AS

SISTANTS IN THE SURVEY DEPARTMENT. small. Patronage in the Commissioners, but the practice has

The three subjects prescribed for Clerks, and been in this office to throw the appointments open to competi. 1. Land Surveying. tion. Qualifications:

2. Plan Drawing. I. Clerks.

MESSENGERS are examined in Writing from Dictation and Ele1. Handwriting and Orthography.

mentary Arithmetic. 2. Arithmetic (including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, Square Root, and the use of Logarithms).

Salaries :- Assistant record keepers, £80 to £150, by £5 a 3. English Composition.

year; assistant surveyors, £150 to £250, by £10 a year; second4. Précis involving the preparation and digest of tabular class clerks, £100 to £300, by £15 a year; first-class clerks, statements).

£300 to £500, by £20. Messengers get £60 to £80, by £2 109

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