ページの画像
PDF
ePub
[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic][graphic]

Paraguay

. } Paraguay.

viz., the plain of the Orinoco in the north, the plain of the SUMMARY OF BOUNDARIES. S. Maria, Uruguay. Amazon in the middle, and the plain of the Rio de la Plata in NORTH : The Caribbean Sea, etc. St. Antonio, Buenos Ayres. the south. The llanos, or savannahs, occupy nearly the whole SOUTH : The Straits of Magellan, Corrientes, Buenos Ayres.

Three Points, Patagonia. plain of the Orinoco. These are level grassy tracts without EAST: The Atlantic Ocean.

WEST: The Pacific Ocean. Horu, Horn Island. trees, similar to the prairies, or vast meadows, of North America, and are annually inundated by the rivers, like the regions of the

SUMMARY OF ISLANDS. Ajuja, Peru,

Point Parina, Peru. Nile. The selvas, or forest-plains, extend over the great basin of Gallapagos, W. of Ecuador.

San Lorenzo, Ecuador, the Amazon, and, as their name denotes, cover the ground with Juan Fernandez, W. of Chili. San Francisco, Ecnador, trees, shrubs, and plants; to which may be added vast tracts Chiloe, S. of Chili.

SUMMARY OF MOCXTAINS. similar to those in the basin of the Orinoco, and salt and sandy Chonos Archipelago, S. of Chiloe. Andes, S. America. deserts in the interior. The pampas, or immense level plains Wellington, W. of Patagonia, Chimborazo, covered with grass, oats, clover, and other herbage, occupy the Madre de Dios Archipelago, S. of Cotopaxi

Ecuador. plains of the Rio de la Plata, and the regions to the south of Wellington.

Antisana, it, and in their present wild state form small encouragement for Hanover, W. of Patagonia. Pichinca,

Chuquibamba, the habitation of man; hence the generally desolate state of Adelaide, S. of Hanover. the whole of the Patagonian region. The river Orinoco is Tierra del Fuego, S. of Patagonia. Ilimani,

Desolation I., S. of Adelaide. Sorata,

Bolivid about 1,200 miles long; it rises in the mountains of Guiana, Horn, S. of Tierra del Fuego. Cochabamba, and falls into the Atlantic on the north of British Guiana. The Staten Land, E. of Tierra del Potosi, Amazon, which in the upper part of its course is called the Fuego.

Aconcagua, Chili. Maranon, rises amidst the elevated parts of the Peruvian Falklands, E. of Patagonia. Maravaca, Venezuela. Andes, flows first northerly, and then easterly, and, after a Georgia, S.E. of Falklands.

Sierra do Espinhaço, Brazil course of 3,900 miles, falls into the Atlantic at the equator. Trinidad, E. of Brazil.

Cordillera Grande, The basin of the Amazon includes upwards of 1,500,000 square Fernando Noronha, N.E. of Cape SUMMARY OF RIVERS. miles, and is supplied with its waters by a number of large Caviana, M. of the Amazon.

Amazon, Brazil. tributaries. The Amazon is navigable for large vessels from Marajo, S. of Caviana.

Orinoco, Colombia. its embouchure to its junction by the Ucayali, or 2,500 miles Margarita, N. of Venezuela.

Rio de la Plata, between Buenos from the sea, and for small vessels to the foot of the mountains. Tortugas, N. of Venezuela.

Ayres and Uruguay.

Uruguay, Uruguay. Its volume of water is so great, that its freshness is perceptible

SUMMARY OF PENINSULAS. 500 miles out at sea. To give an idea of the level nature of the Patagonia, S. of La Plata. basin of this mighty river, we may state that for the space of Tres Montes, W. of Patagonia, Pilcomayo, Argentine 600 miles before discharges its flood into the deep, it has San Josef, E. of Patagonia. Salado, Confederation. only a fall of 10'5 feet, or abont one-fifth of an inch per mile, SUMMARY OF CAPES.

SUMMARY OF LAKES. yet it is reckoned to flow into the ocean with about the same Point Gallinas, Venezuela. Titicaca, Bolivia. velocity as the Ganges. For the whole of this distance the St. Roque, Brazil.

Maracaybo, Venezuela. tides of the Atlantio oppose its majestic flow; but above this Frio, Rio Janeiro.

Lake dos Patos, Brazil. point, the declivity being abont 6 inches per mile, the velocity of its waters surpasses that of our swiftest steamers; and at this point the opposition of its waters to the flow of the tide

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LVI. becoming tremendous, their united action produces waves which

$ 32-THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. sometimes rise to the height of several feet, rolling back upon the rapid stream like the noise of a cataract, and overwhelming

(1.) The personal pronouns are so called because they seert all the lowlands above its estaary. This phenomenon, justly to designate the three persons more especially than the other called the bore, or by the nativo Indians pororoca, will for ever pronouns. These pronouns are :impede the useful navigation of this great river. The main

NOMINATIVE FORM.

RELATIVE FORM stream of the Amazon receives the waters of many great rivers Singular.

Plural.

Singular. Plural. on the north and south banks. Tho chief of its affluents on the 1. Je, I.

Nous, tre.

Me, myself. Nous, ourselves. north are the Putumayo, Caqueta, and Negro; on the south, 2. Tu, thou. Vous, you, ye. Te, thyself. Vous, yourselves. the Madeira, Tapajos, and Xingu.

II, le, it, m. Ils, m., they.

(himself. The Rio de la Plata is a broad estuary formed by the junction

3.
Elle, she, it, f. Elles, f., they.

herself. Se, themselta. Soi,

Litself. of the rivers Parana and Uruguay. The length of the Parana is about 2,350 miles from its source to the embouchure of the Rio

(2.) DIRECT REGINEN OR ACCUSATIVE. de la Plata; and that of the Paraguay, a branch of the same, When placed before the verb. When placed after a ferð. which joins it at the distance of 760 miles from the sea, is about

Singular.
Plural.

Singular. Plural. 1,260 miles. The Uruguay branch is 800 miles in length. The Me, me. Nons, us. Moi, me.

Nors, us. Parana and the Uruguay are navigable for vessels of consider. 2. Te, thee.

Vous, you.

Toi, thes. Vous, yout. able burden for nearly 1,000 miles. Other rivers of some

sm. Le, him, it, m.

Les, them,

{i importance in South America are the Magdalena, 860 miles La, her, it, f. S

Se,

ŞLe
, him,it, m.? Les

, them i

3.

La, her, il, f. long, which flows into the Caribbean Sea ; and the Atrato, 300

(3.) INDIRECT REGINEN, OR DATIVE. miles long, which flows into the Gulf of Darien. The rivers

When placed before the verb Essequibo, Demerara, Berbice, Surinam, and others which flow

Singular.

Plural. into the Atlantic eastward of the Orinoco, will be remembered

1. de, to me.

Nous, to us. chiefly from the important_settlements to which they have

2. Te, to thee.

Vous, to you. given their name. The San Francisco, in Brazil, is 1,500 miles

to him,

Leur, to them. long. The Colorado, 600 miles long, and the Rio Negro, 800

3. Lui, to her. miles long, both flow into the Atlantic 'south of tho La Plata.

to it.

(both genders.) The rivers on the west coast of South America have all short

When placed after the verb. courses, owing to the vicicity of the Andes to the shore.

Singular.

Plural. Lakes. The lakes of South America are few. The Lake of Moi, à moi, to me.

Nous, à nons, to us. Titicaca, on the table-land of the same name, and at an elera

Tci,
à toi, to thee.

Vous, à vous, to 30%. tion of 12,847 feet above the level of the sea, contains about

S à eux, m. to thesh à lui, to him. Lui,

Lear, 3,800 square miles ; near its shores the depth is 720 feet; its

à elle, to her.

à elles, 1.) waters are fresh. The Lake of Maracaybo, near the shores of

(4.) INDIRECT REGIMEN; GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE, the Caribbean Sea, is connected by a narrow strait with the Gulf

Always placed after the rerb. of Maracaybo, and its waters are brackish ; it contains about

Singular.

Plural. 5,000 square miles. The Lake dos Patos, or "lake of the

De moi, of or from me. De nous, of or from us. dacks,” of the game area, on the south-east coast of Brazil, De toi,

thes,

De vous, discharges its waters into the sea by a channel called the Rio De lui,

h m.
D'eux,

them, ir Grande do Sul.

D'elle,

her. D'elles,

tots.

them, i.

$33.-REMARKS ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Les yeux de l'amitié se trompent The eyes of friendship are seldoni (1.) The French, as well as the English, use the second rarement,

deceived (deceive themselves), person plural for the second person singular, in addressing one (13.) The same pronoun has sometimes a reciprocal and someperson.

times a reflective meaning, according to the context :(2.) The second person, however, is used, as in English, in

Ils se fattent,

they Natter themselves. addressing the Supreme Being :

Ils se flattent,

thoy Natter one another, each other. Grand Diea! tes jugements sont Great God! thy judgments are full

(14.) Soi, himself, itself, etc., is of both genders and numbers, remplis d'équité. of equity.

and is applied to persons and things. It is used in general and (3.) It is also used in poetry, or to give more energy to the indeterminate sentences; having commonly an indefinite prodiction

noun for the nominative : O mon souverain roi !

O my sovereign leing! On a souvent besoin d'un plas We have often need of one mora Me voici donc tremblante et seule Here I am, trembling and alone petit que soi.

Tumble than ourselves. devant toi. before thee.

For additional rules on personal pronouns, see Syntax, $ 98, (1.) It is used by parents to children, and also among inti- and following. mate friends.

(5.) The pronoun il is used unipersonally, in the same manner as the English pronoun it;

LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XV.
Il pleut, it rains.
Il gèle, it freezes.

CONCLUSION. Observe that the personal pronouns of the third person 201. Having at length conducted the student through a complete are not used for the indirect regimen to represent inanimate course of Phonography, under the personal guidance of the founder of objects. The relative pronouns En, of or from it (§ 39 (17)], y, the system we propose to close our Lessons with a brief sketch of photo it (§ 39 (18)], are used instead of the personal pronouns. nographic lite ature, from the pen of one who, as being wholly unconThus, in speaking of a house, we do not say, Je lui ajouterai une nected with Mr. Pitman, can speak freely, and, as being a professional aile, I will add a wing to it. We must say :

shorthand writer or many years' standing, can also speak with J'y ajouterai une aile, I will add a wing to it (thereto). authority. Our object in giving this sketch is twofold. In the first

place, we desire to point ont to the learuer the abundant ineans he In speaking of an author, we may say:

has at hand of parsuing, with the least possible expenditure of time Que pensez-vous de lui ? What do you think of him 1 and labour, the study of the art in which he should now be well Bat in speaking of his book, we should say ;

grounded. In the second place, we desire to give some indication of Qu'en pensez-vous ? What do you think of it (thereof) ? dium for the intercommunication of thought, and of the signal

the widely extended uses to which Phonography may be put as a me(6.) The word même, plural mêmes, may be used after the triumphs it has already won for itself in that direction. pronoun in the sense of self, selves :

202. At the outset it is worthy of observation that Phonography is Le roi lui-même, the king himself.

the only system of short hand which has ever yet achieved a literature. La reine elle-même, the queen herself.

Every other system begins and ends with the one lesson book which Les princes eux-mêmes, the princes themselves.

explains it to the world. It is true that the Bible was printed in Les princesses elles-mêmes, the princesses themselves.

Rich's system, from engraved plates, in 1689, and an abridged Prayer (7.) The pronouns moi, toi, lui, euc, are often used after the Book was lithographed by Lewis the stenographer ; but these two verb, to give greater force to a nominative pronoun of the same books, though the very best, do not make a library. The reason person, in those cases where the emphasis is placed on the that no other system than Phonography has given to the world a nominative in English, or where the auxiliary do is used :

shorthand literature, is that in no other system of shorthand is there

the same definiteness and simplicity of principle, the same certainty Je le dis, moi, I say so, or I do say so.

as to the meaning of the written character, the same general legibility N le dit, lui, he says so, or he does say so.

utterly independent of the context. The Bible in Phonography is, to (8.) The same pronouns, moi, toi, lui, eus, are used instead of the practised student, as easy to read as the Bible in ordinary type. the nominative pronouns, je, tu, il, ils, for the English pronouns, Nay more, so certain is the system in its results that the most intriI, thou, he, they, when those pronouns are employed without a cate, the most technical, the most delicate correspondence may be verb in an ansiver, when they are used by themselves, or have a carried on between two phonographers with all the clcarness of the verb understood after them :

most legible longhand. T'ime makes no difference to its readableness : Qui est arrivé ce matin ? Moi. Who arrived this morning? I.

that which was written ten years ago is as easy to decipher as that Vous écrivez mieux que lui. You write better than ho.

which was written to-day. Nor is the memory called in to assist the (9.) The same pronouns are used in exclamations

, and in those eyes in this matter. The writer once, when taking down a speech by cases where the English pronouns, I, thou, etc., are followed by deep personal interest, and awoke to consciousuess to find, as he

one of our leading orators, fell into a profound reveric on a matter of the relative pronoun who; also after c'est, c'était, etc.

supposed, that he had missed full ten minutes of an address which it Moi, lai céder! I, yield to him!

was his duty to write out then and there for to-morrow morning's Lui qui est officier, He who is an oficer.

daily paper. Turning to his note-book in a kind of despair, his deC'est moi, c'est lui,

It is T; it is he.
Ce sont eur,
It is thøy.

light searcely knew bounds when he found that the practised hand

had registered every sonnd as it fell on the equally practised ear, and (10.) These samo pronouns are also used instead of the that every word that had been uttered was as legible to him as if it nominatives, je, tu, etc., when the verb has several subjects, had been printed in bold Roman letters. With no other system of which are all pronouns, or partly nouns and partly pronouns. shorthand would this have been possible, because in no other system The verb may then be immediately preceded by a pronoun in is the character so certain, the context so entirely a matter of indirthe plural, representing in one word all the preceding sub- ference. And it is in virtne of this clearness, this certainty, this jects :

never failing legibility, that Phonography has been able to make to Votre père et moi, nous avons Your father and I were a long itself a literature. One phonographer can read another phonograété longtemps ennemis l'un de time enemies.

pher's writing, provided such writing be not slovenly and imperfect,

as easily as he can read his own, and he can read lithographed Pho(11.) The recapitnlating pronoun and the verb sometimes nography as easily as he can read print. come first in the sentence:

203. We now proceed to our sketch. Phonographic literature Nous avons, vous et moi, besoin

may be conveniently divided into four branches: 1. Educational, You and I have need of tolerance. 2. Periodical, 3 Bibliothecal, 4. Recommendatory and Eulogistic.

204. In the Educational division we have first of all three works (12.) The reflective pronoun SE, himself, etc., is used for both which lead the student op to the point at which we leave him the genders, and for both numbers; for persons and for things; "Phonographic Teacher," the “ Phonographic Reader," and the and always accompanies a verb :

į “Manual of Phonography.” These three books, which may also be

l'autre.

de tolérance.

viz., the plain of the Orinoco in the north, the plain of the Amazon in the middle, and the plain of the Rio de la Plata in the south. The llamos, or savannahs, occupy nearly the whole plain of the Orinoco. These are level grassy tracts without trees, similar to the prairies, or vast meadows, of North America, and are annually inundated by the rivers, like the regions of the Nile. The selvas, or forest-plains, extend over the great basin of the Amazon, and, as their name denotes, cover the ground with trees, shrubs, and plants; to which may be added vast tracts similar to those in the basin of the Orinoco, and salt and sandy deserts in the interior. The pampas, or immense level plains covered with grass, oats, clover, and other herbage, occupy the plains of the Rio de la Plata, and the regions to the south of it, and in their present wild state form small encouragement for the habitation of man; hence the generally desolate state of the whole of the Patagonian region. The river Orinoco is about 1,200 miles long ; it rises in the mountains of Guiana, and falls into the Atlantic on the north of British Guiana. The Amazon, which in the upper part of its course is called the Maranon, rises amidst the elevated parts of the Peruvian Andes, flows first northerly, and then easterly, and, after a course of 3,900 miles, falls into the Atlantic at the equator. The basin of the Amazon includes upwards of 1,500,000 square miles, and is supplied with its waters by a number of large tributaries. The Amazon is navigable for large vessels from its embouchure to its junction by the Ucayali, or 2,500 miles from the sea, and for small vessels to the foot of the mountains. Its volume of water is so great, that its freshness is perceptible 500 miles out at sea. To give an idea of the level nature of the basin of this mighty river, we may state that for the space of 600 miles before it discharges its flood into the deep, it has only a fall of 10.5 feet, or about one-fifth of an inch per mile, yet it is reckoned to flow into the ocean with about the same velocity as the Ganges. For the whole of this distance the tides of the Atlantic oppose its majestic flow; but above this point, the declivity being about 6 inches per mile, the velocity of its waters surpasses that of our swiftest steamers; and at this point the opposition of its waters to the flow of the tide becoming tremendous, their united action produces waves which sometimes rise to the height of several feet, rolling back upon the rapid stream like the noise of a cataract, and overwhelming all the lowlands above its estuary. This phenomenon, justly called the bore, or by the native Indians pororoca, will for ever impede the useful navigation of this great river. The main stream of the Amazon receives the waters of many great rivers on the north and south banks. The chief of its affluents on the north are the Putumayo, Caqueta, and Negro; on the south, the Madeira, Tapajos, and Xingu.

The Rio de la Plata is a broad estuary formed by the junction of the rivers Parana and Uruguay. The length of the Parana is about 2,350 miles from its source to the embouchure of the Rio de la Plata; and that of the Paraguay, a branch of the same, which joins it at the distance of 700 miles from the sea, is about 1,260 miles. The Uruguay branch is 800 miles in length. The Parana and the Uruguay are navigablo for vessels of considerable burden for nearly 1,000 miles. Other rivers of some importance in South America cro the Magdalena, 860 miles long, which flows into the Caribbean Sea; and the Atrato, 300 miles long, which flows into the Gulf of Darion. The rivers Essequibo, Demerara, Berbice, Surinam, and others which flow into the Atlantic eastward of the Orinoco, will be remembered chiefly from the important settlements to which they have given their name. The San Francisco, in Brazil, is 1,500 miles long. The Colorado, 600 miles long, and the Rio Negro, 800 miles long, both flow into the Atlantic south of the La Plata. The rivers on the west coast of South America, have all short courses, owing to the vicinity of the Andes to the shore.

Lakes.—The lakes of South America are fow. The Lake of Titicaca, on the table-land of the same name, and at an elevation of 12,847 feet above the level of the sea, contains about 3,800 square miles; near its shores the depth is 720 feet; its waters are fresh. The Lake of Maracaybo, near the shores of the Caribbean Sea, is connected by a narrow strait with the Gulf of Maracaybo, and its waters are brackish; it contains about 5,000 square miles. The Lake dos Patos, or “lake of the ducks,” of the same area, on the south-east coast of Brazil, discharges its waters into the sea by a channel called the Rio Grande do Sul.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

Les yeux de l'amitié se trompent The cyes of friendship are seldom, rarement. deceived (deceive themselves).

(13.) The same pronoun has sometimes a reciprocal and sometimes a reflective meaning, according to the context:—

Ils se flattent, they flatter themselves.
Ils so flattent, they flatter one another, each other.

(14.) Sor, himself, itself, etc., is of both genders and numbers, and is applied to persons and things. It is used in general and indeterminate sentences; having commonly an indefinite pronoun for the nominative:–

On a souvent besoin d'un plus We have often need of one mors petit que soi. httmble than ourselves.

For additional rules on personal pronouns, see Syntax, $98, and following.

LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.—XV. CONCLUSION.

201. Having at length conducted the student through a complete course of "honography, under the personal guidance of the founder of the system we propose to close our Lessons with a brief sketch of phonographic lite ature, from the pen of one who, as being wholly unconnected with Mr. Pitman, can speak freely, and, as being a professional shorthand writer of many years' standing, can also speak with authority. Our object in civing this sketch is twofold. In the first place, we desire to point out to the learner the abundant means he has at hand of pursuing, with the least possible expenditure of time and labour, the study of the art in which he should now be well grounded. In the second place, we desire to give some indication of the widely extended uses to which Phonography may be put as a medium for the intercommunication of thought, and of the signal triumphs it has already won for itself in that direction. 202. At the outset it is worthy of observation that Phonography is the only system of shorthand which has everyet achieved a literature. Every other system begins and ends with the one lesson book which explains it to the world. It is true that the Bible was printed in Rich's system, from engraved plates, in 1689, and an abridged Prayer Book was lithographed by Lewis the stenographer; but these two books, though the very best, do not make a library. The reason that no other system than Phonography has given to the world a shorthand literature, is that in no other system of shorthand is there the same definiteness and simplicity of principle, the same certainty as to the meaning of the written character, the same general legibility utterly independent of the context. The Bible in Phonography is, to the practised student, as easy to read as the Bible in ordinary type. Nay more, so certain is the system in its results that the most intricate, the most technical, the most delicate correspondence may be carried on between two phonographers with all the clearness of the most legible longhand. Time makes no difference to its readableness: that which was written ten years ago is as easy to decipher as that which was written to-day. Nor is the memory called in to assist the eyes in this matter. The writer once, when taking down a speech by one of our leading orators, fell into a profound reverie on a matter of deep personal interest, and awoke to consciousness to find, as he supposed, that he had missed full ten minutes of an address which it was his duty to write out then and there for to-morrow morning's daily paper. Turning to his note-book in a kind of despair, his delight scarcely knew bounds when he found that the practised hand had registered every sound as it fell on the equally practised ear, and that every word that had been uttered was as legible to him as if it had been printed in bold Roman letters. With no other system of shorthand would this have been possible, because in no other system is the character so certain, the context so entirely a matter of indifference. And it is in virtue of this clearness, this certainty, this never-failing legibility, that Phonography has been able to make to itself a literature. One phonographer can read another phonographer's writing, provided such writing be not slovenly and imperfect, as easily as he can read his own, and he can read lithographed Phonography as easily as he can read print. 203. We now proceed to our sketch. Phonographic literature may be conveniently divided into four branches: 1. Educational, 2. Periodical, 3 Bibliotheral, 4. Recommendatory and Eulogistic. 204. In the Educational division we have first of all three works which lead the student nn to the point at which we leave him—the “Phonographic Teacher,” the “Phonographic Reader,” and the | “Manual of Phonography.” These three books, which may also be

« 前へ次へ »