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ELECTRIFIED

PITH

ELECTRICITY.-VI.

tendency to dance with the head downwards. Sometimes two

brass wires, with the ends turned over so as to avoid the effects BALLS—DANCING FIGURES-ELECTRIC

of the rough ends, are substituted for the two plates, and thus BELLS—EFFECTS OF A POINT-ELECTRIC AURA-ELECTRIC

we have the electrical rope-dancer. This experiment is, however, FLYER-LICHTENBERG'S FIGURES-CHEMICAL EFFECTS

more difficult to manage properly. ELECTROPHORUS.

On the same principle we have the electric swing, in which a THERE are many interesting experiments, besides those already figure supported by a silk thread is made to swing backwards explained, which illustrate more fully the principles of elec- and forwards between two brass balls, one of which is connected trical attraction and repulsion; and to some of these we must with the conductor and the other with the ground. The electric now direct our attention. Balls made out of the pith of the elder seesaw is merely another modification of the same apparatus. are well adapted for many of these experiments, on account of The beam in it must be very carefully balanced, and should their extreme lightness. If we place a number of these balls on turn freely. a metal tray, and cover them with a glass shade, fitted at the top Fig. 22 represents the electric bells. The middle one, c, is with a cap through which a brass wire

suspended by a thread of silk, and from passes (Fig. 21), we shall find that, when

it a small piece of chain leads to the the wire is connected with the prime

ground. The other two bells are susconductor and the machine is set in

pended by pieces of chain from the action, the balls will dance up and down

metal bar. Between them are small very rapidly. The rod is made to slip

metal balls hung by silk threads; buttightly through the cap at the top of

tons will answer well for these. As the shade, so that the ball may be ad.

soon as the machine is worked, the bells justed to any required height, according

A and B become positively charged, and to the power of the machine.

attract the clappers; these take a porThe explanation of this experiment is

tion of their electricity, and, being then simple. The brass ball, being connected

repelled, convey it to the middle bell, with the conductor, becomes highly

Fig. 21.

by which they are attracted, and thus charged, and therefore attracts the

to the ground. In this way they are light particles of pith. As soon, how.

kept in a state of oscillation as long as erer, as they touch it, and share

the machine is worked. Bells conits electricity, they are repelled, and

structed on this principle are sometimes Ay off violently, so that they

fitted to wires arranged for would roll quite away were

Fig. 22.

showing the electricity of the they not confined by the

atmosphere, and at once ring shade. On again touching

and call the attention when the tray, each parts with its

the air is more than usually share of the electricity, and

charged with the electric rises as before for a fresh

fluid. supply. This is by far the

Procure two pieces of board best mode of trying the ex.

two or three feet long, and, periment; there is, however,

having coated them with tin. a much simpler plan, which Fig. 23.

foil, suspend one by means of consists in inverting over the

silk threads; then connect it balls a common tumbler, pre

with the machine, placing riously rendered thoroughly

the other a few inches under dry and warm. A chain from

it, and connect it with the the conductor is then laid on

ground. If now bran or a the bottom of the glass. The

Fig. 24.

number of small pieces of electricity thus collected on

paper be scattered on the the exterior surface sets free

lower one, they will collect a corresponding amount on

and arrange themselves in a the interior, and the balls rise

column, rolling about after and convey this away by the

the manner of columns of tray to the ground. In this Fig. 256.

sand in a desert when & case a charge soon accumu

Fig. 250. whirlwind is raging. Many lates in the glass, and must

other experiments, showing be discharged, or the balls

the manner in which lightning will cease to rise.

strikes different objects, may If a pointed wire be in

B В.

also be tried with these serted in the conductor, and

boards. a tumbler be then held so

If a basin of water be that different portions of its

placed on an insulating stand, interior are exposed to the

and charged with electricity, action of the point, it will become charged, and on placing it over an imitation swan placed on it will at once be attracted by and the balls they will dance as before. Here, too, the glass be. I follow the finger or any conducting body held to it. A small comes charged in a similar way to that in which a Leyden jar boat may also be placed on the water, but if a pointed wire be does, and when the action nearly ceases it may be renewed by, fixed to it, it will be repelled instead of being attracted. A point touching the exterior with the hand, thus removing the free held to it will also produce the same effect. electricity there, and setting free a further amount within. We will now speak of the mechanical and other effects pro

Let a disc of metal, or thin wood carefully coated with tin- duced by a point, some of which have been already referred to foil

, and having a diameter of five or six inches, be suspended by way of caution in making the machine. When a pointed from the conductor, so as to be about one and a-half or two wire is fixed in or near the conductor, the induction at the point inches above a similar but rather larger plate supported under is so much increased, on account of the large surface which it it. On this lower plate place some small figures of men dancing, faces, that the electricity cannot be confined, but is dissipated cut out of pith or cardboard; as soon as the machine is worked and lost. A needle held at the distance of a few feet from the they will rise, and then dance up and down rapidly, thus carry conductor will seriously impair the power of a machine, and ing away the electricity from the upper plate. The figures particles of dust act in the same way, though, of course, in a should be cat so that their feet are rather heavier ; the upper much smaller degree. If the hand be held near a point fixed in part should also be somewhat pointed, as otherwise they have a the conductor a distinct breeze will be felt, and if the face ba VOL. tv.

102

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held there a sensation as of cobwebs will be experienced, just as lines and figures on a cake of resin or valcanite. Then, having is felt when a person stands on an insulating stool. In the placed the jar on an insulating stand in order to avoid receiving dark such a point becomes beautifully luminous. Not only can a shock, take it up by the knob and trace a second set of lines the breeze, or aura, as it is called, be felt by the hand, but its on the same surface with the outside. The latter will, of course, effects may be seen on objects held near the point. If a lighted be negatively electrified, and the former positively. Now tako candle be held to it the flame will be perceptibly blown over to a mixture of red lead and flowers of sulphur, and sift it evenly one side, just as if a faint stream of air from a blowpipe was on to the resin ; the ingredients will at once separate themselves passing through it. Wheels fitted with floats after the plan of to a considerable extent, the sulphur settling in a series of treepaddle-wheels have also been turned by it; it is requisite, how- like forms along the positive track, while the red lead gathers ever, that they should be very light and well balanced, or else in a series of stars or spots along the negative. the current will be too weak to set them in motion. Instead of The devices thus formed vary, of course, very greatly, and the candle being held to a point, it may be placed on the con- elegant patterns may at times be obtained. They are known as ductor, and a pointed wire brought near it; the flame will then Lichtenberg's figures. be repelled just as if a negative stream were issuing from the The chemical effects of electricity are very great and very point.

important; they are, however, most easily seen by means of Another way in which the mechanical effects produced by a voltaic electricity, and must, therefore, be chiefly referred to point are shown is by means of the electric Ayer, which is under that head. We will, however, give one or two illustrations shown in Fig. 23. A number of pieces of wire radiating like here. If pieces of paper coloured with litmus and turmerio, ana the spokes of a wheel are fixed to a centre cap, and the whole moistened with sulphate of soda, be placed on a plate, and a is then carefully balanced so that it may turn freely on a vertical wire leading from the prime conductor be connected with one point placed in the conductor. The ends of all the wires are end, and a second wire connected with the gas or water-pipes pointed and turned in one direction, and when the conductor is be laid upon the other, we shall find on working the machine charged the electricity is given off by these, and thus causes that the turmeric paper will be stained brown at the place where the flyer to turn round rapidly, in the same way as the water the earth wire touches it, showing that the sulphate has been issuing from the arms in Barker's mill causes it to rotate. decomposed and the alkaline constituent of it set free against

The experiment is, however, sometimes explained in a different this wire. If the litmus paper be employed a red stain will be manner. The electricity given off by the points renders the found against the wire leading from the conductor, showing that air around them strongly positive, and it therefore repels the the acid constituent of the salt has been liberated there. We points which are similarly charged, and thus sets the flyer in see thus that the acid and alkali appears at the positive and motion. If it be placed under the receiver of an air-pump, and negative poles respectively. The reason of connecting the wire the air exhausted, no motion will be produced. A simpler mode to the gas or water pipes is to ensure a good connection with of constructing the flyer is to flatten a piece of copper wire in the earth, and thus to let the electricity escape as rapidly as the middle, and make in the flattened part a small depression possible. for the point to fit into. The ends of the wire are then pointed If sparks be made to pass over a piece of paper soaked with and bent round, as shown in Fig. 24.

iodide of potassium, the iodine will be liberated, and will stain The electric orrery is merely a modification of this experiment. the paper brown. This effect is, however, sometimes attributed A second flyer being placed on a point projecting upwards from to the nitric acid--which is formed in the air by the passage of the first, small globes made of cork or some other light material the electricity, causing the nitrogen and oxygen to unite--and are then placed on them to represent the sun and planets, and not to the decomposing power of the electricity. After a thun. the reaction of the points sets the whole in motion.

der-storm a very perceptible amount of nitric acid is thus If these experiments be tried in a darkened room a faintly formed, and the influence which lightning has in clearing the luminous ring will be seen, caused by the electricity given off in air may, in a great degree, be attributed to this cause. the form of the brush discharge. A good way of showing the Water has been decomposed into its constituent gasos-017 flyer, and at the same time illustrating the principle of the gen and hydrogen-by the passage of a large number of shocks Leyden jar, is to use the two together. The knob of the jar is through a small portion of it; the experiment is, however, commade to unscrew, and the end of the rod pointed so that the plicated and difficult, and the mode of performing it need not flyer may be placed upon it. As soon as the jar is charged it be fully described. With this we conclude our glance at the should be placed on a sheet of glass or an insulating stand, and main results produced by the electric spark. the knob unscrewed. Only the excess of positive electricity There is one easy and simple method of obtaining electricity will be given off, and the flyer may then be balanced on the in small quantities, which has not yet been referred to, bat will point. If now the knuckle be held to its exterior, a series of often be found very useful. It is by means of the apparatus small sparks will be given off, while a corresponding amount of known as the electrophorus, and represented in Fig. 25a, 1. A electricity will be dispersed from the points of the flyer. If the tray, B, about ten or twelve inches in diameter, with an edge about knuckle be withdrawn, the flyer will soon cease to move. It half an inch high all round it, is made of tin or zinc. Any tinmay be mentioned here that it is by no means necessary to have smith can easily manufacture this. A mixture, composed of a cover to a Leyden jar. Many electricians fix the rod to a about equal parts of shellac, Venice turpentine, and common plate at the bottom, or to a thin framework made of wood, resin, melted together, is then poured in so as to fill the tray up covered with tinfoil, and placed within the jar, and this mode to the level of the edge. seems to be in many respects preferable to the older plan. A cover, A, about an inch or an inch and a half less in dia

Instead of placing the flyer on the conductor, the latter may meter, is made of metal, or wood coated with tinfoil, and an be altogether removed, and the flyer balanced on a pointed wire insulating handle fixed so that it may be lifted by means of it. and held near the edge of the silk flap; the electricity will then The edges of this plate should be carefully smoothed. be attracted by the points, and will set it in motion.

To use this apparatus, the resinous cake is excited, by being If a small metal pail, with an opening in the bottom of such well rubbed with a piece of warm dry flannel or cloth, or, a size that the water can only just drip from it, be suspended better still, by being struck several times with a piece of catskin

. from the conductor, the particles of the liquid being similarly The metal plate is now placed upon it, and at first acquires ! electrified will repel one another, and the water will flow in a faint charge of negative electricity by touching the excitsi fine stream instead of in a series of drops. Similarly, the water resin in places. If, however, it be now touched by the finger will drop much more rapidly from a wet sponge if it be hung while resting on the resin, and then raised, a bright spark will from the conductor. In both cases, the issuing water will at be given from it to any conducting substance held near. Now times appear faintly luminous in the dark, owing to its being replace the plate, touch with the finger and again remove, & charged with electricity.

second spark will be given off; and in this way we may con: Let a piece of camphor be laid on the conductor, and then tinue until any number of sparks have been drawn, the original lighted, it will radiate in all directions as soon as the machine charge not being dissipated or weakened in any appreciable is set in action.

degree. There is one experiment we must now refer to which hardly The rationale of the process is simple : the resin is not a comes under this class of effects. Having charged a Leyden perfectly smooth surface, and therefore only touches the cover jax, take it up by the knob, and trace with the knob a series of in a few places, and, being an insulator, does not communicate

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its charge to it. It acts, however, by induction, driving the before. From the stem of the perfect tuli, arose tollo, tollere, negative part of the electricity of the plate to its upper surface, sus-tuli, sub-latum, to raise, take away. and attracting the positive portion to the lower. When the

VOCABULARY. finger touches the plate, the negative escapes to the ground through the body, and thus the whole plate is positively elec- Affero, afferre attuli, Decedere, to depart, die. Hoc est (with geni

Defero, deferre, detuli, tive), this is the sige trified, and yields a spark as soon as its charge is set free by its Aufero (ab and fero), delatum, to bring or character of. removal from the resinous surface. It will thus be seen that

auferre, abs-tuli, ab down, present, accuse. Infero, inferre, intuli, the charge in the resin merely acts by induction on the natural latum, to take away, Doctor, - ris, m., illatum, to bring in. electricity in the plate, and therefore is not dissipated. As this to withdraw.

teacher.

Præfero, præferre,preapparatus remains in working order a long time, if carefully Bellum infero alicui, to Effero, efferre, extuli, tuli, prælatum, to shielded from dust, and is ready for use at a moment's notice,

mako war on,

elatum, to bring out, bring before, prefer, it is sometimes found a very great convenience.

Commodum, -i, 11., ad. to carry out for inter- Qui (quo), whereof, The main drawback to its use is the necessity of touching the Confero, conferre, con- Funditus, from the foun- Refero, referre, retuli,

vantage, convenience. mont, to bury.

whereby. plate every time it is laid upon the form B. This is sometimes

tuli, collatum, to dation, thoroughly. relatum, to bring obviated by fixing a brass ball on a short wire fixed to the plate,

bring together, con Gigas, gigantis, m., a back, report, refer. so that it may touch a similar ball attached to the tin case of tribute, compare, giant. the resinous cake, and this plan acts well. A better one has, however, been devised, by which a narrow strip of tinfoil is forms which prepositions take in combinaz on, and the modifi

The compounds of fero are a good study in relation to the placed right across the surface of the resin, and made to communicate with the tin sides of the case. Some portion of the cations of meaning which they occasion. upper plate is sure then to touch this strip, and thus allow the

EXERCISE 167.-LATIN-ENGLISH. negative electricity to escape to the ground.

1. Ferte miséro atque inopi auxilium. 2. Confer nostram longissiAnother modification, which is said to answer even better mam ætatem cum æternitate, et brevissima videbitur. 3. Quid quæque than this, consists in boring three or four holes through the nox aut dies ferat, incertum est. 4. Incumbe in eam curam et resin down to the metal plate, and fixing in these pieces of cogitationem, quæ tibi summam dignitatem et gloriam affèrat. 5. wire with their ends just even with the surface of the resin.

Ferre laborem consuetudo docet. 6. Pecuniam præferre amicitiæ One or more of these is almost certain to touch the plate each quæcunque agit, ita minime est vir bonus. 8. Bonum civem reipub

sordidum est. 7. Ut quisque maxime ad suum commodum refert time it is placed on the resin, and thus a spark can be obtained licæ dignitatem suis omnibus commodis præferre oportet. 9. Hoc when the plate is raised, without the trouble of touching it each doctoris intelligentis est videre quo ferat natura sua quemque. 10. time with the finger. In this way, with a plate about eighteen Aristides in tantà paupertate decessit ut qui efferretur, vix reliquerit. inches in diameter, sparks about two inches in length can readily 11. Poetæ ferunt gigantes bellum diis intulisse. 12. Socrates eundem be obtained, and by means of them a good-sized jar may easily vultum domum referebat quem domo extulerat. 13. Quod auri, quod be charged.

argenti, quod ornamentorum in urbibus Siciliæ fuit id verres abstulit. A somewhat simpler piece of apparatus, acting on the same

14. Multi etiam naturæ vitium meditatione atque exercitatione sus. principle, is sometimes employed." A piece of window-glass is tulerunt.

15. Pietate adversus Deum sublatâ, fides etiam et societas carefully coated with tinfoil on one side, up to within about two religionem funditus sustulerunt. 17. Caritate benevolentiâque sublatâ,

humani genèris tollitur. 16. Qui Deum esse negant, nonne omnem inches of the edge. This is laid with the coated side downwards, omnis est e vità sublata jucunditas. and the upper surface is excited by being rubbed with a piece of silk coated with amalgam. The plate is now raised by the

EXERCISE 168.-ENGLISH-LATIN. corners, and laid with the uncoated side downwards upon some

1. Compare thy folly with thy father's wisdom. 2. I have combadly conducting substance, such as the dry cover of a book. pared my sin with God's love. 3. I will compare small things with The tinfoil is then touched with the finger, and on raising the great. 4. I have borne a mass of evil. 5. A mass of evil has been pane a spark may be obtained from it; this may be repeated, know not what the day may bear (bring). 8. Bear the labour patiently

borne by me. 6. The giants are said to have raised mountains. 7. I as with the electrophorus, until a sufficient charge has been (with an equal mind).

9. Do not refer all things to thy own advanobtained. Both these instruments are of great service in the tage. 10. The enemy has taken away what gold and silver I had. 11. laboratory, as in processes of analysis it is frequently necessary Love being taken away, all the pleasure of home is taken away. 12. to pass a spark through a mixture of gases contained in a closed Carst thou take away the fault of nature by meditation? 13. Do not tube, and for such purposes a machine would be in the way, and take away the faith and intereourse of life. involve a large amount of trouble. Condensers, acting in a

IV.-VOLO, VOLLE, VOLUI, to be willing, to wish. similar way by induction, are employed for detecting the pre

NÕLO, NOLLE, NOLUI, to be unwilling, refuse. sence of small quantities of electricity. These will be described

MÅLO, MALLE, MALUI, to be more willing, prefer. in the next lesson.

Nolo is made up of non and volo; as, non-volo, nolo; and

malo is made up of magis and volo; as, magis-volo, mavolo. LESSONS IN LATIN.-XLIV.

Consequently, the first vowel of nõlo and mālo is long, while

that of volo is short. IRREGULAR VERBS (continued).

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
III.-FERO, FERRE, TULI, LATUM, to bear.

Present.
Sing. Volo. Nolo. Malo. Velim. Nolim. Malim.

Non-vis. Mavis. Velis. Nolis. Malis.
INDIC. : Fero, fers, fert;
Feror, ferris, fertur.

Vult. Non-yult. Mavult. Velit. Nolit. Malit. Ferimus, fertis, ferunt. Ferimur, Ferimini, feruntur. Plu, Volimus. Nolūmus. Malümus. Velimus. Nolimus. Malimus, INFIXITIVE: Ferre.

Ferri,

Vultis. Non-vultis. Mavultis. Velitis. Nolitis. Malitis. IXPERATIVE : Sing. Fer, ferto, Sing. Ferre, fertor,

Volunt. Nolant. Malunt. Velint. Nolint. Malint.
Ferto.

fertor.
Plur. Ferte, fortole, Plur. Feriminor,

Imperfect.

Volebam. Nolebam. Malebam. Vellem. Nollem. Mallem. ferunto. Peruntor.

Volebas. Nolebas. Malebas. Velles. Nolles. Malles, IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.

etc.

etc.

etc. Ferrem, ferres, ferret, Ferrer, ferreris (e), ferretur.

Future.
Ferremus, ferretis, ferrent.
Ferremur, Ferremini, ferrentur.

Volam. Nolam. Malam,

Noles.

Voles.
The other parts are regularly formed from fero, tuli, and

etc.
etc.

etc.
latum; as Subj. Pres., feram, -as, -at, etc. ; ferar, -aris, -atur,
etc.; Ind. Imp., ferebam and ferebar; Fut., feram, -es, -et, etc.,

IMPERATIVE (of volo and malo none). ferar, -ēris, -ētur, etc.; Subj. Perf., tulerim, -is, -it, etc.; Plup. Sing.—2, Nõli, nolito ; 3, nolito. Plur.—2, Nolite, politite; 3, nolunto. Ind., tuleram, etc.; Plup. Subj., tulissem, etc.; Inf. Fut., latarum esse ; Part. Pres., ferens; Part. Fut., laturus, -a, -um;

Volens, -tis.

Nolens, -tis. (Of malo none.) Part. Pass., latus ; Part. Pass., in -dus, ferendus; Gerund, The forms that are made from the perfect are regular, thus : ferundum.

volui, voluerim, voluero, volueram, voluisse, voluissem. The So also the compounds, as offero, obtuli, oblatum, to bring other parts are wanting,

PRESENT ACTIVE.

PRESENT PASSIVE.

Vis.

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE,

etc.

etc.

etc.

Males.

PARTICIPLE.

VOCABULARY.

bus. 4. Corpus mortale aliquo tempore interire necesse est. 5. Acer, acris, acre, sharp, Faber, -ri, a workman. Sectari (with acc.), to Pereunt aliquando innocentes ; quis neget? nocentes tamen sepias energetic

pereunt. 6. Omnes homines summâ ope niti deoet ne vitam silentio Faber lignarius, a car. follou, slrive after. Adstringere, to bind. penter.

Serius, -a, -um, earnest, transeant. 7. Quis dubitet quin ex caså vir magnus exire possit? 8. Defatigare, to veary, Nobilitare, to make serious.

Potius sero quam nunquam, obviam eundum est audaciæ temeritatique. ve weary.

known or celebrated. Velim nolim, whether I 9. Omnes cives militibus, qui e bello domum redibant, læti obviam ibant. Ejusmodi, such like, of Publicare, to make will or not, riu-I, 10. Si ita naturâ paratum esset, ut ea dormientes agerent que somnia. that kind.

rent, alligandi omnes essent, qui cubitum irent. 11. Angustias Themis. public.

nill-I.

tocles quærebat ne multitudine hostium circumiretur. 12. Romulas EXERCISE 169.--LATIN-ENGLISH.

ad deos transisse creditus est. 13. Augustus obiit septuagesimo et 1. Qui virtutem suam publicari vult, non virtuti laborat sed gloria. sexto ætatis anno. 14. Muros turresque urbis præaltum mare 2 Nonne poetæ post mortem nobilitari volunt? 3. Ego non exdem ambiebat. volo senex quæ volui adolescens. 4. Si vis amari, ama. 5. Bono

EXERCISE 172.-ENGLISH-LATIN. mentis fruendum est, si beati esse volumus. 6. Docilis est qui attente

1. They came to me unseasonably. 2. I will not go to my uncle rult audire. 7. Omnia benefacta in luce se collocari volunt. 8. Si unseasonably. 3. I have passed over the book placed before my eyes, acres ac diligentes esse vultis, magna sæpe intelligetis ex parvis. 9. 4. Good men die, but do not perish. 5. Good men will never perish. Nolumus in conservandis bonis viris defatigari. 10. Homines volunt

6. Who doubts that great men may come forth from cottages! 7. eundem pluribus rebus excellere. 11. Si quid per jocum dixi, nolito Take care not to pass thy life in silence. 8. You must go against in serium convertere. 12. Libero sum judicio, nulla ejusmodi adstrictus oppose) baseness. 9. They have gone to the town. 10. When they necessitate ut mihi, velim nolim, sit certa tuenda sententia. 13. return (will have returned),

they will come to your house. 11. Romulus Socrates noluit ex carcere edūci quum facile posset. 14. Ego me

is said to have gone to the gods. 12. Dost thou think that Romulus Phidiam esse mallem quam vel optimum fabrum lignarium. 15. Væ went to the gods P 13. The children will go to meet their parents. vobis qui divitias quam virtutem sectari mavultis.

14, The general takes care not to be surrounded. EXERCISE 170.--ENGLISH-LATIN.

VI.--QUEO, QUIRE, QUIVI, QUITUM, to be able. 1. They wish to be wise. 2. They prefer to have wisdom rather

NEQUEO, NEQUIRE, NEQUIVI, NEQUITUM, to be unable. than riches. 3. Do not wish to excel in luxury. 4. I wish to excel in virtue. 5. Dost thou wish to take a walk with me? 6. I would Nequeo is merely queo and ne or non. These two verbs rather read this book. 7. They refused to go from their homes. 8. follow eo, ire, ivi, itum. Many parts of these verbs appear bnt He will refuse to hear what thou wishest to say. 9. If any one shall seldom, and not at all in good prose ; these parts are omitted in wish to become wise, let him read the best books. 10. Men are the following table : unwilling for the same person to have learning, riches, and power. 11. I would rather have learning than riches. 12. I prefer to be wise than

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE. to be rich. 13. Few prefer wisdom to power.

Pres. Queo. Nequeo. Queam. Nequeam.

Nequis. Queas. Nequeas.
V.-EO, IRE, IVI, ÎTUM, to go.

Nequrt. Queat. Nequeat.
INDICATIVE.
SUBJUNCTIVE.

Nequimus. Queamus. Nequeamus. Pres. Eo, is, Yt ; Imus, itis, eunt. Eam, eas, eat; eamus, eatis, eant.

Nequitis. Queatis. Nequeatis. Imp. Ibam, ibas, ibat, etc. Irem, ires, iret, etc.

Queunt. Nequeunt. Queant. Nequeant. 1. Fut. Ibo, ibis, ibit, etc. Iturus, -a, -um, sim, etc.

Imp.
Nequībam.

Nequirem. Perf. Ivi, ivisti, ivit, etc. Iverim, iveris, iverit, etc.

Perf.

Quivi. Nequivi. Quiverim. Nequiverim. Plupf. Iveram, iveras, iverat, etc. Ivissem, ivisses, ivisset, etc.

Plupf. Quivěram. Nequivěram. Quivissem. Nequivissem. 2. Fut. Ivero, iveris, iverit, etc.

2. Fut. Quivero. Nequivěro. PARTICIPLE.

INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE, Sin. 2. I, ito, 3 ito. Itum. Pres. Nom. Iens. N. Eundum.

Perf. Quivisse, nequivisse.

Nequiens.
Plu, 2. Ite, itöte.

Itu.
Gen. Euntis. G. Eundi.

The other parts are wanting, or rarely occur. 3. Eunto.

Fut.

Iturus. D. Eundo, etc. In the same way the compounds, as, exeo, I go out ; abeo, I

VII.-- FIO, FIERI, FACTUS SUM, to be made, to become. go from; re-d-eo, I go back; so also ven-čo, ven-ii, ven-itum, This verb stands as the passive of facio, I make. ven-êre, to be sold (imperative, participle, and gerund wanting); ambire, to go round, surround, canvass, is an exception, as it Pres. Fio, fis, fit,

INDICATIVE.

SUBJUNCTIVE.

Fiam, fias, fiat, Pres. Fieri. strictly follows the fourth conjugation, thus: ambio, ambiam,

fiunt. Fiamus, fiatis, fiant. Perf. Factum esse. ambiebam, ambirem, ambiens: ambivi, ambitum, ambitus (the Imp. Fiebam, etc. Fierem, etc.

Put, Factum iri, er substantive has the i short, ambitus, -ūs), ambiendum.

1. Fut. Fiam, etc.

Futurum esse, The compounds in the perfect throw out the v, and when s Perf. Factus sum, etc.

or fore. follows, v; as, abii, for abivi; abisti, for abivisti ; so abiit, Plupf. Factus eram, etc. abierim, abisse, abissem ; venii, venieram, veniero, etc.

2. Fut. Factus ero, etc. Of the simple verb, the passive is used only in the third per.

PARTICIPLE. son singular; as, itur, literally, it is gone, that is, one goes, they

Perf. Factus, -a, -um.

Fut. Pass. Faciendus, -2, -um. go; ibatur, they were going ; itum est, they went. By the

Fut. Act. Futurus, -a, -um. passive infinitive, iri, in union with the supine, is formed the infinitive future passive, as amatum iri. But the compounds The other parts are wanting, or only of infrequent occurrence, with a transitive force, like other transitives, have a complete The compounds of facio formed from verbs, retain facio in passive : for example, præterire, to go by; prætereor, I am gone the active voice, and in the passive follow fio: for example

, by; prætereor, præteriris, præteritur, præterimur, præterimini, calefacio, calefacěre, calefeci, calefactum, to make warm ; calefio, prætereuntur, præteribar, and so forth. Ambior (ambiuntur, calefieri, calefactus sum, to be made or become warm. The ambiebar) in the passive also follows the model of the fourth compounds with prepositions, however

, have in the active ficio, conjugation.

ficere, feci, fectum; and in the passive ficior, fici, fectas sum; VOCABULARY.

as, perficio, perficěre, perfeci, perfectum; in the passive, per Adire, to go to. Emori, 3, to die. Obviam (ob and via), ficior, perfici, perfectus sum. Only a few compounds with pre Aliquando, some time. Fæde, foully, shame. in the way of, against positions, together with the regular forms, have, in the passire Angustiæ, -arum, f., a fully.

Perire, to perish. forms from fio: for example, confit for conficitur, confieri; defit, narrow pass.

Intempestive, unsea- Præaltus, -a, -um, very defiat. Casa, -e, f., a cottage, sonably, out of time. high.

VOCABULARY. hut,

Interire, to go between, Prisci, the ancients.
Circumire, to go round, perish,

Priscus, -a, -um, old.
Abesse, to be absent. Definītus

fa. Generare, I, to beget
Cubitus, -us, a bed. Ire cubitum, to go to Sero, late, too late. Adversus, -a, -um, taliter, to be fore generate,
Excessus, -üs, m., a bed.
Transire, to pass over. turned towards, op-

ordained by fate.

Interdum, sometimes. going out, beyond (E. Ire ob, to go to meet. Turpitudo, -Inis, 1., posite.

Eloqui, 3, to speak out, Niti, to strivo.
R. excess).
Obire, to die.

baseness.
Civiliter, like a citizen, utter.

Redire, to return.
EXERCISE 171.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

politely, elegantly. Exulcerare, to make Retinere, 2, to hold

Cogitato, with thought, sore, or ulcerous. back, retain. 2. Qui ad nos intempestive adeunt, molesti sæpe sunt. 2. Pleraque advisedly. ante oculos posita, transimus. 3. Abeunt hirundines hibernis mensi- Crebro, frequently.

Fataliter, according to Rho, the Grook letler I.

fate.

IMPERATIVE.

SUPINE.

GERUND.

INFINITIVE.

esse

or

Rivers, etc., on which

the Capitals stand.

Approximate Area in

Square Miles.

Approximate No. of

Population.

No. of Population to every Square Mile.

FEDERATION

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EXERCISE 173.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XL. 1. Intueri solem adversum nequimus. 2. Decori vis ea est ut ab honesto non queat separari. 3. Risus interdum ita repente erumpit

CHIEF POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF SOUTH AMERICA. ut eum capientes tenere nequeamus. 4. Dic utrum queas an nequeas In the following table the reader will find the principal political mecum fre. 5. Quum hostes exercitum nostrum fundere nequirent, I divisions of the continent of South America. In accordance in castra munita se receperunt. 6. Quum dux precibus retinere mili- with the plan adopted for exhibiting in a tabular form the tem nequiret, vim adhibendam censuit. 7. Sæpe imperīti medici ea quæ sanare nequeunt, exulcerant.

8. Quum Demosthenes rho dicere principal states of the four great divisions of the land on the nequiret, exercitatione fecit ut planissime diceret. 9. Ex inimico world's surface that have already been noticed, the table shows cogita posse fieri amicum. 10. Nemo fit casu bonus.

the capital or most important city in each division, and the

rivers, etc., on which it stands; the approximate area in English EXERCISE 174.- ENGLISH-LATIN. 1. Men cannot look at the sun turned towards them (adversus sol). number of persons resident on an average on each square mile,

square miles, the approximate number of inhabitants, and the 2. The virtues are so (ita) bound together (inter se), that (ut) they cannot be separated. 3. Often we cannot restrain" laughter

, however as far as these particulars can be ascertained without any (quamvis with sub.) we wish it (would). 4. Say whether you can or regular survey of each country and any systematic census of the cannot go with us. 5. There are many diseases which cannot be population. healed. 6. Can Demosthenes pronounce r? 7. By exercise, I hope to be able to pronounce r. 8. If thou wishest to become learned, learn diligently. 9. An enemy is often made out of a friend. 10. Men do not become good or bad by chance. 11. If all things took place (were

Capitals done) by chance, foresight would be useless. 12. Dost thou think that any one through sluggishness becomes immortal? 13. By old age,

Divisions. men become wiser. 14. Some philosophers were uncertain whether

Chief Cities. all things (omnia no) took place by fate. 15. I am convinced that nothing takes place by fate.

We have now gone through what are generally called “The
Irregular Verbs,” and find them to be in number seven, namely, BRAZIL Rio de Janeiro Sea-coast 3,139,000 7,700,000
1. Possum; 2. Edo; 3. Fero ; 4. Volo; 5. Eo; 6. Queo; 7. FRENCH GUIANA Cayenne I. of Cayenne 21,500 25,000 1
Fio. If we add the compounds of volo (nolo, malo) and of DUTCH GUIANA . Paramaribo Surinam 38,500 111,000 3
queo (nequeo), we make the number ten.

BRITISH Guiana Georgetown . Demerara . 76,000 149,000 2
VENEZUELA Caracas Sea-coast. 427,000 1,570,000 31

GRANADIAN Con. Sta. Fe de Bo-
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN LATIN.- XLIII.

gota San Francisco 522,000 2,800,000 5. EXERCISE 163.--LATIN-ENGLISH.

ECUADOR Quito Esmeraldas 286,000 1,040,000 3
PERU
. Lima

Sea coast. 1. Proceed, O boys, and zealously apply yourselves to that pursuit

509,000 2,500,000 5

BOLIVIA in which you are engaged, that you may be able to be both an honour

Chuquisaca . Pilcomayo 512,000 2,000,000 3.9 CHILI

Santiago Mapocho 116,000 1,560,000 13 to yourselves, a benefit to your friends, and an advantage to the republic. 2. No one is so fierce that he cannot become gentle. 3.

PARAGUAY Asuncion . Paraguay. 75,000 1,400,000 183 Meditate on this daily, that you may be able to die with a composed

URUGUAY, OR THE

BANDA ORIENmind. 4. Some persons think that God does not exist, because he

. Montevideo Rio de la Plata 72,000 245,000 neither appears nor is perceived ; just as if we were able to see our

PATAGONIA own mind. 5. When we behold the universe, can we doubt that some

Punta Arenas St.of Magellan 300,000 350,000

FALKLAND creator and governor presides over it? 6. Nothing is so difficult that

Is-Stanley Har. it cannot be found out by inquiry. 7. We must so direct our thoughts

LANDS bour · Sea-coast. 13,000

500 $ as if some one were able (and some one is able) to behold our inmost heart. 8. We ought to be fully persuaded, that even though we may

Of the South American States, Brazil is by far the greatest, be able to conceal it from God and mankind, yet no unjust thing occupying very nearly one-half of the area of the entire conshould be done by us. 9. Can you doubt that God governs the tinent. The remaining states lie grouped around it on the north, universe ? we cannot. 10. Why cannot you walk with us? 11. Alci- west, and south, in the form of a crescent; every one of them, biades could not endure that Athens should be subject to the Lace except Chili and Patagonia, having some part of its frontier dæmonians.

contiguous to the frontier of Brazil. But although Brazil is the EXERCISE 164.--ENGLISH-LATIN.

largest state in superficial area, it is by no means peopled in 1. Scelus Deum possumus non celare. 2. Non potestis dubitare proportion to its extent. Taking the population per square quin universus mundus ab animo gubernetur. 3. Potestne mundus ex mile as a test of the prosperity and productive power of a nihilo esse ? ex nihilo nihil fieri potest. 4. Quid ex confusis molibus country, we find that Paraguay and Chili are far in advance of fieri potest ? 5. Potestne ordo ex casu fieri! 6. Bonos puniri, non the remaining states, and in this we find the reason why Para8. Domum revertent quam maximâ poterint celeritate. 9. Ante com- guay has been able to contend for so long a time with the forces prehensus sum quam loqui potui. 10. Pulchrior esse mundus non of Brazil, aided now and then by a contingent from the Argen potest. 11. Possuntne illæ mulieres pulchriores esse? 12. Librum tibi tine Confederation ; for the former has had her population condabo, si potero. 13. Frangere dolorem non poterat, sed poterit centrated in a comparatively small extent of territory, and occultare. 14. Amicitia nisi in bonis esse non potest. 15. Si venire therefore more available for the purposes of defensive warfare ; potuissem, omnia tibi dixissem. 16. Nisi venire potuissent, nihil while Brazil, with a long sea-board to defend, and a scattered scivissemus.

population, insufficient, to till her broad acres and work her EXERCISE 165.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

productive mines, has found it a difficult matter to draw 1. It is necessary for us to eat, that we may live; not to live, that together and keep up a sufficient force to crush even a power so we may eat. 2. Bat and drink moderately. 3. Some young men apparently insignificant as Paraguay appears to be when her assembled yesterday to enjoy a pic-nic. 4. This herb is bitter to eat. superficial extent is compared with that of Brazil. 5. Grief lacerates, corrodes, and completely wears down the mind. 6. Brazil is divided into twenty-one provinces, of which only Corn-worms begin to eat up the corn. 7. Quicksilver corrodes and those on the sea-coast are of any commercial importance as breaks through vessels. 8. Our forefathers could not prevent age from corroding monuments. 9. What mass was ever so firm that the waves present. The interior is inhabited by wandering tribes oî could not wear it away? 10. Woe to you who consume all your sub- Indians. It produces gold dust and diamonds in some parts ; stance in luxury! 11. The fables relate that Saturn was accustomed to but among its mineral treasures are also large coal-fields and devour his children; for age consumes the spaces of time.

beds of limestone, lately discovered by Captain Richard F.

Burton, the African explorer, while on a journey of discovery EXERCISE 166.- ENGLISH-LATIN. 1. Saturnus liberos ex se natos haud comedit.

through the country. Besides these, abundance of silver, iron,

2. Putasne Saturnum liberos ex se natos comedisse ? 3. Undæ saxa exedunt. 4.

copper, salt, and precious stones exists in various parts; while Vivis ut edas. 5. Esse debes at vivas. 6. Modice edunt. 7. Rus among its vegetable productions, which include most of the ibimus ut de symbolis edamus. 8. Hic panis aceabus est esu. 9.

fruits and vegetables raised in both tropical and temperate. Curculiones frumentum exedérunt. *10. Vetustas omnia consumit. u. climes, may be named the useful medicines ipecacuanha and Ægritudo animum exedet, vitamque conficiet. 12. Modice ederunt quinine, and the Brazil-wood, or braza, a valuable dyewood, fro:?. et biberunt. 13. Sapiens modice edet.

which the country was named by its Portuguese discoverers,

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