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dromedary the walls of the first and second stomachs are ex. birds, certain rodent animals, and the smallest of the monkey. cavated into deep cells, wherein water may be retained in con- tribe, man has a larger brain, in proportion to the size of the siderable quantities. On this account these animals are able to body, than any other vertebrate. go many days without a fresh supply of water, even during long Sensory Organs.-We find these delicate organs developed to journeys across the hot, sandy desert. The intestines (like those the highest degree of perfection in this class. The pupil of the of man) consist of two portions, of which the first is named eye varies in shape. In man, and many of the larger carnivora, the small, and the second the large intestine. The point of it is round. In nocturnal animals, as the cat, it assumes the separation between them is indicated by a valve formed by the form of a vertical fissure, and is very large. In many of the mucous lining of the bowel, and in some animals by a cæcum, herbivorous animals it is transversely oblong. In the whale to which is attached a tail-like process, termed the vermiform tribe the eye is similar in shape to that already described in appendix. The relative length of the intestines varies. In the fishes. The eye is moved by six muscles. It is protected by carnivora it is from five to fifteen times the length of the body; two movable lids. Besides these, there is sometimes a third in insectivora, from three to six times; cheiroptera, two to lid, called the nictitating membrane. The minute structure seven ; ungulata, fifteen to thirty; in the quadrumana, about of the eye is in almost every respect similar to that of man, three to eight times. The division into large and small intestine which will be described elsewhere, as also the organ of hearing. prevails with few exceptions throughout the mammalia. The The nose consists of two lateral halves, the cavity being membrane lining the small intestine is elevated into valvular divided by a vertical septum. It is invested by a delicate memfolds, for the purpose of increasing the surface over which the brane (mucous), in which the olfactory nerve filaments, which digestive material has to pass; there are also embedded in it preside over the sense of smell, ramify. Both cavities comsmall glandular organs and villi; the former secrete a fluid municate with the upper part of the gullet, or pharynx. The which aids the digestive process, and the latter take into the sense of smell is very acute in the majority of members of this system, as white blood, that already sufficiently prepared. The class. large intestine is sacculated. It commences by a blind ex The proboscis, or trunk of the elephant, is a prolongation of tremity called the cæcum, at the termination of which the small the nose. It consists of a highly flexible tube, surrounded with intestines open. The cæcum is not always present, as in the muscles, through which food and water are conveyed to the insect-eaters, bats, edentata, and certain of the cetacea; and in mouth, and air to the lungs. It also serves as an organ of preother mammals it is variable in length. It is short in the hension. By means of its trunk the elephant is enabled to carnivora, yet absent in bears and weasels. In the ruminants it uproot trees, untie knots, open a lock, or even write with a pen is large and capacious. The appendix exists in man, apes, and (Rymer Jones). gibbons, and also in the marsupial wombat, but in no other The Skeleton, in many respects, presents a close analogy to animal. In the monotremata (ornithorynchus) the intestinal that of man. It undergoes, however, many modifications. The canal terminates in a cloaca, as in birds.
skull and face are formed by a series of bones immovably bound The glandular organs, liver, and pancreas, and the spleen, are together, and so arranged as to present several complete and always present. The liver has generally appended to it a gall-incomplete cavities for the lodgment of the delicate organs combladder, or reservoir for the bile. In the mouth there are cerned in the manifestation of the senses. Thus we have one usually three pairs of salivary glands, which furnish the secretion cavity, of variable size, for the brain; another one for the nose; to moisten and partially dissolve certain constituents of the and one on each side of the face for the eyes. The mouth is food This fluid readily converts starchy food into sugar, while situated at the base, in the interval between the upper and in the mouth.
lower jaws. The size of the face becomes larger, and the The kidneys are situated on each side the lumbar portion of cranium smaller, as we recede from man. The jaws are always the spine. They eliminate the urine from the blood. This articulated to the squamosal bone of the skull, without the excretion passes from the kidney into the bladder by means of intervention of a quadrate bone, as in the preceding classes. a membranous tube called the ureter.
Some of the mammalia (ruminants) have horns projecting The abdominal cavity is separated from the chest by a parti- from the frontal bones. In deer the horns are called antlers, tion-muscle called the diaphragm. This is a very important and are replaced annually. The horns of the rhinoceros are muscle, and by its contraction and relaxation the principal part mere appendages of the skin. In the goat, ox, and sheep, the of the mechanism of breathing is effected.
horns are hollow, and based upon an osseous process, which is The lungs and heart present much the same arrangement as hollowed out into cells. These communicate with certain that described in the last lesson. The lungs do not communicate cavities in the frontal bone, called sinuses. Such horns grow by with air-cells in any part of the body in the mammalia, as they layers, analogous to ordinary nail, and are never shed. With do in birds.
the exception of camels and musks, all the ruminants are proThe windpipe has surmounting it a larynx, made up of a num. vided with horns. ber of pieces called cartilages, to which are attached numerous The vertebral column is made up of bone segments. These are muscles and ligaments. It is here that the voice is produced. respectively named cervical, dorsal, lumbar, sacral, and caudal,
The position of the heart is usually in the median line of the according to their position. The cervical are usually seven in chest, lying between the lungs. In man and the higher apes it number(Fig. XV.,12). The dorsal (13) vary from eleven to twenty, has an inclination towards the left side.
and give attachment to a corresponding number of ribs. Thus, Nervous System.-- As will be anticipated, the brain is found in man there are twelve dorsal vertebræ, and as many ribs. larger and more complicated in these animals than in the pre- The horse has eighteen, and the elephant twenty pairs of ribs. ceding classes. It is characterised by the presence of a trans- The sacral vertebræ are absent in the whale tribe. In other verse band of nervous matter, which connects together the two mammals they consist of three or more segments fased together
, halves of which the brain is composed. This transverse band, forming a wedge-shaped bone, called the sacrum (15). The tail or commissure, is called the corpus callogam. It is small (said (caudai) vertebræ (16) are represented in man by four small to be absent) in the monotremata. The convolutions of the segments. In other mammals they vary to sixty in number
. brain are more numerous, and increase in complexity, as we In certain rats they are entirely absent. The weight of the ascend towards the higher mammalia, according with the head is supported by a strong elastic
ligament, vulgarly termed increased
intelligence which these animals manifest. The weight packwax, which extends between the back part of the skull and of the brain in proportion to that of the body diminishes in the the neck vertebræ. vertebrata generally in the following order and manner :--In Every mammal is provided with four limbs, except the whalo mammalia it is as 1 to 186; in birds, as 1 to 212; in reptiles, as tribe, and these have only the two thoracic or anterior limbs. 1 to 1,321 ; and in fishes, as 1 to 5,668 (Leuret). ' In proportion The limbs present many peculiar modifications, according to the to the body, the brain is smaller in the larger mammals than in habits and sphere of the animal. Thus, the thoracio limbs of those of less dimensions. Thus, in the ox, it is as 1 to 180 ; in the bat act as wings ; those
of the whale, as oars ; in quadrupeds the elephant, as 1 to 500; in the horse, as 1 to 400; in' the as legs; and in some, as the cat tribe, also as instruments of sheep, as 1 to 350 ; in the dog, as 1 to 305; in the cat, as 1 to offence.' In monkeys they are indiscriminately used as hands and 156, in the
rabbit, as 1 to 140 ; in the rat, as 1 to 76; and in feet; while in man the hand and arm are emblematical of his the field-mouse, as '1 to 31. In man, the average proportion is skill' and prowess-by them he is enabled to accomplish the s 1 to 36.5 (Marshall)
. With the exception of a few small | various duties which the exigencies of life entail upon him.
The bones of the extremities are, first, a broad and expanded bone, called the blade-bone (Fig. XV., 1) in the thoracic, and the innominate bone in the pelvic extremity. The blade-bone may or may not have a clavicle or collar-bone attached to it." The arm and thigh bones are single, and called respectively the humerus (2) and femur (7). The fore-arm and leg have each two bones, viz., radius and ulna (3), and tibia and fibula (8), The bones of the hand and foot are very variable (5, 6, 10, 11). Man has five digits; the bat also five, but the thumb is small; while the other digits are very long and connected together by a fold of skin derived from the sides of the body, and continued along the whole length of the hind legs. The horse has only one perfect toe, and two imperfect ones; the perfect toe is inclosed in a mass of horny matter, called a hoof. The toes of the carnivora are armed with claws; and many, as the well-known cat, have their feet padded with an elastic cushion, to enable them to tread noiselessly, and thus take their prey unawares. The ruminants have a cloven hoof, having two toes on each foot. Besides these, there are a variety of modifications. Some animals walk on the sole of the foot, as man, bears, and badgers, and are called plantigrades. Others walk on the extremities of their toes, as the horse, and many of the carnivora; these are called digitigrades. Professor Owen adds a pinnigrade class, as the seal tribe, which have both fore and hind feet expanded into broad webbed paddles for swimming. In our next lesson we shall give the classification of the mammalia, etc.
THE UNIVERSITIES.–IX. LONDON.—II. III.-CHEMISTRY.
THIs branch of the examination will be found difficult, unless some recourse can be had to experimental teaching. But in any of our large towns this will not be difficult of attainment, and even when such is not the case the apparatus which is absolutely requisite is not very expensive. But the performance of some experiments is very desirable, and cannot be too strongly recommended. Some medical friend will probably be most qualified to suggest the best method in which to proceed for this purpose. The chief subjects of the examination in Chemistry are thus enumerated in the University Calendar:— Heat, its sources. Expansion. Thermometers, relations between different Scales in common use. Difference between Temperature and Quantity of Heat. Specific and Latent Heat. Calorimeters. Liquefaction. Ebullition. Evaporation. Conduction. Convection. Radiation. Chemistry of the Non-metallic elements; including their compounds as enumerated below—their chief physical and chemical characters—their preparation—and their characteristic tests. Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen. Chlorine, Bromine,
Iodine, Fluorine. Sulphur, Phosphorus, Silicon. Combining proportions by weight and by volume. General mature of Acids, Bases, and Salts. Symbols and Nomenclature.
The Atmosphere—its constitution; effects of Animal and Vegetable Life upon its composition. Combustion. Structure and properties of Flame. and composition of ordinary Fuel. Water. Chemical peculiarities of Natural Waters, such as Rain Water, River Water, Spring Water, Sea Water. Carbonic Acid, Carbonic Oxide. Oxides and Acids of Nitrogen. Ammonia. Olefiant Gas, Marsh Gas, Sulphurous and Sulphuric Acids, Sulphuretted Hydrogen. Hydrochloric Acid. Phosphoric Acid and Phosphuretted Hydrogen. Silica. One paper is set in Chemistry, for which three hours are allowed. Its proper execution involves a general and accurate knowledge of the elements of Inorganic Chemistry; and, as the subject is a new one to the majority of those who propose to matriculate, and the paper usually somewhat fatal to candidates, it is desirable that preparation for this portion of the examination should be commenced early, and steadily pursued. The subject is exceedingly interesting and practically useful, and the difficulties of its study rapidly disappear. The “Lessons
"The collar-bone is absent in the cetacea, hyrax, elephant, ungulata, and in some of the carnivora it is a mere rudiment.
in Chemistry” in the PopULAR EDUCATOR, which have the great merit of simplicity and numerous illustrative diagrams, and in “Natural Philosophy,” may be most advantageously read, especially as a general introduction to the subject. IV.-CLASSICs. The classical knowledge required consists of one Greek and one Latin subject, announced in the University Calendar one year and a half prior to each examination. The Greek subject consists of one book of either Homer or Xenophon; and the Latin, of a small portion of Terence, Virgil, Horace, Sallust, Caesar, Livy, Cicero, or Ovid. Candidates must be prepared to write with facility a fairly literal translation of any passage from the selected author; and for this purpose, in the case of self-teaching students, it may be necessary and even desirable to procure some translation for reference on points of difficulty, and as a test of accuracy. Those published in Bohn's classical series will best answer the end in view. But such works must be used with caution; and, if they can possibly be dispensed with, not at all. There is much reason in the almost universal condemnation of such aids by educational authorities. But there are cases in which some such assistance is indispensable—in those in which there is no master or friend to whom to refer a difficulty, no mutual assistance on the part of members of the same class. Under these circumstances a key may, we think, be used with advantage; but we repeat the caution that it should be rarely resorted to, and only in cases of extreme difficulty, and as a substitute for a master. It must not become a servant. The student must, in addition to the translation, render himself acquainted with the outlines of the life and times of the selected authors, and with the chief allusions, geographical, historical, and mythological, in the text. The classical papers also include questions in grammar, history, and geography; and a separate paper is set in Latin grammar, which also contains simple and easy sentences of English for translation into Latin prose. The grammatical questions in the classical papers usually have reference to words in the text, and we recommend the student to get up the syntax, etymology, and chief peculiarities of the words made use of. But the questions are not by any means confined to these; and as special stress is laid on accuracy in the answers to the questions in both Greek and Latin grammar, these subjects should be very carefully prepared from a good grammar. In Latin grammar, the declension of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, with the chief exceptions to the general rules; the formation of the genitive plurals of the third declension; the comparison of adjectives and adverbs; and the chief parts of those verbs whose perfects and supines are irregularly formed, should be committed to memory: while in Greek the inflections of nouns and adjectives, the conjugation of verbs, and the comparison of adjectives should be rendered familiar, the exceptions to general rules being specially noted in all cases The examination in Latin Prose Composition is of the most elementary character, and frequently has reference to the use of the subjunctive mood, Latin numerals and ordinals, and the Roman calendar. The histories of Greece and Rome must be carefully and diligently read, and special attention should be paid to the dates of the most important events, the causes and chief battles of the wars, and the leading features of the lives of the chief characters. v.–THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, AND History AND GEOGRAPHY. The English element of the Matriculation Examination will involve considerable preparation, chiefly owing to the want of attention usually bestowed upon the subject at primary and secondary schools. The history and principles of the English language and its grammatical structure must be carefully and methodically studied. The grammatical and logical analysis of sentences; the signification of Anglo-Saxon, Greek, and Latin prefixes and affixes, and of the chief Anglo-Saxon inflections as they influence English forms; and the leading rules of syntax should receive every attention.* The paper on the outlines of English history is not usually a difficult one. The questions embrace a period commencing **"
* See upon all these points the “Lessons in English” in thi LAR EDUCATOR.
the earliest historical times, and terminating with the end of the history--and to write out the translation of the classical authors, seventeenth century. Most of them may be answered from any But this course, if adopted at all, should be deferred until the of the usual school histories. The questions frequently have student's knowledge of the subjects is such as to enable him to reference to the dates of the most important events, to points discriminate those portions which it is desirable to commit to of constitutional importance, to legislation by charter and by writing. It must also be remembered that the note-book should statute, to conflicting claims to the Crown, to battles, and to never be a substitute for the memory, which it is apt to become. general biography. It is, therefore, desirable that these subjects A more useful and less dangerous plan is to mark, by perpenshould be carefully read. Candidates should also be able to dicular lines drawn down the margins of the text-books, those draw from memory an outline map of England, and to fill in passages which are of most importance, and which it is desirable the most important geographical divisions and places in Roman, to commit to memory, such as definitions and generalisations ; Saxon, and modern times.
the number of these may be again reduced, either by a parallel The POPULAR EDUCATOR will furnish ample materials for line, or by some other distinctive mark; and it is a recomthe study of the requisite modern geography.
mendation of this or some similar system that it enables the
most essential points to be referred to at the last moment VI.--FRENCH OR GERMAN.
before the examination, Either the French or German language must be so far mas. We advise students who have studied thus systematically tered as to enable the candidate to answer grammatical ques- to read until the moment of entering the examination-room, tions, limited to the accidence, and to translate short and easy In the case of those who possess neither notes nor marked paspassages from prose works not previously announced, and short sages, such a course is calculated to produce confusion and nerand easy French and German sentences at sight. The lessons vousness; but it has a reverse effect with those who are in a in these languages in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, and the trans- position to glance over the whole subject in a few hours before lation of passages from standard authors will be amply suffi- the commencement of the examination in each branch. cient for these purposes.
We add one or two hints for observation in the examination
room. First, let no candidate omit to write his name legibly The whole of the subjects required at the matriculation on each book of his answers to the questions. Such an omission examination have now been mentioned.
has in more than one instance led to the rejection of competent It is, of course, impossible to even estimate the time requisite men. It is desirable to answer each question in consecutive for their preparation, or to lay down any inflexible rule as to order, and to complete, if possible, the first before proceeding the hours and modes of reading. These matters depend upon to or even looking at the second. A hasty glance at the whole the previous knowledge, ability, and leisure of individual candi- in the first instance is apt to magnify the difficulties of the dates, but in the majority of cases a year and a half or two paper, which will probably vanish before a little thought, but years will, with ordinary application, be sufficient for the purpose which at first sight may seem insuperable, and so give rise to a of preparation. A few words upon the mode of reading may, paralysing nervousness. It is generally necessary to write perhaps, be useful in affording some general hints. They are, quickly, and it is a good rule, though the paper may be finished, however, offered merely as suggestions, and must yield to to remain in the examination-room and to carefully revise it. individual tastes and circumstances. It is, we think, desirable Such a conrse may lead, as it often has done, to the detection of to gain a general acquaintance with each of the subjects before errors and to the remembrance of answers previously forgotten. proceeding to acquire a knowledge of those portions of them Lastly, we recommend our students to avoid merely cramming especially required at the examination. The Greek and Latin the minimum of knowledge requisite to pass this or any other grammars, the lessons in Greek and Latin in the POPULAR examination. Such a course is neither a safe nor a useful one ; EDUCATOR, and the first part of Arnold's “Latin Prose Com- on the contrary, an extensive acquaintance with each branch position," or some similar work, should be thoroughly studied will not only prove of service at future examinations and in the before the translation of the selected authors is commenced; world, but is an insurance of success. It may be stated for the and in the study of French and German it is equally desirable encouragement of nervous candidates that half the marks in to master the accidence and to gain a general acquaintance with each subject will suffice for a mere pass, but such an equivocal the elements of the language in the first instance. This done, position as that of the second class should be carefully avoided. the special subject should be read and re-read until the student A place in the Honours Division must be an object of aspirais perfectly familiar with it, and able to translate any passage tion to one and all our readers; and it is to be hoped that the with facility, in order that more time may be devoted at the more material rewards promised to the first six candidates at examination to the consideration of those questions which may each matriculation examination, in the shape of scholarships not have suggested themselves in the course of reading. of £30, £20, and £15 each, tenable for two years, and prizes
It is, in our opinion, desirable that all the subjects should be of books, philosophical instruments, or money, may be awarded read concurrently rather than successively. If, for instance, frequently to the self-tanght students to whom these remarks three hours a day can be spared for study, a portion of the time have been especially addressed. should be devoted on alternate days to each of the branches of In the next paper on the University of London the two the examination. If this plan be adopted, although the stu- examinations for the degree of Bachelor of Arts will be simi. dent's progress may be less perceptible, he will, on the eve of larly dealt with. examination, find himself familiar with even the details of the whole of the subjects, and fresh from their preparation; while the more usual and ably advocated system of reading each
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-XXVI. branch separately tends to create an inequality in the candidate's
MINOR TUNES. knowledge of the various elements of the examination. In the We shall now try to elucidate the subject of “Minor Tunes." subjects most recently prepared he is strong, but the details of Why they are so denominated we shall explain presently. But, those studied at an earlier period, and laid aside as finished, first, let us ask our readers to recall all that we have said in will have faded somewhat from the memory-a fatal defect in former lessons on the "mental effect of the note LAH (the sixth an examination in which a competent knowledge of all is abso- above the key-note or the minor third below), or, better still
, lutely essential. The change produced by reading the different let them recall all they have themselves observed and felt in subjects contemporaneously furnishes another argument in favour connection with it. Was it not always, when sung slowly, the of this system; each forms a relief to the other, and it is possible sorrowful note? Then let us suppose ourselves trying to comby judicious variation to read for a much longer period without pose a very sorrowful tune-should we not naturally employ fatigue, than can be done if one subject only be adhered to. this note in the most effective positions ? Without composing,
It is an excellent plan to construct periodically a time-table, however, let us iust recall one of the oldest tunes of this kind allotting to each subject a certain portion of the hours of study in existence. in proportion to the progress made and the amount of prepara You notice nat a sorrowful effect is produced by simply tion requisite. Such systematic reading is worth double the closing on Lan instead of the key-note in Ex. 1 in the accomamount of cursory study.
panying Exercise. Yet more striking is this effect if the tuno It may be useful to analyse and note down briefly certain also opens with this note of sadness. Take the example "ubjects of the examination—for instance, the chemistry and (Ex. 2) with which Mr. Hickson illustrates this subject.
EXERCISE 47.-FIVE EXAMPLES OF MENTAL EFFECT IN MINOR TUNES.
: 11. mr:d:tı 11:-:m 8.f:m:rm:--:d til,:m:
drid:ti:tim.:d :t11:And I must this bo-dy die, This mor-tal frame de-cay! And Imust these active limbs of mine Lie mouldering in the clayil
tı : 1 m :8 stran - ger slay, And
bah:r.m bah : m
Two other examples (Exs. 3, 4), in the well-known tunes St. LAH. This note bears the same relation to LAH, which Te bears Bride's and Wirksworth, will bring more clearly before the mind to doł. Musicians also think it necessary sometimes to introthe effect of LAH when thus placed in effective positions. duce another new note, which they then use instead of FAH.
Our pupils will now be prepared for the following exposition It is a tone below se, or a chromatic part-tone above FAH. of the subject before us :
We call it BAH. It bears the same relation to se which LAH a. In some tunes-chiefly those which are intended to ex- bears to TE. BAH, SE, LAH, heard in succession, resemble, in press a mournful sentiment—the note LAH is found to predo- mental effect, LAH, TE, DOH. The learner may sometimes strike minate. It is necessarily heard both at the beginning and at BAH more easily by thinking of it as FE. The note SE is in the end of such tunes ; and assumes almost the importance of frequent use, but bah is very seldom used in ordinary music a governing or key-note, but without changing (as son and (Ex. 5). FAH do when they become key-notes by "transition") its own Tunes of this kind are commonly callea minor tunes, musical effect. It still leaves on the mind the impression of from their having the interval called a minor (smaller) third * sorrowful suspense.”
immediately above their predominating note LAH-(LAH, DOH), b. Modern musicians, in order to give to LAH a closer resem. and in distinction from other tunes which have a major (larger) blance to the ordinary key-note, and to direct the ear to it third above their predominating note don. They may be said more decisively as the note on which the tune closes, as well to be in the Lah mode. It is advisable to take their pitch by as to increase the general effect of such tunes, occasionally means of Doh, as in other tunes. The signature may be written introduce a new note, which we shall call se, a little step below | in this form, KEY A, LAH MODE.
-en or 11.
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-LII. The distinctive difference between Leute and Männer may be $ 14.-THE NEW DECLENSION.
forcibly shown by reference to the words Eheleute and Chemänner :
Eheleute means married people ; Ehemänner signifies married men, TERMINATIONS.
i.e., husbands. Singular.
(2.) Some have no plural, according to the following heads :Nom.
-en or 11.
a. Generic names of material substances; as :-Daß Onli, Gen.
-en or 11.
gold; Silber, silver; Eisen, iron, etc. Dat.
en or 11.
b. General terms and those expressive of abstract ideas; as:Acc. -en or n.
-en or n.
Raub, pillage; Ruhm, glory; bas Diek, cattle; Vernunft, reason; NOTE.—When the singular ends in e, el, or er, the plural Stolz, pride ; Kälte, colă, etc. takes n only.
c. Some names of plants; as :-Der Rohl, the cabbage; Hopfen, EXAMPLES
hóps; Ktesse, cresses, etc. Singular.
à. All infinitives employed as nouns, as also all neuter adjec. Nom. Der Graf, the count. Die Grafen, the counts.
tives so employed; as leben, life; Berlangen, wish ; das Weiß, Gen. Des Grafen, of the count. Der Grafen, of the counts. white, etc. Dat. Dem Grafen, to the count. Den Grafen, to or for the counts. e. Nouns denoting quantity, number, weight, or measure; Acc. Den Grafen, the count. Die Grafen, the counts.
as :-Bund, bundle; Dußend, dozen; Orad, degree; Pfund, pound;
Zoll, an inch, etc. Nom. Der Falfe, the falcon. Die Falfen, the falcons.
Thus, in German, we say, neun Klafter, nine fathoms; þuntert Gen. Det Falfen, of the falcon. Der Falfen, of the falcons. Grad, a hundred degrees, etc. Feminines ending in e and words Dat. Dem Falfen, to the falcon. Den Falfen, to the falcons. denoting periods of time, as also the names of coins, are, in Acc. Den Falfen, the falcon. Die Falfen, the falcons.
general, excepted from this rule. (L.) Feminine nouns which are indeclinable in the singular,
(3.) Some, in the plural, have two forms; conveying, in geneare, for the most part, of this declension. Those ending in the ral, different, though kindred significations; as in the following suffix in in the singular, double the n in the plural.
Das Band, Bande, bonds, fetters. Bänder, ribbons. Nom. Die Schuld, the debt. Die Schulden, the debts.
Die Banf, Bänke, benches.
Banken, banks of comGen. Der Schuld, of the debt. Der Schulden, of the debts.
merce. Dat. Der Schulb, to the debt. Den Schulden, to the debts. Der Bogen, Bogen, sheets of paper. Bögen, arches, bows. Acc. Die Scult, the debt. Die Schulden, the debts.
Das Ding, Dinge, things in general. Dinger, little creatures.
Der Dorn, Dornen, thorn-bushes. Dörner, thorns (more than Nom. Die Hirtin the shep. Die Sirtinnen, the shepherdesses.
Fuße, feet (as measures). Gen. Der Hirtin, of the shep. Der Sirtinnen, of the shep- Das Gesicht Gesichte, visions, sights. Gesichter, faces. herdess. herdesses.
Das Horn, Horne, sorts of horn. Hörner, horns (more than Dat. Der Hirtin, to the shep- Den Hirtinnen, to the shep
Das Holz, Holze, sorts of wood. Hölzer, pieces of wood. Acc. Die Birtin, the shep. Die Hirtinnen, the shepherdesses. Der laden, Laden, shutters.
Läden, shops. herdess.
Das Land, Lande, regions.
Länder, states. Mutter, mother, and Tochter, daughter, are in the plural Der Mann, Männer, men.
Mannen, vassals. Mütter and Töchter. They add n to the dative.
Der Mond, Monden, months.
Monde, planets. Feminine nouns were originally in the singular declined ac
Der Ort, Orte, places (any). Derter, places (particular). cording to the New Declension. These old inflected forms are
Đic oai, Sauen, wild boars.
Säue, swine. still preserved in certain phrases. Thus : mit or in Ehren, with Die Schnur Schnüre, tapes.
Schnuren, daughters-inor in respect or honour-Ehren, from Ehre ; auf Erden, on earth
law, Erten, from Erte; mit Freuden, with joy-Freuden, from freute; Der Strauß, Sträuße, nosegays. Straußen, ostriches. von or auf Seiten, on the part of—Seiten, from Seite; meiner Frauen Das Wort, Wörter, words unconnected Worte, words (in a soul. Schwester, my wife's sister.
(as in a dictionary). tence). Der Zoll, Zolle, inches.
Zölle, tolls. § 15.-OBSERVATIONS ON THE DECLENSION OF COMMON NOUNS.
$ 16.–FOREIGN NOUNS. (1.) Some have no singular, as in the following list :
(1.) Some nouns introduced from foreign languages retain Aeltern (Eltern), pa- | Fußstapfen, footsteps. / Masern and Rötheln, their original terminations; as: Der Mericus, a physician; plur. rents. Gebrüder, brothers. measles.
Medici, physicians; Factum, deed ; Facta, deeds. Ahnen, ancestors. Geschwister, brothers Molfen, whey.
(2.) Some masculines and neuters from the French and the Alpen, alps.
and sisters. Dstern, Easter. Beinfleiter, small Gliermaßen, the limbs. Pfingsten, Whitsun. in all the cases of the plural ; as, nom. der Lord, the lord; gen.
English merely affix $ to the genitive singular, which is retained clothes.
Händel, quarrels. tide. Blattern, smallpox.
def Lords, of the lord; plur. die Porbe, the lords, etc.; der Chef
, the Hosen, trousers. Rånfe, tricks. Briefschaften, letters, Insignien,
chief; gen. des Chefs, of the chief ; plur, dic Chefs, the chiefs, eto.
marks, Repressalien, reprisals. papers.
Tråber Ireber, $ 17.- FOREIGN NOUNS OF THE OLD DECLENSION. Einkünfte, revenue. Kosten and Unfosten, husks, less. Fasten, Lent, fasts. costs.
(1.) Foreign nouns of the neuter gender, as also most of the Ferien, holidays. Leute
, people, folks. Weinachten, Christmas masculines, are of the Old Declension. NOTE.—Leute merely expresses plurality of persons. In this of persons ending in the following terminations :
(2.) Among the masculines must be noted those appellations it differs from Menschen (human beings), which has regard to the kind or species, as also from Männer (men), which denotes parti
al; as, Kardinal, cardinal. cularly the sex. Those compounds, however, of which, in the
ar; as, Notar, notary. singular, Mann forms the last part, take generally, in the plural,
an; as, Kastellan, castellan. Peute instead of Männer ; thus :
To which may be added Abt, abbot; Propft, provost ; Part Singular.
pope ; Bischof, bishop; Bürgermeister, mayor; Spion, spy; Patret Arbeitsmann, workman. Arbeitåleute, workpeople. patron ; Offizier, officer. Gbelmann, nobleman. Grelleute, noblemen.
(3.) Some have, in the plural, the form e (c+t); as --Hobie Kaufmann, merchant. Kaufleute, merchants. tal, hospital ; Spital
, hospital; Kamisol, waistcoat; Regiment
, regiLandmann, countryman. Landleute, country people. ment; plur. Hospitaler, hospitals; Spitäler, hospitals, etc.