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3. 729x* + 2916x®y + 4860x*y* + 4320x* y& + 2160c”y* + 576xy* + 64y®. fishery. The Galapagos Islands are situated on the equator,

about 750 miles west of the state called Ecuador, to which thes 5. a - 3a*b + 3ab' -*.

belong. The Lobos Islands and the Chinca Islands, celebrated 6. a* - 4a'b + 6a'b' -4ab' +6.

for their guano, lie off the west coast of the state of Peru, to 7. 20 - 64*y + 15x*y' - 20.xoy® + 15x*y* - 6xy + yo.

which they belong. The island of Juan Fernandez lies nearly 400 8. a – nar-b + n^-^-^ ^ - n.

miles off the west coast of the State of Chili. The Patagonian 9. a -49% + 60% + 60 + 1.

Archipelago, including the islands of Chiloe, Chonos, Wellington, 10. 1-By + 15yo – 20y + 15y* - 6y + yo.

Madre de Dios Archipelago, Hanover, Adelaide, etc., lies west

of the country or region from which it receives its name. 11, 1 + na + n. 28+, etc.

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lie the islands of Fernando Noronha and Rocas; and near the 12. a' + a +

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49
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the entire continent lie the West Indies, in the Caribbean Sea,
as described in a former lesson.

Seas, Gulfs, Bays.-Of inland seas in this continent there are LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXXIX. none; and the gulfs and bays are small and unimportant. At

the north-west corner, where it joins North America, are found, SOUTH AMERICA.

on the Pacific side, the Bay of Panama and the Gulf of St. SOUTH America has on the map the appearance of the vertical Miguel; on the Atlantic side, and to the north of it, are the section of an irregularly shaped pear. The stalk end is broken Gulf of Darien, the Gulf of Maracaybo, the Gulf of Triste, the off at the island of Tierra del Fuego, where it meets the junction Galf of Paria, the estuary of the Orinoco, the estuary of the of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, on the south. The projec- Amazon, and the estuary of the Maranham. On the east of the tion of a map of this continent is to be made in the same continent are the bays of Todos Santos (or All Saints Bay), manner as a projection for a map of Africa, namely, by drawing Espirito Santo, the estuary of the Rio de la Plata, the Gulf of the parallels of latitude as horizontal straight lines, parallel to San Antonio, and the Bay of St. George. On the west, the each other, and equidistant by a space assumed to represent 5° Gulf of Penas, the Bay of Morena, the Bay of Pisco, the Gulf of or 10°, and the meridians as curved lines on either side of a Guyaquil, and the Bay of Choco. perpendicular, representing the meridian of 55° or 60° W. longi Mountains. The most remarkable natural feature in the contade, the curves being regulated by the comparative length of tinent of South America is, with one exception, the grand range the degree under each parallel of latitude laid down, as shown of mountains called the Cordillera de los Andes, or Chain of by a diagonal scale made for the purpose. The latitudes and the Andes, which run nearly parallel and comparatively close longitudes of places may be obtained from the index to any to its western shores. The commencement of this range is good atlas.

south of the Isthmus of Darien, and its termination is at the Boundaries. It is bounded by the Caribbean Sea on the Strait of Magellan, its whole extent being about 4,500 miles, north; by the Strait of Magellan on the south ; by the Pacific but varying considerably in altitude as well as in name. The Ocean on the west ; and by the Atlantic Ocean on the east. It mountains of this range, indeed, take their names according to is connected with the North American continent at the north the countries through which they pass ; hence we have the west point by the Isthmus of Panama, and includes the nar- Columbian, the Peruvian, the Bolivian, the Chilian, and the rowest portion of that isthmus, which forms the State of Patagonian Andes. The average height of the Columbian Panama, in the Granadian Confederation. The most northerly Andes is about 12,000 feet above the level of the sea, and the point of this continent is Point Gallinas, in New Granada, very highest peak is Chimborazo, which is 21,425 feet above the nearly in lat. 12° 30' N., and long. 71° 53' W.; the most same level. Antisana, Pichincha, Tolima, Cotopaxi, and others, sontherly point, including Tierra del Fuego, or the “ land of are little inferior in altitude to the “giant of the western fire," and the adjacent islands, is Cape Horn, in lat. 55° 59' S. world," and the last is reckoned the most tremendous volcano and long. 67° 12' W.; the most westerly point is Parina Point, on the face of the globe. The average height of the Peruvian near the Lobos Islands, in lat. 4° 43' $. and long. 81° 11' W.; and Bolivian Andes is greater than that of the Columbian and the most easterly point is the entrance to the River Goyana, chain, being about 14,000 feet; their highest peaks, Sorata and near Olinda, in lat. 7° 31' S. and long. 34° 47' W.

Illimani, reach the respective elevations of 21,190 feet and Length, Breadth, and Superficial Area. The length of this con- 21,150 feet above the level of the sea; and many of the passes tinent from north to south is about 4,800 miles; and its greatest across the chain of Upper Peru are about 16,000 feet above the breadth about 3,300 miles. The surface of South America, same level. The Chilian Andes have a less average elevation including its adjacent

islands south of the equator, is about than any of the former; but the peak of Aconcagua, which is 6,700,000 square miles; and the population is about 23,000,000; 23,910

feet above the level of the sea; overtops all the high hence this continent contains, on an average, about 3} inhabi- peaks already mentioned, and forms the culminating point of tants to every square mile.

South America. The Patagonian chain is very considerably Islands. The islands considered as belonging to South lower than any of the preceding, its average height being only America are few and unimportant. The largest, namely, Tierra 3,000 feet, and its highest peaks only 9,000 feet above the level del Fuego, is considered sterile, and scarcely habitable. Between of the sea. In Venezuela are the mountains of Parimé, the the continent and this island, and Clarence and Desolation culminating peak of which is Maravaca, about 10,500 feet above Islands to the west of it, lies the long, narrow, and winding the level of the sea. Along the southern frontier of Guiana strait, called by the name of Magellan, or Magalhaens, the runs a mountain range called the Sierra Acary, while Brazil is navigator who first sailed through it and discovered the passage traversed from north to south by several ranges parallel to each to the Pacific Ocean. Of the southern coast of Tierra del other, and of ro great altitude when compared to the Andes, Fuego lie Londonderry, Hoste, and Wollaston Islands, with the the principal of these being the Sierra del Espinhaço and the small islets, on the south of which is the famous headland Cordillera Grande. called Cape Horn, or Hoorn, after its discoverer. The islet, it Table-lands. The plateaus or table-lands of South America should be said, bears the same name. Staten Land is an island are formed of the elevated intervening

groands between the of small size, lying off its eastern coast, and separated

from it chains or ridges of its mountains just described, and they rival by the Strait of Le Maire. About 350 miles east of the entrance in elevation

those of the continent of Asia. The principal of to this strait lie the Falkland Islands, one of which is called these plateaus are those of Quito, Pasco, and Titicaca. The the East Falkland, and the other the West, between which runs elevation of the plateau of Quito, above the

sea-level, is about the Falkland Sound; besides these, this group consists of 200 9,600 feet; of Pasco, 13,700 feet; and of Titicaca, 12,850 feet. smaller islands, the area of the whole being about 13,000 square Rivers. The vast plains of South America give rise to miles. About 800 miles south-east of these islands lies the system of rivers unparalleled in the rest of the world for magni South Georgian group, the largest of which, South Georgia, tude and extent. The great central plain of this continent is from which the group takes its name, is 90 miles long by 10 divided into three large portions, which receive their names miles broad, and forms a useful depôt for the

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viz., the plain of the Orinoco in the north, the plain of the SUMMARY OF BOUNDARIES. S. Maria, Uruguay. Amazon in the middle, and the plain of the Rio de la Plata in NORTH : The Caribbean Sea, etc. St. Antonio, Buenos Ayres. the south. The llanos, or savannahs, occupy nearly the whole SOUTH : The Straits of Magellan, Corrientes, Buenos Ayres.

Three Points, Patagonia. plain of the Orinoco. These are level grassy tracts without EAST: The Atlantic Ocean.

WEST: The Pacific Ocean. Horu, Horn Island. trees, similar to the prairies, or vast meadows, of North America, and are annually inundated by the rivers, like the regions of the

SUMMARY OF ISLANDS. Ajuja, Peru,

Point Parina, Peru. Nile. The selvas, or forest-plains, extend over the great basin of Gallapagos, W. of Ecuador.

San Lorenzo, Ecuador, the Amazon, and, as their name denotes, cover the ground with Juan Fernandez, W. of Chili. San Francisco, Ecnador, trees, shrubs, and plants; to which may be added vast tracts Chiloe, S. of Chili.

SUMMARY OF MOCXTAINS. similar to those in the basin of the Orinoco, and salt and sandy Chonos Archipelago, S. of Chiloe. Andes, S. America. deserts in the interior. The pampas, or immense level plains Wellington, W. of Patagonia, Chimborazo, covered with grass, oats, clover, and other herbage, occupy the Madre de Dios Archipelago, S. of Cotopaxi

Ecuador. plains of the Rio de la Plata, and the regions to the south of Wellington.

Antisana, it, and in their present wild state form small encouragement for Hanover, W. of Patagonia. Pichinca,

Chuquibamba, the habitation of man; hence the generally desolate state of Adelaide, S. of Hanover. the whole of the Patagonian region. The river Orinoco is Tierra del Fuego, S. of Patagonia. Ilimani,

Desolation I., S. of Adelaide. Sorata,

Bolivid about 1,200 miles long; it rises in the mountains of Guiana, Horn, S. of Tierra del Fuego. Cochabamba, and falls into the Atlantic on the north of British Guiana. The Staten Land, E. of Tierra del Potosi, Amazon, which in the upper part of its course is called the Fuego.

Aconcagua, Chili. Maranon, rises amidst the elevated parts of the Peruvian Falklands, E. of Patagonia. Maravaca, Venezuela. Andes, flows first northerly, and then easterly, and, after a Georgia, S.E. of Falklands.

Sierra do Espinhaço, Brazil course of 3,900 miles, falls into the Atlantic at the equator. Trinidad, E. of Brazil.

Cordillera Grande, The basin of the Amazon includes upwards of 1,500,000 square Fernando Noronha, N.E. of Cape SUMMARY OF RIVERS. miles, and is supplied with its waters by a number of large Caviana, M. of the Amazon.

Amazon, Brazil. tributaries. The Amazon is navigable for large vessels from Marajo, S. of Caviana.

Orinoco, Colombia. its embouchure to its junction by the Ucayali, or 2,500 miles Margarita, N. of Venezuela.

Rio de la Plata, between Buenos from the sea, and for small vessels to the foot of the mountains. Tortugas, N. of Venezuela.

Ayres and Uruguay.

Uruguay, Uruguay. Its volume of water is so great, that its freshness is perceptible

SUMMARY OF PENINSULAS. 500 miles out at sea. To give an idea of the level nature of the Patagonia, S. of La Plata. basin of this mighty river, we may state that for the space of Tres Montes, W. of Patagonia, Pilcomayo, Argentine 600 miles before discharges its flood into the deep, it has San Josef, E. of Patagonia. Salado, Confederation. only a fall of 10'5 feet, or abont one-fifth of an inch per mile, SUMMARY OF CAPES.

SUMMARY OF LAKES. yet it is reckoned to flow into the ocean with about the same Point Gallinas, Venezuela. Titicaca, Bolivia. velocity as the Ganges. For the whole of this distance the St. Roque, Brazil.

Maracaybo, Venezuela. tides of the Atlantio oppose its majestic flow; but above this Frio, Rio Janeiro.

Lake dos Patos, Brazil. point, the declivity being abont 6 inches per mile, the velocity of its waters surpasses that of our swiftest steamers; and at this point the opposition of its waters to the flow of the tide

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LVI. becoming tremendous, their united action produces waves which

$ 32-THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. sometimes rise to the height of several feet, rolling back upon the rapid stream like the noise of a cataract, and overwhelming

(1.) The personal pronouns are so called because they seert all the lowlands above its estaary. This phenomenon, justly to designate the three persons more especially than the other called the bore, or by the nativo Indians pororoca, will for ever pronouns. These pronouns are :impede the useful navigation of this great river. The main

NOMINATIVE FORM.

RELATIVE FORM stream of the Amazon receives the waters of many great rivers Singular.

Plural.

Singular. Plural. on the north and south banks. Tho chief of its affluents on the 1. Je, I.

Nous, tre.

Me, myself. Nous, ourselves. north are the Putumayo, Caqueta, and Negro; on the south, 2. Tu, thou. Vous, you, ye. Te, thyself. Vous, yourselves. the Madeira, Tapajos, and Xingu.

II, le, it, m. Ils, m., they.

(himself. The Rio de la Plata is a broad estuary formed by the junction

3.
Elle, she, it, f. Elles, f., they.

herself. Se, themselta. Soi,

Litself. of the rivers Parana and Uruguay. The length of the Parana is about 2,350 miles from its source to the embouchure of the Rio

(2.) DIRECT REGINEN OR ACCUSATIVE. de la Plata; and that of the Paraguay, a branch of the same, When placed before the verb. When placed after a ferð. which joins it at the distance of 760 miles from the sea, is about

Singular.
Plural.

Singular. Plural. 1,260 miles. The Uruguay branch is 800 miles in length. The Me, me. Nons, us. Moi, me.

Nors, us. Parana and the Uruguay are navigable for vessels of consider. 2. Te, thee.

Vous, you.

Toi, thes. Vous, yout. able burden for nearly 1,000 miles. Other rivers of some

sm. Le, him, it, m.

Les, them,

{i importance in South America are the Magdalena, 860 miles La, her, it, f. S

Se,

ŞLe
, him,it, m.? Les

, them i

3.

La, her, il, f. long, which flows into the Caribbean Sea ; and the Atrato, 300

(3.) INDIRECT REGINEN, OR DATIVE. miles long, which flows into the Gulf of Darien. The rivers

When placed before the verb Essequibo, Demerara, Berbice, Surinam, and others which flow

Singular.

Plural. into the Atlantic eastward of the Orinoco, will be remembered

1. de, to me.

Nous, to us. chiefly from the important_settlements to which they have

2. Te, to thee.

Vous, to you. given their name. The San Francisco, in Brazil, is 1,500 miles

to him,

Leur, to them. long. The Colorado, 600 miles long, and the Rio Negro, 800

3. Lui, to her. miles long, both flow into the Atlantic 'south of tho La Plata.

to it.

(both genders.) The rivers on the west coast of South America have all short

When placed after the verb. courses, owing to the vicicity of the Andes to the shore.

Singular.

Plural. Lakes. The lakes of South America are few. The Lake of Moi, à moi, to me.

Nous, à nons, to us. Titicaca, on the table-land of the same name, and at an elera

Tci,
à toi, to thee.

Vous, à vous, to 30%. tion of 12,847 feet above the level of the sea, contains about

S à eux, m. to thesh à lui, to him. Lui,

Lear, 3,800 square miles ; near its shores the depth is 720 feet; its

à elle, to her.

à elles, 1.) waters are fresh. The Lake of Maracaybo, near the shores of

(4.) INDIRECT REGIMEN; GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE, the Caribbean Sea, is connected by a narrow strait with the Gulf

Always placed after the rerb. of Maracaybo, and its waters are brackish ; it contains about

Singular.

Plural. 5,000 square miles. The Lake dos Patos, or "lake of the

De moi, of or from me. De nous, of or from us. dacks,” of the game area, on the south-east coast of Brazil, De toi,

thes,

De vous, discharges its waters into the sea by a channel called the Rio De lui,

h m.
D'eux,

them, ir Grande do Sul.

D'elle,

her. D'elles,

tots.

them, i.

$33.-REMARKS ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Les yeux de l'amitié se trompent The eyes of friendship are seldoni (1.) The French, as well as the English, use the second rarement,

deceived (deceive themselves), person plural for the second person singular, in addressing one (13.) The same pronoun has sometimes a reciprocal and someperson.

times a reflective meaning, according to the context :(2.) The second person, however, is used, as in English, in

Ils se fattent,

they Natter themselves. addressing the Supreme Being :

Ils se flattent,

thoy Natter one another, each other. Grand Diea! tes jugements sont Great God! thy judgments are full

(14.) Soi, himself, itself, etc., is of both genders and numbers, remplis d'équité. of equity.

and is applied to persons and things. It is used in general and (3.) It is also used in poetry, or to give more energy to the indeterminate sentences; having commonly an indefinite prodiction

noun for the nominative : O mon souverain roi !

O my sovereign leing! On a souvent besoin d'un plas We have often need of one mora Me voici donc tremblante et seule Here I am, trembling and alone petit que soi.

Tumble than ourselves. devant toi. before thee.

For additional rules on personal pronouns, see Syntax, $ 98, (1.) It is used by parents to children, and also among inti- and following. mate friends.

(5.) The pronoun il is used unipersonally, in the same manner as the English pronoun it;

LESSONS IN SHORTHAND.-XV.
Il pleut, it rains.
Il gèle, it freezes.

CONCLUSION. Observe that the personal pronouns of the third person 201. Having at length conducted the student through a complete are not used for the indirect regimen to represent inanimate course of Phonography, under the personal guidance of the founder of objects. The relative pronouns En, of or from it (§ 39 (17)], y, the system we propose to close our Lessons with a brief sketch of photo it (§ 39 (18)], are used instead of the personal pronouns. nographic lite ature, from the pen of one who, as being wholly unconThus, in speaking of a house, we do not say, Je lui ajouterai une nected with Mr. Pitman, can speak freely, and, as being a professional aile, I will add a wing to it. We must say :

shorthand writer or many years' standing, can also speak with J'y ajouterai une aile, I will add a wing to it (thereto). authority. Our object in giving this sketch is twofold. In the first

place, we desire to point ont to the learuer the abundant ineans he In speaking of an author, we may say:

has at hand of parsuing, with the least possible expenditure of time Que pensez-vous de lui ? What do you think of him 1 and labour, the study of the art in which he should now be well Bat in speaking of his book, we should say ;

grounded. In the second place, we desire to give some indication of Qu'en pensez-vous ? What do you think of it (thereof) ? dium for the intercommunication of thought, and of the signal

the widely extended uses to which Phonography may be put as a me(6.) The word même, plural mêmes, may be used after the triumphs it has already won for itself in that direction. pronoun in the sense of self, selves :

202. At the outset it is worthy of observation that Phonography is Le roi lui-même, the king himself.

the only system of short hand which has ever yet achieved a literature. La reine elle-même, the queen herself.

Every other system begins and ends with the one lesson book which Les princes eux-mêmes, the princes themselves.

explains it to the world. It is true that the Bible was printed in Les princesses elles-mêmes, the princesses themselves.

Rich's system, from engraved plates, in 1689, and an abridged Prayer (7.) The pronouns moi, toi, lui, euc, are often used after the Book was lithographed by Lewis the stenographer ; but these two verb, to give greater force to a nominative pronoun of the same books, though the very best, do not make a library. The reason person, in those cases where the emphasis is placed on the that no other system than Phonography has given to the world a nominative in English, or where the auxiliary do is used :

shorthand literature, is that in no other system of shorthand is there

the same definiteness and simplicity of principle, the same certainty Je le dis, moi, I say so, or I do say so.

as to the meaning of the written character, the same general legibility N le dit, lui, he says so, or he does say so.

utterly independent of the context. The Bible in Phonography is, to (8.) The same pronouns, moi, toi, lui, eus, are used instead of the practised student, as easy to read as the Bible in ordinary type. the nominative pronouns, je, tu, il, ils, for the English pronouns, Nay more, so certain is the system in its results that the most intriI, thou, he, they, when those pronouns are employed without a cate, the most technical, the most delicate correspondence may be verb in an ansiver, when they are used by themselves, or have a carried on between two phonographers with all the clcarness of the verb understood after them :

most legible longhand. T'ime makes no difference to its readableness : Qui est arrivé ce matin ? Moi. Who arrived this morning? I.

that which was written ten years ago is as easy to decipher as that Vous écrivez mieux que lui. You write better than ho.

which was written to-day. Nor is the memory called in to assist the (9.) The same pronouns are used in exclamations

, and in those eyes in this matter. The writer once, when taking down a speech by cases where the English pronouns, I, thou, etc., are followed by deep personal interest, and awoke to consciousuess to find, as he

one of our leading orators, fell into a profound reveric on a matter of the relative pronoun who; also after c'est, c'était, etc.

supposed, that he had missed full ten minutes of an address which it Moi, lai céder! I, yield to him!

was his duty to write out then and there for to-morrow morning's Lui qui est officier, He who is an oficer.

daily paper. Turning to his note-book in a kind of despair, his deC'est moi, c'est lui,

It is T; it is he.
Ce sont eur,
It is thøy.

light searcely knew bounds when he found that the practised hand

had registered every sonnd as it fell on the equally practised ear, and (10.) These samo pronouns are also used instead of the that every word that had been uttered was as legible to him as if it nominatives, je, tu, etc., when the verb has several subjects, had been printed in bold Roman letters. With no other system of which are all pronouns, or partly nouns and partly pronouns. shorthand would this have been possible, because in no other system The verb may then be immediately preceded by a pronoun in is the character so certain, the context so entirely a matter of indirthe plural, representing in one word all the preceding sub- ference. And it is in virtne of this clearness, this certainty, this jects :

never failing legibility, that Phonography has been able to make to Votre père et moi, nous avons Your father and I were a long itself a literature. One phonographer can read another phonograété longtemps ennemis l'un de time enemies.

pher's writing, provided such writing be not slovenly and imperfect,

as easily as he can read his own, and he can read lithographed Pho(11.) The recapitnlating pronoun and the verb sometimes nography as easily as he can read print. come first in the sentence:

203. We now proceed to our sketch. Phonographic literature Nous avons, vous et moi, besoin

may be conveniently divided into four branches: 1. Educational, You and I have need of tolerance. 2. Periodical, 3 Bibliothecal, 4. Recommendatory and Eulogistic.

204. In the Educational division we have first of all three works (12.) The reflective pronoun SE, himself, etc., is used for both which lead the student op to the point at which we leave him the genders, and for both numbers; for persons and for things; "Phonographic Teacher," the “ Phonographic Reader," and the and always accompanies a verb :

į “Manual of Phonography.” These three books, which may also be

l'autre.

de tolérance.

viz., the plain of the Orinoco in the north, the plain of the SUMMARY OF BOUNDARIES. S. Maria, Uruguay. Amazon in the middle, and the plain of the Rio de la Plata in NORTE: The Caribbean Sea, eto. St. Autonio, Buenos Ayres. the south. The llanos, or savannahs, occupy nearly the whole SOUTH : The Straits of Magellan. Corrientes, Buenos Ayres,

Three Points, Patagonia. plain of the Orinoco. These are level grassy tracts without EAST: The Atlantic Ocean,

Horn, Horn Island. trees, similar to the prairies, or vast meadows, of North America, WEST: The Pacific Ocean. and are annually inundated by the rivers, like the regions of the

SUMMARY OF ISLANDS, Ajuja, Peru.

Point Parina, Peru. Nile. The selvas, or forest-plains, extend over the great basin of Gallapagos, W. of Ecuador.

San Loreuzo, Ecuador. the Amazon, and, as their name denotes, cover the ground with Juan Fernandez, w. of Chili. San Francisco, Ecuador, trees, shrubs, and plants; to which may be added vast tracts Chiloe, S. of Chili.

SUMMARY OF MOCZTAIS3. similar to those in the basin of the Orinoco, and salt and sandy Chonos Archipelago, S. of Chiloe. Andes, S. America. deserts in the interior. The pampas, or immense level plains Wellington, W. of Patagonia. Chimborazo, covered with grass, oats, clover, and other herbage, occupy the Madre de Dios Archipelago, S. of Cotopaxi

Ecuador. plains of the Rio de la Plata, and the regions to the south of

Wellington

Antisana, it, and in their present wild state form small encouragement for Hanover, W. of Patagonia. Pichinca,

Chuquibamba, 1 the habitation of man; hence the generally desolate state of Adelaide, s. of Hanover, the whole of the Patagonian region. The river Orinooo is Tierra del Fuego, S. of Patagonia. Illimani,

Sorata,

Bolivil, about 1,200 miles long; it rises in the mountains of Guiana, Horn, S. of Tierra del Fuego. Cochabamba, and falls into the Atlantic on the north of British Guiana. The Staten Land, E. of Tierra del Potosi, Amazon, which in the upper part of its course is called the Fuego.

Aconcagua, Chili. Maranon, rises amidst the elevated parts of the Peruvian Falklands, E, of Patagonia. Maravaca, Venezuela. Andes, flows first northerly, and then easterly, and, after a Georgia, S.E. of Falklands. Sierra do Espinhaço,

Brazil. course of 3,900 miles, falls into the Atlantic at the equator. Trinidad, E. of Brazil.

Cordillera Grande, The basin of the Amazon includes upwards of 1,500,000 square Fernando Noronha, N.E. of Cape SUMMARY OP RIVERS. miles, and is supplied with its waters by a number of large

St. Roque.

Amazon, Brazil, tributaries. The Amazon is navigable for large vessels from Caviana, M. of the Amazon. Orinoco, Colombia. its embouchure to its junction by the Ucayali, or 2,500 miles Margarita, N. of Venezuela.

Marajo, S. of Caviana.

Rio de la Plata, between Buenos from the sea, and for small vessels to the foot of the mountains. Tortugns, N. of Venezucln.

Ayres and Uruguay,

Uruguay, Uruguay. Its volume of water is so great, that its freshness is perceptible

SUMMARY OF PENINSULAS. Parana, 500 miles out at sea. To give an idea of the level nature of the Patagonia, S. of La Plata. Paraguay, S.

Paraguay. basin of this mighty river, we may state that for the space of Tres Montes, W. of Patagonia. Pilcomayo, Argentine 600 miles before it discharges its flood into the deep, it has San Josef, E. of Patagonia. Saldo, I Confederation. only a fall of 10-5 feet, or about one-fifth of an inch per mile, SUMMARY OF CAPES.

SUMMARY OF LAKES. yet it is reckoned to flow into the ocean with about the same Point Gallinas, Venezuela. Titicaca, Bolivia. velocity as the Ganges. For the whole of this distance the St. Roque, Brazil.

Marncaybo, Venezuela. tides of the Atlantio opposo its majestic flow; but above this Frio, Rio Janeiro.

Lake dos Patos, Brazil. point, the declivity being about 6 inches per mile, the velocity of its waters surpasses that of our swiftest steamers; and at this point the opposition of its waters to the flow of the tide

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-LVI. becoming tremendous, their united action produces waves which sometimes rise to the height of several feet, rolling back upon

$ 32-THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. the rapid stream like the noise of a cataract, and overwhelming (1.) The personal pronouns are so called because they seem all the lowlands above its estuary. This phenomenon, justly to designate the three persons more especially than the other called the bore, or by the native Indians pororoca, will for ever pronouns. These pronouns are :impede the useful navigation of this great river. The main

RELATIVE FORY. stream of the Amazon receives the waters of many great rivers Singular. Plural

Singular.

Plural. on the north and south banks. The chief of its affluents on the 1. Je, I.

Nous, re. Me, myself. Nons, ourselees. north are the Putumayo, Caqueta, and Negro; on the south, 2.

Ta, thou. Vous, you, ye.

thyself. Vous, yourselen. the Madeira, Tapajos, and Xingu.

su, he, it, m. Ils, m., they.

Se,

(himself

3. The Rio de la Plata is a broad estuary formed by the junction

Soi,

herself. Se, themselma. Elle, she, it, f. Elles, f., they.

(itself. of the rivers Parana and Uruguay. The length of the Parana is about 2,350 miles from its source to tho embonchure of the Rio

(2.) DIRECT REGIMEN OR ACCUSATIVE. de la Plata; and that of the Paraguay, a branch of the same, When placed before the verb. When placed after a feri. which joins it at the distance of 700 miles from the sea, is about Singular.

Plural.

Singular. Plural. 1,260 miles. Tha Uruguay branch is 800 miles in length. The Me, me. Nous, us. Moi, mo. Nous, tis. Parana and the Uruguay are navigable for vessels of consider-2. Te, thee.

Vous, yolk.

Toi, theo. Vous, you able burden for nearly 1,000 miles. Other rivers of some

3.
ŞLe, him,it, m.

Le, him, it, m.

Les, them, importance in South America cro the Magdalena, 860 miles

La, her, it, f. long, which flows into the Caribbean Sea ; and the Atrato, 300

(3.) INDIRECT REGIMEX, OR DATIVE. miles long, which flows into the Gulf of Darien. The rivers

When placed before the verb Essequibo, Demerara, Berbice, Surinam, and others which flow

Singular.

Plural. into the Atlantic eastward of the Orinoco, will be remembered

1. He, to me.

Nous, to us. chiefly from the important_settlements to which they have

2. Te, lo theo.

Vous, to you. given their name. The San Francisco, in Brazil, is 1,500 miles

to him.

Leur, to them. long. The Colorado, 600 miles long, and the Rio Negro, 800

3. Lui, to her. miles long, both flow into the Atlantic south of the La Plata.

to it.

(both genders.) The rivers on the west coast of South America, have all short

When placed after the verb. courses, owing to the vicinity of the Andes to the shore.

Singular,

Plural. Lakes.-The lakes of South America are few. The Lake of Moi, à moi, to me.

Nous, à nous, to ve, Titicaca, on the table-land of the same name, and at an eleva

Toi, à toi, to thee.

Vous, à vons, to you tion of 12,847 feet above the level of the sea, contains about

Sa lui, to him.

Så oux, m.
Lui,

Leur,

à elle, š to her. 3,800 square miles; near its shores the depth is 720 feet; its

là elles, 1, waters are fresh. The Lake of Maracaybo, near the shores of

(14.) INDIRECT RIGINEN; GENITIVE AND ANLATIVE, the Caribbean Sea, is connected by a narrow strait with the Gulf

Always placed after the verb. of Maracaybo, and its waters are brackish ; it contains about

Singular.

Plural. 5,000 square miles. The Lake dos Patos, or "lake of the

De moi, of or from me. De vous, of or from us. ducks," of the same area, on the south-east coast of Brazil,

De toi,

thee. De vous, discharges its waters into the sea by a channel called the Rio

De lui,

h.m. D'eux, Grande do Sul.

D'elle,

her. D'elles,

NOMINATIVE FORM.

Te,

La, her, it, I. Les, thom (m.

10u. them, them, 1.

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