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aboat in different planes and angles, the course of the rays is to be hazy, in consequence of the two images being reflected clearly defined, especially if a little smoke from a bit of brown together and overlapping each other. As light is reflected chiefly paper, dipped in a solution of nitre, and dried, is produced. The from the second surface, more rays are thrown off by covering smoke acts like the clouds, vapours, and gases surrounding the the back with black varnish, or, better still, with an amalgam earth, and, by a secondary reflection, causes the rays of light to of tin and mercury; the intensity of the reflection of light from be visible which might otherwise be too feeble to be appre- the second surface then completely overpowers that of the first, ciated.
and, as in an ordinary looking-glass, it is the coated surface If the ray of light strikes in a perpendicular line against the which reflects the image. mirror A B (Fig. 2), it simply returns again, and is reflected back We see our faces in a looking-glass, because the face, being in a straight line; it is only (as shown above) when it falls ob- strongly illuminated by natural or artificial light, emits rays, and liquely on the mirror that it is thrown off obliquely. There is this reflected light moves towards the mirror A B (Fig. 5). always a considerable loss of
To prevent the confusion light, even when the rays fall A
arising from the tracing out of perpendicularly on the reflect
too many rays, let one be ing surface; thus, supposing it
drawn from the forehead CE, to be a very brilliant metal,
which, according to the laws of like quicksilver, 334 out of a
reflection, will be sent to the thousand are absorbed by the
eye at o. But the mind puts metal and lost, and 666 only
CEO into one line, and the reflected. When the incident
forehead is seen at h, as if the ray of light is at the smallest
lines CEO had turned on a angle, say 89, like a cannon
hinge at E. Indeed, it seems shot just grazing a surface, the
a wonderful faculty of the loss is less, and is represented
mind to put the two oblique by 279, whilst 721 rays are re
lines CE and OE into one S flected. Thus, more rays of B
straight line ox; yet it is light are lost the nearer the in
seen every time we look into a cident ray approaches the per
ОЕ mirror, for the ray has really pendicular. Only twenty-five S
travelled from c to E, and from rays out of a thousand are re
E to o, and it is that journey flected by plate-glass
that determines the at a perpendicular in.
distance of the object; cidence, and hence,
and hence we see ouruntil the figure to be
selves as far beyond reflected was illumi.
the looking-glass as nated by the oxyhydro
we stand from it. As gen light, the illusion
the human eye is placed called the “Ghost "Fig. 5.
in the highest part of was not applied to the.
the body, the whole atrical or other pur
person may be seen in poses of entertainment.
a looking-glass of but A model ghost appara
half its length and tas is very easily con
breadth, as in the structed out of a box
mirror ab. (Fig. 3), with the lid off,
The rays from the and turned on one side.
head travel to the Attached to the larger box,
mirror in the line A a (Fig. 6), on one side, as shown in the
perpendicularly to the mirror, ground-plan in Fig. 4, should
and are returned to the eye in be a smaller one, containing
the same line, viz., a A; consethe lamp and lens, and figure
quently, having travelled twice which is to be reflected in the
the length A a, a man must see glass; a simple contrivance,
his head at B; rays from his such as a sliding door made of tin, must be arranged, in order
feet c, impinging on the bottom
of the mirror at b, will be reto cut off the light or throw it
flected to the eye in the direcon, as the ghost is required to
tion ba. But seeing his feet appear or disappear ; the latter effects are caused by alternately along the ray that approaches his eye last, he sees his feet at D, lighting up the figure and shading the light.
along the line Ab D, and so of all the rest of his person. In this model the box is represented by the letters A A A" A". The angle of incidence being always equal to the angle of The glass, made of common window-glass, is shown at B B, and reflection, it follows that a convex mirror-i.e., a surface correits angle and position should be carefully adjusted, so that the sponding with the outside of a watch-glass-will cause parallel reflection of the figure E should appear in the centre of the back rays to become divergent, and it is easy to show that images of the box at G; the glass is masked in by scenery representing reflected by such a surface must be reduced apparently in size, the laboratory of an alchemist, and is shown at all the places because so few of the reflected rays enter the eye. marked s. The figure E is a small doll dressed to represent "a Suppose the arrow a b (Fig. 7) to be seen in a convex mirror, woman in white," and is placed in a smaller box attached to cd, though rays proceed from the arrow in all directions, only the side of the larger one, which is perforated with an aperture those reflected from the mirror in the space included in on to permit the figure to be reflected in the glass. To illuminate actually
enter the eye, and if the mirror were removed the rays the figure, an ordinary “ buld's-eye,” or a small magic lantern, ao and bn would meet at p; but the reflected rays or and nr L, may be provided, the top of the little box being open to become more divergent, and do not moet at p, hence the angle allow the hot air from the chimney to escape, and in front of orn being so much less than a pb (had the eye been at p), the the lamp, L, is the sliding panel of tin, D D, which controls the image s will be less than the object, and nearer the mirror. light when the ghost is required to appear or disappear. The In the second and concluding portion of this paper on the proscenium is at 4" A". In a plate of glass, both the anterior and reflection of light, and the curious deceptions that are produced posterior sides reflect light, but more light is reflected from the by it, we shall endeavour to explain the special properties of second than the first surface; hence the thinner the glass the convex and concave mirrors, and the peculiar appearances of better and clearer the reflection, which, with thick glass, is apt ! objects reflected in them.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-XL.
when traced back to their originals, are found to be descriptive
of the flow of the stream, according as it is swift, slow, quiet, PART II.-INFLECTION.
noisy, etc. NOUNS: THEIR ORIGIN AND CLASSES.
The name declares the qualities of the object; but, observe, I HAVE given my scholars such instruction on the component there is no necessary connection between the name and the elements of the English language as the occasion permits. You qualities. Not always are names truly descriptive. With the now see of what materials your mother tongue consists. In progress of science even scientific names have ceased to be truly their origin, those materials are very diverse :-the Celtic, the descriptive. But however correct a description of the qualities Teutonic, the Norman-French, the Latin, the Greek, the Roof an object its name may give, nevertheless it has no necessary mance tongues—such as the French, the Italian, the Spanish- connection with the object itself. This fact is best illustrated besides others, have all contributed a portion. Our labours by reference to the different names borne by the same object in have put us into possession of the constituent parts of the different languages. Take the name God." In Hebrew, God is English tongue. These constituent parts we now possess in called Elohim and Jehovah; in Greek, Theos; in Latin, Deus ; their simple and in their compound form; that is, we know in French, Dieu; in English, God. You see thero is no conwhence our words come, and of what verbal combinations they nection between the Almighty and any one of these names. are capable. But we do not yet know what changes these Yet the names are all descriptive. These names, and all names, simple words and these compound words undergo in themselves. are only sounds; or if you regard them as written rather than Equally are we uninformed of the laws under which they com as spoken, then are they certain straight and curved strokes or bine together so as to form sentences and become the vehicle of lines representing sounds. By one sound is the Creator desig. thought. In other words, we have dealt with the Etymology of nated in Hebrew, by another sound He is designated in English. our tongue, and have now to treat of its inflections and its Henco you may learn that any sound may denote any object. Syntax.
The appropriation of sounds to particular objects is purely a All the words of the English language have been brought matter of convention, or passive agreement, or, to use another into nine or ten classes. Arranging these classes according to
term, usage. their importance, I find them to be: 1, the noun ; 2, the verb;
If usage can originate nouns, usage can erect into nouns other 3, the adjective ; 4, the pronoun ; 5, the adverb ; 6, the prepo- parts of speech. Indeed, all the parts of speech may be resition ; 7, the conjunction ; 8, the article ; 9, the participle; garded and used as nouns. You may know that a word not a 10, the interjection. If, however, I follow a more natural order, noun is used as a noun, by its being constructed as a noun ; it may be better to treat of these classes in the following suc- that is, by its having connected with it such particles as nouns cession :-1, the noun ; 2, the article ; 3, the adjective; 4, the commonly take. Now nouns take before them the articles, the pronoun; 5, the preposition ; 6, the verb ; 7, the participle; 8, and a; and they have after them the preposition of. Consethe adverb; 9, the conjunction ; 10, the interjection. By this quently those words are nouns which have the or a before them, means we get together under one head the noun, and what and of after them. Attend to these instances of chiefly pertains to the noun ; and under another head the verb,
WORDS USED AS NOUNS. and what chiefly pertains to the verb, as is seen in this arrange 1. Adjectives used as Nouns : "The blacks of Africa are bought and ment:
sold."-"The Ancient of Days did sit.” (Dan. vii, 9.)" of the anNominal Division.
cients." (Swift.) 1. Nous, article, adjective, pronoun, preposition.
2. Pronouns used as Nouns : “The nameless He whose nod is Nature's
birth." (Young.)—"I was wont to load my she with knacks." (ShakeVerbal Division.
speare.)" When I see many its in a page, I always tremble for the 2. VERB, participle, adverb, conjunction, interjection.
writer." (Cobbett.) -"Let those two try to do this with their whos and
their whiches." (Spectator.) The reasons of this division are obvious ; for, 1st, the article 3. Verbs used as Nouns: “The officer erred in granting a permit."limits the noun ; the adjective qualifies the noun; the pronoun 4 may be of mercy is sufficient." (Bridge.)“To err is human, to takes the place of the noun; the preposition governs the noun :
forgive divine." (Pope.) and, 2nd, the participle belongs to the verb; the adverb qualifies the driver." (Job xxxix. 7.)—" Reading, writing, and ciphering are
4. Participles used as Nouns: "Neither regardeth he the crying of the verb; the conjunction governs the verb; the interjection is necessary parts of education."-"Knowledge of the past comes next." an abbreviated form of a preposition.
(Harris.)—"I am my beloved's." (Song of Sol. vii. 10.) Nouns or names are of a very high antiquity. In the noun -5. Adverbs used as Nouns : "One long noi "_"In these cases we probably is the root of language to be found. One of the ear. examine the why, the what, and the how of things.”_"'Tis Heaven liest acts of human intelligence must have been to give a name itself that points out an hercafter." (Addison.) to some object of sight and desire. Accordingly, we read in the
6. Conjunctions used as Nouns: "None of your ifs." (Shakespeare.)Bible (Gen. ii. 20), that at the beginning " Adam gave names to
"Your í is the only peacemaker; much virtue lies in an is." (Shakeal cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the
speare.) field.” Food, of course, was man's first want; and a name for then ?” (Addison.)—“With hark and whoop and wild halloo." (Soott.)
7. Interjections used as Nouns: “Will cuts him short with a What an edible object would be among man's first articulate sounds. 8. Other words used as Nouns: "Us is a personal pronoun." (Murray.) That the noun preceded the verb is clear from the fact that men -"I and J were formerly expressed by the same character, as were U must have had a subject to speak of, before they could speak of and V." (Allen.) —"Th has two sounds.” (Murray.)-"Let B. be a a subject. In other terms, the subject was anterior to the pre- now or instant." (Harris.)—"Within this wooden 0." (Shakespeare.)dicate, for it is the business of the predicate to make some "Here are eight ands in one sentence." (Blair.) averment touching the subject.
From the study of these instances yod will learn the grounds Nouns originally were imitations; they were imitations of na- of the rule given by Campbell, in his Rhetoric, "All words and tural sounds. From the first breeze of wind and the first ripple signs taken technically (that is, independent of their meaning, of water, natural sounds existed and must have drawn attention. and merely as things spoken of) are nouns ; or rather are things These sounds were signs, and those signs would be the names of read and construed constructed) as nouns; as, * For this reason the things signified. Man's tendency to make names imitative I prefer contemporary to cotemporary." You will also see that of natural sounds, bears in learned phrase the designation of adjectives, when they represent more than one, take s in the onomatopeia, from two Greek words, ovoua (on'-o-ma) (Latin, plural, as if they were nouns: for example, the ancients, the elders. nomen), a name, and tolew (poi'-e-o), I make, so that the term Yet we do not say " the wises," but the wise." The reason literally signifies name-making, without any reference to the seems to be, that elder and ancient, though adjectives in form and ground or principle of imitation on which such making proceeds. import originally, have come to have a permanent force as nouns ; Instances of onomatopeia exist in all languages. In English we as is seen in the fact that you can say "an ancient," "an speak of the buzz of the bee, the mero of the cat, the crash of elder ;” but you cannot say " a wise ; " "a sage' you can say: falling timber, the crushing of a shell, etc.
though sage and wise are nearly the same in meaning, and In general, names were originally descriptive. The fact is though properly they are both adjectives. These remarks specially illustrated in the Hebrew nouns, and the book of illustrate the extent to which usage prevails in language, and Genesis is full of instances. Thus Isaac means laughter, and show that in a living language so rich as the English
, rules to Jesus means saviour. The names of rivers in other languages, which no exception can be given are not easily laid down.
With the aid of the logical terms, abstract and concrete, two whereas it requires national usage to convert such a common other divisions of nouns are formed. Qualities may be con noun into a proper noun. This fact is exemplified in the phrase sidered under two aspects. They may be considered as belong. the Lakes, which from national usage means the Lakes of Westing to some subject, as white paper; or they may be considered moreland. The Lakes, therefore, has become the specific name as altogether detached from any subject, as whiteness. In the for the whole district in the North of England where certain former we regard the quality in question as concrete, in the latter lakes are found. After a similar manner we speak of the Highas abstract. Hence whiteness is an abstract noun. Abstract lands. nouns are numerous in English, being readily formed from their The figure termed Personification (ascribing personal qualities respective concrete adjectives by certain terminations, as black, to inanimate objects) may give to a common noun the attributes blackness ; pure, purity.
of a proper noun. “Reason is the highest gift of God; may If regard is had to the origin of nouns, we may be led to we, O Divine Reason, listen reverently to thy voice!” In the recognise another class, namely, verbal nouns. Verbal nouns first member or part of the sentence, reason is a common noun ; are such as are formed from verbs : thus, " If the blood of bulls in the second, in consequence of being the object of a direct sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh.” (Heb. ix. 13.) Here address, it is a proper noun. purifying is a noun derived from the verb to purify. The addi. We have already seen that common nouns may represent an tion of the syllable ing, or the employment of the present parti- individual or a class. Thus a pigeon is one bird, but the pigeon ciple as a noun, is a very prolific source of nouns. But observe, is the class of birds so denominated. Some common nouns in when a noun is thus formed, it has the attributes because it per their essential import denote a number; such as a fleet, a navy, forms the functions of a noun. Now a noun is connected with a flock. These nouns are called collective, or nouns of multitude. another noun, when the one is dependent on the other, by the Singular in form, they are plural in import. Indeed, they denote preposition of. Thus we say, “the purification of the temple." a class. Thus a crowd is a number of individuals considered as In the same way we ought to say “the purifying of the temple.” forming one body; a council is a number of men met for conBut inaccurate writers, while they use verbal nouns as nouns, sultation, forming the class councillor, in relation to some parallow them to retain their qualities as participles or parts of ticular locality. Thus we say, I am in the council ; I am of the verbs, and deprive them of their rights as nouns; omitting the council ; that is, I am one of the class or body known under that connecting of, and writing thus, " to the purifying the flesh ;" general term. “his handling the subject was good."
Nouns are ordinarily divided into common and proper. This is the most general division of nouns. A common noun is a
READINGS IN GREEK.-IV. noun which is common to a whole class or kind. Tree is a com
SOPHOCLES. mon noun, for it may be used of any tree, and of the whole of the three great tragic poets of Greece, Sophocles occupies class; thus we say a tree, and the tree. A proper noun is a
a position midway between Euripides on the one hand and noun which is proper or peculiar (Lat. proprium, peculiar) to an Æschylus on the other. More polished in luis style and the individual, as to a person, a place, a city, a nation. Thus Alfred treatment of his subjects than the latter, he never condescends is a proper noun ; so is Lancashire, and London, and England.
to the triviality and mere exhibition of mechanical skill which are The distinction between common and proper is not very satis- the signs of the commencement of a degenerating taste in the factory. If tree is a common noun because the term tree is former. Sophocles may be said to represent the best period of common to all trees, might not George be accounted a common Greek literature. Moreover, he flourished at a period when noun because it is common to all the Georges ? And is not the Athens was at the very zenith of her fame, with the Persian name Tree as peculiar to the class Tree, as the name George is invader triumphantly driven from her shores-when the Macepeculiar to the class of persons who bear this name? If, then, donian power had not begun to throw its dark shadow over her Tree is a noun peculiar to an individual and a class, and if greatness, and her land was still untouched by the inroads of George is the same, the distinction between common and proper her neighbours and rivals in the Peloponnesus. The battle of does not appear determinate. In truth, the terms peculiar and Salamis, B.C. 480, in which the hosts of the Persian king Xerxes common do not here essentially differ, for what is peculiar to experienced a decisive overthrow, serves as a link to bind to. each of a class is common to all the members of that class.
gether in the student's memory the names of the three great The difficulty seems to arise from the multiplication of the tragic poets. Æschylus, the eldest of the three, fought as a objects which are considered as nouns proper. So long as there soldier in the ranks of the Athenian army on that day ; Sophois but one London, the word London is strictly a proper or pecu- cles, a youth of fifteen, led the chorus at the festival in which liar name. But let there be several cities so called, then a class the people of Athens returned thanks for their success; and is formed, and the original peculiarity is lost. What was once the same day witnessed the birth of Euripides. Of the many peculiar to an individual place, is now common to several places. plays which
Sophocles wrote, only seven have come down to us Proper names, you thus see, pass into common names. This want of fixedness and precision is an objection. Never. Of many we only possess the titles, allusions having been made
in a perfect form, but we have fragments of several others. theless, the classification of nouns as nouns common and nouns to them by subsequent writers. In depicting mental emotion proper has so rooted itself in our grammar, that I think it better and simple natural affection, Sophocles has been peculiarly to retain it, than to propose another which might be scarcely happy; and Antigone's love for her brother, and the tender, free from exception.
affectionate care which she and her sister Ismene show for Emerson has written a book on what he calls "Representative their ill-starred father Edipus, are among the most beautiful Men." There are also representative nouns or names. Thus
pictures in ancient Greek poetry. The language, though hardly Solomon stands for a wise man, Crosus for a rich man, Judas for so simple as that of Euripides, presents no remarkable difficulty a traitor, Demosthenes for an orator, Cicero for the same, and to the translator, and the versification is always faultless, formHomer for a poet. Now mark how these are constructed. Shy. ing the very best model that can be found for imitation, lock exclaims
Eteocles and Polynices having fallen by each other's hand, "A Daniel come to judgment ! Yea, a Daniel."
Kreon, king of Thebes, allowed to the former the customary
rites of burial, while he ordered the body of Polynices to be And we also say of an eminent orator, “he is the Cicero of his cast out unburied, and forbad its interment, proclaiming death age.” Daniel and Cicero, in themselves, are proper nouns. In against any one who should dare to bury it. The body, howvirtue of the articles they become common.
ever, is found some days after covered with earth, and inquiry As proper nouns become common, 90 common nouns become being instituted, it is discovered to be the act of Antigone, his proper, under the influence of the article. In the latter case, sister. The following passage contains her defence of herself :however, it is the definite article which prodaces the effect. A strand is a river's bank. The Strand is a thoroughfare in Lon
SOPHOCLES.-"ANTIGONE,” 441–470. don, so called because it runs alongside the Thames. So we ΚΡ. Σε δή, σε την νεύουσαν ες πέδον κάρα, speak of the Channel, the Downs, the United States, the Nether.
φής, ή καταρνεί μή δεδρακέναι τάδε; lands. We also say the Harbour ; but the Harbour is not a AN. Και φημι δράσει, κουκ απαρνούμαι το μή. proper name, except at Portsmouth, where the Harbour means ΚΡ. Συ μέν κομίζοις άν σεαυτόν και θέλεις the particular harbour that is there ; but the usage is local;
έξω βαρείας αιτίας ελεύθερον
συ δ' ειπέ μοι μή μήκος, αλλά σύντομα
ει τας γ' Αθήνας φασι θεοσεβεστάτας 260 ήδης τα κηρυχθέντα μη πράσσειν τάδε ;
είναι, μόνας δε τον κακούμενον ξένον ΑΝ. "Ηδη, τί δ' ουκ έμελλον και εμφανή γαρ ήν.
σώζειν οίας τε και μόνας αρκεϊν έχειν; ΚΡ. Και δήτ' ετόλμας τούσδ' υπερβαίνειν νόμους ;
κάμοιγε που ταύτ' έστιν, οίτινες βάθρων ΑΝ. Ου γαρ τί μοι Ζεύς ήν ο κηρύξας τάδε,
έκ τώνδε μ' εξάραντες είτ' ελαύνετε, ουδ' ή ξύνοικος των κάτω θεών Δίκη,
όνομα μόνον δείσαντες ; ου γαρ δή το γε 265 (οι τούσδ' εν ανθρώποισιν ώρισαν νόμους)
σώμ' ούδε τάργα τάμ'· έπει τα γ' έργα μου
πεπονθότ' έστι μάλλον ή δεδρακότα.
NOTES. ου γάρ τι νύν γε καχθες, αλλ' αεί ποτε
259. Mátny peovons, that flows in vain, that after all means nothing. "It η ταύτα, κουδείς οίδεν εξ ότου φάνη
is useless to depend upon the good name of any place for hospitality τούτων εγώ ουκ έμελλον, ανδρός ουδενός
or kindness, for the Athenians are reported to possess these virtues in φρόνημα δείσασ' έν θεοίσι την δίκην
the highest extent, yet at the mere mention of my name they are ready δώσειν, θανουμένη γάρ εξήδη, τι δ' ου:
to drive me from the country." κεί μή συ προκηρυξας: ει δε του χρόνου
233. Kåporge, etc. (lit.), and yet where is all this as far as I am conπρόσθεν θανούμαι, κέρδος αύτ' εγώ λέγω
corned!--and yet what avails mo this !
263. οίτινες. The antecedent to this must be supplied by 'Αθηναίοι όστις γαρ εν πολλοίσιν ώς εγώ κακούς
out of 'Adrivas in l. 260-since her people, etc
265. "Ovoua uovov, fearing the mere sound of my name an emcphasises 465
the où yap, since of course it cannot be, etc. παρ' ουδέν άλγος, αλλ' άν εί τον εξ έμής
267. NepovОóra, etc., are rather suffered than dono-rather passive than μητρός θανόντ’ άθαπτον ήνσχόμην νέκυν,
active. So Shakespeare makes King Lear exclaim-
“I am a man
More sinned against than sinning."
The following beautiful passage is from the choral ode in the 41. Lė dy, you there. The din emphasises the pronoun. Le is in the same play, in which the people of Athens are represented as accusative case, as being the object of Kreon's address, though there is welcoming the wanderer to their land, and praising the beauties no actual verb to govern it.
of the country. It may be compared with the ode in praise of 142. Katapveī uit. In Greek two negatives strengthen, instead of, as Athens from the "Medea" of Euripides, already cited in these in other languages, nullifying each other. So in the next line, oùk Readings; while, as a description of the beauties of natural απαρνούμαι το μή, I do not deny the fact, sc. το μή δεδρακέναι. 444. Eu mer. Addressed to the soldier who had been responsible for which we have also on a previous occasion introduced to our
scenery, it finds a pendant in the passage from the “Bacchæ," carrying out the king's mandate, and had detected Antigone in the
readers :act of violating it. Kομίζοις άν, opt. with άν, is equivalent to κόμιζε, imperative, "you may take away," to "take away."
SOPHOCLES.-"EDIPUS COLONÆUS," 668—693. 446. Μήκος. The accusativus respectus, used adverbially, at length.
Ευίππου, ξένε, τάσδε χώρας 'Αλλά σύντομα, out briefly. Acc. plural neut., used as adverb. 447. Mig a páopeu is used as in apposition to and explanatory of tà
ίκου τα κράτιστα γας έπαυλα,
τον αργήτα Κολωνόν, ένθ' inpuxtévta. You know the terms of the proclamation, viz., that you were not
α λίγεια μινύρεται to do this. 449. Τί δ' ουκ έμελλον; etc., what was there to prevent me? Why, it was
θαμίζουσα μαλιστ' αηδών distinct. råp gives the reason why she could have no excuse-- I cannot
χλωραϊς υπό βάσσαις, say I did not, formand may be translated as above, why.
τον οινώπα νέμουσα κισσον 451. Ξύνοικος των κάτω θεών, who sits associate of the gods belove.
και ταν άβατον θεού
675 455. Θνητών όνθ'. Sc. σε, understood from τα σα κηρύγματα. I did not
φυλλάδα μυριόκαρπον ανήλιον think that decrees issued by thee were so powerful that thou, a mortal,
ανήνεμόν τε πάντων couldst, etc.
χειμώνων· ν' ο βακχιώτας 456. Nūv kúxoes, to-day and yesterday, from one day to the next. 'Aci
αει Διόνυσος εμβατεύει ποτε. The ποτε supplies the idea that the operations of the law are
θεαϊς αμφιπολών τιθήναις.
680 continually, from time to time, removing.
θάλλει δ' ουρανίας υπ' άχνας 457. 'Εξ ότου φανη, from ohat, or from ehom, they come.
και καλλίβοτρις κατ' ήμαρ άει 458. Τούτων-δώσειν δίκην, I was not going to pay the penalty of these λασε,
νάρκισσος, μεγάλαιν θεαϊν sc. render myself amenable to them. Acīvai dirnu like the Latin dare
αρχαίον στεφάνωμ’ και τε pænas.
χρυσαυγής κρόκος: ουδ' άυπνοι
685 460. Oavovuévn. For I knew that I must die as a matter of course. When
κρήναι μινύθουσιν the participle, as here, refers to the subject of the finite verb, it is
Κηφισού νομάδες ρείθρων, often put in the nominative, as if it were, I, about to die, knew it. So
αλλ' αιέν επ' ήματι Euripides has επεί πρός άνδρός ήσθετ' ήδικημένη, and Milton, in the
ωκυτόκος πεδίων επινίσσεται "Paradise Lost," has imitated the same construction—" And knew
690 not eating death."
ακηράτη ξυν όμβρω 461. Του χρόνου, the natural time.
στερνούχου χθονός· ουδε Μουσαν 464. Πώς ου φέρει, how does ho not-i.e., surely he does-achieve a gain ?
χοροί νιν απεστύγησαν, ουδ' & 465. "Έμοιγε, my grief at meeting with this fate is as nothing.
χρυσάνιος 'Αφροδίτα. 466. 'AXX' äv. The äv is used in a sort of anticipatory way here to
NOTES. prepare the mind for the condition that is coming. 468. Κείνοις, η 8uch a case, at such things.
668. Tiode for tñade-a forn, according to the usage of the Dorie 470. Mempu uwpíav, sc. I am about incurring (it is something like incur- dialect, in which the choruses of the Greek plays were written. Many ring) a charge of foly at the hands of a fool.
other examples will be found in this extract.
669. rás étavla must be construed as one substantive, on which In the following beautiful passage, taken from the “Edipus
χωρας depends. Colonæns," we have the touching lament of Edipus, who has 674. Oivana, lit. wine-coloured, so dark as wine A frequent epithet. been driven from his country, and having wandered about, Homer often applies it to the sea-oiróra morrow, the wine-dark sed. attended only by his faithful daughters Antigone and Ismene, 677. 'Avývejov, etc., untouched by the wind of any storms that blow. The has arrived in Attica and taken shelter on some consecrated genitive is governed by the a privative in ihremor. The expression spot. From this the superstitious fears of the people impel | is equivalent to άνευ ανέμου πάντων χειμώνων. So we find in the same them to drive him away :
way άχαλκος ασπιδων for άνεν χάλκους ασπιδων. SOPHOCLES.—"EDIPUS COLONÆUS," 258–267.
682. Kar' ñuap úei, always day after day. A pleonastic expression, like
άιεν επ' ηματι, a few lines below. ΟΙ. Τι δήτα δόξης, ή τι κληδόνος καλής
689. 'Nxvrókos generally is found in a passive sense. Here, however, μάτην δεούσης ωφέλημα γίγνεται,
it seems undoubtedly to be active, signifying quickly fertilising,
TRANSLATION OF Extract II. In LAST READING. DEMosTHENEs, “DE Corona,” 250—261.
Turn we now to our man of dignity—to him who considers others as worthy only of the spittle of his mouth—and beg him to compare his fortunes with mine. (Addresses himself to Æschines.) Born and bred in the veriest poverty, your earliest years found you nttached to a mean school of which your father was the preceptor. To prepare the ink, to sponge the benches, and to sweep the schoolroom; such were your occupations—occupations befitting a menial, but unworthy a freedman's son. Arrived at manhood, you became your mother's aid; as she performed her stock of initiatory rites, you read the mystic formulae, and bore a part in all the subsequent operations. At might it was your business to clothe the candidates in skins of fawn, to pour them out huge cups of wine, to wash them with the lustral water, to cleanse their skins with loam and bran; and, the holy rites thus done, to raise them up and bid them cry—
(Mimics) “My bane I have fled,
none, as was your boast, giving forth the holy shout with such a potent voice as yourself. (Turms to the bystanders.) Verily I can believe it! for who that hears those powerful tones of declamation in which he now indulges can for a moment doubt that his religious exclamations were pre-eminently grand 2 (To AEschines.) The day found you a different employment. You had then to conduct your noble troop through the public streets, their heads crowned with sennel and with poplar leaves, while yourself were seen—now pressing the coppered serpents—now elevating them above your head—now shouting “Evoi Saboi”—now raising a dance to the words “Hyes Attes, Attes Hyes!”—while all the crones and beldamos of the quarter honoured you with the pompous titles of Exarch, chief conductor, chest-carrier, fan-bearer—gingerbread and cake and twisted bun falling plentifully upon you as the reward of your pious labours. Happy and distinguished lot! Who can think it were his own, and, so thinking, not deem himself supremely blest ?–Mitchell.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH LITERATURE.-W. CHAUCER AND HIS TIMES-THE “CANTERBURY TALES.”
We have reserved to the last the consideration of the “Canterbury Tales,” probably the latest, and certainly by far the greatest of Chaucer's works. The general conception of this great work is, in one sense, not altogether original. Writers before Chaucer had done what many have done since, that is, had brought together a number of imaginary personages, more or less naturally grouped, and had placed a series of stories in the mouths of these characters; by this means giving a sort of continuity to what would otherwise be a collection of isolated stories, and securing a double interest for the whole work. Boccaccio, shortly before, had adopted this scheme in his “Decameron,” in which he introduces a number of young ladies and gentlemen who have taken refuge in the same villa to escape the pestilence in Florence; and it is not improbable that the plan of the “Canterbury Tales” may have been to some extent suggested by the “Decameron;” though it is more likely still that this method of grouping was so familiar to the writers of Chaucer's day, and therefore suggested itself so naturally to his mind, that it could not be said to have been due to any one example. But, however this may be, it is clear that in the judgment with which Chaucer has selected his group of personages and the mode of bringing them together, the unequalled power with which he has given life to the individuals composing it, and the dramatic force with which he has conducted the action of the poem, this great work is in the highest and best sense original. The poet begins by telling us that one night in spring, the season of pilgrimages, he found himself at the hostelry of the Tabard (afterwards the Talbot), in Southwark, ready to start on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas à Becket at Canterbury. He finds there nine-and-twenty or thirty other persons bound upon the same pilgrimage with himself. The company is a most varied one. The first group we are introduced to consists of a knight, a young squire, his son, and a yeoman, his servant, going to perform the vow made by the knight, as we may gather, during his last foreign expedition. A prioress, Madame Eglantine, a very dignified lady, was also there, and in her train an attendant nun and three priests. Then there was a monk, a great man of his class, delighting in the chase and despising
is in an inferior rank a man of the same type, “a wanton and a merry.” Of very different, but not less strongly-marked types are the sober and prudent merchant, the poor clerk or scholar from Oxford, the serjeant-at-law, and the franklin or country gentleman. Then there are the haberdasher, the carpenter, the webbe or weaver, the dyer, and tapiser or carpet-maker, the cook or keeper of a cook-shop, and the shipman or sea captain. A doctor of physic is also of the party, and a wife of Bath—a well-to-do cloth manufacturer. In strong contrast with some of the preceding characters is the poor parson of a country parish, who is going on pilgrimage accompanied by his brother, a ploughman. The list is completed by a miller, a manciple or steward of some public institution, a reeve or bailiff, a sompner or summoning officer of an ecclesiastical court, and a pardoner or seller of papal indulgences. With this company, and the good cheer of the Tabard, the evening passes pleasantly; and at its close the host of the inn proposes that he should accompany his guests to Canterbury, acting as their guide upon the way; that to shorten the road each of the company should tell two stories on the journey to Canterbury, and two on the return journey; that he himself should act as arbiter among them, to whose decisions all should be bound to yield obedience; and that the most successful story-teller should be entertained at supper by the whole party on their return to the Tabard. This proposal is at once accepted. The pilgrims start for Canterbury the following morning; and in accordance with their agreement they tell their tales in the order in which the host calls upon them. And the incidents of the journey and the tales of the travellers form the subject of the poem. The special advantages of this plan are evident. No scheme could have enabled Chaucer to fill his canvas with a greater variety of characters, taken from all classes of society, and of all shades of opinion and temperament, or to have brought them together in a manner more natural and unstrained. No plan, in short, could have enabled him to give us a more complete and living picture of the life of his day. And the same thing enables him, without any appearance of incongruity, to give endless variety to his stories, suiting in each case the character of the story to the circumstances of the story-teller with admirable judgment. Had this plan been worked out in its entirety, the “Canterbury Tales,” which as it is form a long work, would have been one of the longest in the world; for we should not only have had the story of the journey to Canterbury, and the journey back, with probably the incidents of the stay at Canterbury, and the farewell supper to the teller of the best tale; but we should also have had more than 120 tales. But the work as we have it is manifestly incomplete. We have only twenty-four tales, and even this number is only reached by certain departures from the original plan. Of the pilgrims who started in company, the knight, the miller, the reeve, the cook,” the man of law, the wife of Bath, the friar, the sompnour, the clerk of Oxenford, the merchant, the squire, the franklin, the second nun, the doctor of physic, the pardoner, the shipman, the prioress, the monk, the nun's priest, the manciple, and the parson tell one tale each. Chaucer himself begins to tell the Tale of Sir Thopas, a dreary rhyming tale, intended as a burlesque upon the romances of chivalry still common, as we have seen, in Chaucer's time. But he has not gone far when the host indignantly interrupts him, telling him he will have no more of such “drafty specho” and “rhyme doggerel;" whereupon the poet begins again, and tells in prose the moral tale of Melibaeus and his wife Prudence. One of the existing tales, too, is told by one who is not among the company which started from the Tabard. During the journey the cavalcade is joined by a canon, an alchemist and a most unscrupulous rogue, and his yeoman or servant. And the yeoman tells a tale, in which he exposes the fraud and folly of his master so effectually, that the canon leaves the company as abruptly as he had joined it. The story, too, of the pilgrimage itself is as incomplete as the number of the tales. All that has come down to us—and no doubt all that was written has come down to us—is the general prologue, in which the pilgrims are described, the plans for the journey formed, and the start related; the twenty-four tales already mentioned; and short prologues or introductions
the restraints of monastic rule. The mendicant friar, again,
* The cook's tale is a mere fragment. A second cook's tale, printed in almost all editions of Chaucer—the “Tale of Gamelyn"-"
tainly not Chaucer's.