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LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.-XXIV.
of brandy, wine, and cider, so that the cider was 6 gallons more
than the brandy, and the wine was as much as the cider and In the following problems, the student may now employ two, of the brandy. How much was there of each ? three, or more unknown quantities in their solution, just as the 19. Says A to B, “If you give me 10 guineas of your money, I nature of each may require; or he may still limit the number shall then have twice as much as you will have left;" but says B of the unknown quantities, by first supposing one unknown to A,"Give me 10 of your guineas, and then I shall have three quantity, and then finding from the conditions of the question times as many as you." How many had each ? expressions for the other unknown quant les in terms of that 20. Three persons, A, B, and C, make a joint contribution, which has been assumed.
which in the whole amounts to £400; of which sum B con
tributes twice as much as A, and £20 more; and C as much EXERCISE 41.-ALGEBRAICAL PROBLEMS.
as A and B together. What sum did each contribute ? 1. Find two numbers such that their sum shall be a, and
21. The stock of three traders amounted to £760. The their difference b.
shares of the first and second exceeded that of the third by 2. Divide the number 20 into such parts, that three times the £240, and the sum of the second and third exceeded the first one added to five times the other will make 76.
by £360. What was the share of each ? 3. Two gamesters, A and B, sat down to play. A had 80 22. What two numbers are those which, being in the ratio of guineas, and B had 60. After a certain number of games were 3 to 4, their product is equal to 12 times their sum? won and lost between them, it was found that A had three times 23. A certain company at an inn, when they came to settle as many guineas as B. How many guineas did A win of B? their reckoning, found that had there been 4 more in company,
4. Find two numbers such that half the first and a third part they might each have paid a shilling less than they did ; but that of the second shall make 9; and that a fourth part of the first if there had been 3 fewer in company, they must each have paid with a fifth part of the second shall make 5.
a shilling more than they did. What, then, was the number of 5. Divide the number 2 into two such parts that a third of persons in the company, what did each pay, and what was the the one added to a fifth of the other shall make
whole reckoning? 6. Find three numbers such that the sum of the first and
24. A farmer has two horses, and also two saddles, the one second shall be 7, the sum of the first and third 8, and the sum valued at £18, the other at £3. Now when he sets the better of the second and third 9; and give a general solution, by sup- saddle on the first horse, and the worse on the second, it makes posing these three sums to be a, b, and c respectively.
the first horse worth double the second ; but when he places the 7. The sum of the three digits in a certain number is 16; the better saddle on the second horse, and the worse on the first, it sum of the hundreds' digit and the tens' digit is to the sum of makes the second horse worth three times the first. What the tens' digit and the units' digit, as 4} is to 5t; and if 198 be
were the values of the two horses ? added to the number, the hundreds' digit and the units' digit 25. It is required to divide the number 24 into two such parts, will change places. What is the number?
that the quotient of the greater part divided by the less, may be 8. Divide 72 into four such parts, that the first increased by to the quotient of the less part divided by the greater, as 4 5, the second diminished by 5, the third multiplied by 5, and the to 1. fourth divided by 5, the sum, difference, product, and quotient, 26. A cistern is to be filled with water from three different shall all be equal to one another.
stop-cocks. From the first it can be filled in 8 hours, from the 9. A farmer hired 4 men and 8 boys for a week, and paid second in 10, and from the third in 14. How soon would they them in all £8; the next week he paid 7 men and 6 boys at the altogether fill it ? same rate each, and paid in all £10. How much did he pay board
, but to allow 9a. for his board
each day that he is an.
27. A labourer engages to work for 3s. 6d. a day and his each man and each boy by the week ?
10. A father bequeathed £2,800 to his daughter and son, in employed. At the end of 24 days he has to receive £3 2s. 9d. such a manner that for every half-crown the daughter had, the How many days did he work ? son should have a shilling. What were their shares ?
28. Three workmen are employed to dig a ditch of 191 yards 11. A bill of £100 was paid in half-guineas and crowns; and in length. If A can dig 27 yards in 4 days, B 35 yards in 6 202 pieces of money were employed in the payment. How many days, and C 40 yards in 12 days, in vhat time could they do it pieces were there of each kind ?
if they worked simultaneously? 12. Find four numbers such that the sum of the first, second,
29. A farmer wishes to mix 28 bushels of barley at 2s, 4d. a and third, shall be 13; the sum of the first, second, and fourth, bashel, with rye at 38. a bushel, and wheat at 45. a bushel, so 15; the sum of the first, third, and fourth, 18; and the sum of that the whole may consist of 100 bushels at 3s. 4d, a bushel. the second, third, and fourth, 20.
How much rye and wheat must he use for this purpose ? 13. Two numbers are to each other as 20 to 30; but if 6 be 30. A sum of money was divided equally amongst a certain added to each, then the sums are to each other as 40 to 50. number of persons. Had there been three persons more, each What are the numbers ?
would have received 1 shilling less; and had there been two 14. There are two numbers such that the greater is to the persons fewer, each would have received 1 shilling more. Reless as their sum is to 20, or as their difference is to 10. What quired the number of persons, and what each received. are the numbers ?
31. How may a bill of £7 4s. be paid with half-guineas and 15. Three boys were playing at marbles. In the first game, crowns, so that twice the number of crowns may be equal to A loses to B and C as many as each of these two had when they three times the number of half-guineas ? began; in the second game, B loses to A and C as many as each 32. A person rows a distance of 20 miles and back in 10 hours, of these two had at the end of the first game; in the third game, the stream flowing uniformly in the same direction all the time. Closes to A and B as many as each of these two had at the end He finds that, with the stream, he can row three miles in the of the second game. Each has now 16 marbles; how many had same time that it takes him to row 2 miles against it. How each at first?
long was he going with the stream, and how long against it? 16. A person goes to a coffee-house with a certain quantity of money in his pocket, where he spends 2 shillings; he then borrows as much money as he had left, and going to another
KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ALGEBRA. coffee-house, he there spends 2 shillings also. Then, borrowing
EXERCISE 39. again as much money as was left, he went to a third coffee- 1. x = 1, y = 4, and z = 2. house, where likewise he spent 2 shillings; and thus repeating 2. x= 1 (a + b -c), y = $ (a
4. A's distance is 46 miles, B's =
9, and C's = 7. the same at a fourth coffee-house, he then had nothing remaining. What sum had he at first, and what was he in debt?
+ c), and z=(-a+b+c). 5. #= 24, y = 60, and . = 120.
3. A's money = 64 dollars, B's = 6. x= 30, y = 20, and 2 = 10. 17. A man with his wife and child dine together at an inn. 72, and C's = 84, The landlord charges 1 shilling for the child; for the woman, as
EXERCISE 40. much as for the child and a quarter as much as for the man; and for the man, as much as for the woman and child together. 2. is, 22, 10, and 40.
5. The port 3 guineas per dozen,
the sherry 2 guineas. How much was that for each ?
3. 50, 65, and 75, 18. A cask which held 60 gallons was filled with a mixture 4. 10 and 2.
6. 78 of brandy and 66 of water.
focus. By holding a sheet of white paper or the cloth at that AMUSING OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS ILLUSTRATING THE tube, the outer objects, such as the trees, houses, or persons
distance from the lens in a line perpendicular to the axis of the LAWS OF REFLECTION AND REFRACTION THE CAMERA-OBSCURA.
promenading, are painted on it with wonderful fidelity, distinct
ness, and brilliancy of colouring, so much so that even the It would, of course, be difficult to say who was the first to features of persons may be clearly distinguished. conceive the idea of collecting and publishing a description, with A little of the effect is certainly destroyed by the inversion appropriate engravings, of known experiments in physical science of the painting, and although there are various ways in which That the idea is not new, and was thought useful in bygone this may be corrected, it cannot be done without reducing the times, is shown by the absurd though somewhat amusing "Re- field of the picture and injuring the sharpness of the outlines creation in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy," written nearly of the figures projected on the paper or cloth. Nevertheless, if two hundred years ago, by Jacques Ozanam, and subsequently the spectator wishes to have the convenience of seeing the revised, enlarged, and improved by Jean Étienne Montucla, in objects in their right position, he may proceed as follows: the year 1793, in
Place a plane his new edition of the “Methodical
at an angle of 45°, Encyclopædia of
at nearly half the Amusements in Fig. 1.
focal distance of Mathematical
the lens, in such and Physical
a way that it may Science," and de
reflect downdicated to the
wards the rays Most Serene Re
proceeding from public of Venice.
the lens; arrange In the preface the
horizontally below reader is told
it a sheetof paper, " that the useful is
upon which the combined
image of the exnearly always with the agree
ternal object (in
this case a bust) able, and that he
will appear. The may instruct and
image will be seen amuse himself;"
in its natural poexaggerated
sition and upright statement, be
by all those who cause the famous
look at it in a Dr. Charles Hut
certain positionton, the mathe
viz., with their matician, pub
backs turned to lished a transla
wards the opening tion of the above
in the shutter con work in 1803,
taining the lens. and subsequently
The inverted another edition in
image is shown at 1814. In the pre
Fig. 1, and the sent paper some Fig. 2.
cause of the recareful reproduce
versal of the positions of Mon.
B tion of the bust is tucla's original
evident, from the diagrams will be
fact that the rays given.
cross at the aperNearly the first
ture in the shutter optical amuse
When the sheet ment proposed is how “to exhibit,
out on a table, in a darkened
arranged to rise room, external
and fall by rackobjects, in their
work, or any other natural colours
simple means, and proportions;
there will be and in this de
painted upon it scription the principles and construction of the camera obscura, i an exact picture of all the objects before the window. People, or darkened chamber, are fully developed :-“Close the door cows, horses, sheep, etc., are seen with the same movements and and darken the windows of the chamber, so that no light can gestures which they exhibit ander ordinary circumstances; enter, except that which can pass through a very small and well. whilst the trees, the sky, and clouds are painted in their natural cut hole in the shutter or other wood-work used to darken the colours, either calm or agitated by the wind as the case may window facing some public
street or pretty country landscape. be. The use of the rack-work is to enable the spectator to focus Hang against the wall opposite the hole in the shutter a very the more distant objects, and if great sharpness in the image is white cloth, and if the external objects are well illuminated, desired, the top of the table receiving the picture should be and the chamber kept very dark, they will paint themselves on made of plaster of Paris, and hollowed out to the same curte the wall or cloth with their natural colours, in a reversed posi- , as the lens. tion."
A PORTABLE CAMERA OBSCURA. The experiment conducted in this very simple manner suc Baptista Porta's amusing optical instrument admits of many ceeds sufficiently well to surprise those who may witness it modifications, and Fig. 2 represents another, and at one time for the first time; but it is made much more striking with the very popular, form of the camera. help of a glass lens. Adapt to the hole of the shutter—which in this case must be some inches in diameter-a tube, having very convenient dimensions, and were constructed of mahogans.
They were formerly much used by artists, on account of their at its internal extremity a convex lens of four, five, or six feet and of various sizes, some so small as to be carried in the pocket.
of paper is laid
The lens at the point A is fixed in the circular tube in front of its lens in the tube, which may be thrust through a hole in the a square draw-out tube, and is of a focus equal to the length wall of the room against which the table stands ; the images of the box when the drawer is half drawn out. A plain of the external objects are reflected from the mirror n in the mirror, placed diagonally at an angle of 45°, at the end of lines N H G to the ground glass E. The picture (E) may be conthe box, as shown by the dotted lines a b, reflects the rays cealed by a tablecloth, and when the room is darkened by transmitted by the lens up to the upper side of the plane closing the shutters and the cloth removed, somo wonder is rough-ground glass, the rough side placed above, under the fold. excited by seeing the images of external objects in all their ing darkening cover, and there forms the images of the objects colours and with their natural movements delineated on the before the lens at A. The use of the drawer is to adjust the table-top. proper distance of the lens from the mirror, according to the
A PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERA. variable distances of proximate objects. The images on the rough glass exhibit a beautiful perspective picture, also the as would be employed for taking photographic pictures ; it
In Fig. 4 is shown a more modern camera, such a one profile of a person seated in a room in a strong light before the is called "& sliding body folding camera." camera, and more particularly if the sun illumines the object; made of the best Spanish mahogany, well seasoned, and brass
It is usually and may be readily traced on the rough surface of the glass by bound, because the instrument is frequently exposed to the a blacklead pencil, or by what is preferable, red French chalk, direct rays of the sun, and if the wood craoked the light and then white paper being gently placed on the glass, the lines might be admitted, which would spoil the prepared collodion will be correctly taken off. If very thin white paper is merely placed upon the glass, the on the ground glass at the back, the latter is removed, and an
plate. When the picture intended to be taken has been focussed. images may be discerned, though faintly, sufficient to afford the ingeniously made box containing the prepared collodion plate means of tracing correctly. The nearer the object or features substituted for it. When all is ready, a sliding panel of wood are to the camera the larger will be the image, and an additional is drawn up, the prepared plate is then exposed to the light, lens of a shorter focus is sometimes fitted, to be substituted for which is allowed to act for a certain time until the picture is the other when the images of very near objects are wanted. supposed to be obtained. The plate is afterwards developed “ Some artists,” says Reece (from whom the above description is and fixed in the regular manner. The tube containing the taken), “who copy profiles, remove the rough glass from the cell, lenses is attached to a vertical and horizontal sliding frame, invert the camera, and by a stand support it about ten or twelve in order to enable the photographic artist to adjust the fore.. inches above the white paper on the table. The image will
ground and sky. then invertedly be formed on the paper, and they trace it with a pencil in a correct manner, and with less trouble than by the other method."
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-LIII. An improved folding camera is made by joining the side of the camera and drawer in the middle with canvas cloth, as
$ 20.-DECLENSION OF PROPER NOUNS. shown at the line BG (Fig. 2); the back c turns inwards with the
Singular Number. mirror, close up to the rough glass, and the front E F above, over (1.) Names of males and females, except when the latter ter. the top, so that the whole camera may fold down into a flat minate in e, take 8 to form the genitive, which is their only form, and go into a very portable, flat, leather strap case, variation; as :making it the most portable possible for persons travelling. Inclusive of the rough glass, a double convex lens has some
Nom. Heinrich, Henry.
Elisabeth, Elizabeth. times been placed to receive the images; and as more light
Gen. Heinrich, of Henry. Elisabeths, of Elizabeth. is then refracted, the images are shown with great beauty
Dat. Heinrich, to Henry. Elisabeth, to Elizabeth. and extraordinary brightness, even surpassing the original.
Acc. Heinrich, Henry.
Elisabeth, Elizabeth. They are also more vivid when the rough glass is placed above It is customary with some writers to affix en to the dative this lens, though the contours or outlines are not so sharp and and accusative of proper names; but the better usage distindistinct as when the rough glass is used only by itself. This guishes these cases by prefixing the article ; as, nom. Lessing, arrangement was noticed by Hooper, in his "Rational Recrea- Lessing; gen. Lessingø, of Lessing; dat. tem dessing (instead of tion," written one hundred years ago, and was subsequently Lessingen), to Lessing; acc. den leffing (instead of leffingen), called “the Delineator," by Storer, who pretended to be the Lessing. original inventor.
(2.) Names of females ending in e form the genitive in ene The camera may be reversed, and used as a show-box for dis. and the dative in en; those of males ending in 8, 78, fa, r, or ; playing prints, etc.; of course the ground glass must then be take likewise in the genitive end; as :removed. Any boy, with a little care and dexterity, and at a Nom. Luise, Louisa. Leibniß, Leibnitz. Voß, Voss. very small expense, may construct a camera out of an old hat; Gen. Luisens, of Louisa. Peibnißens, of Leib- Vosseng, of Voss. and as many hats are provided with ventilating holes at the
nitz. top, the aperture is ready for the insertion of the lens, and the Dat. Luisen, to Louisa. Leibniß, to Leibnitz. Voß, to Voss. picture may be received upon a circular piece of tracing paper Acc. Luise
, Louisa. Leibniß, Leibnitz. Voß, Voss. stretched on a thin wooden hoop or frame, which may slide backwards and forwards in the hat for the purpose of focussing
(3.) Names, whether of males or females, when preceded by the picture. The lens must be of a sufficiently short focus to an article, are indeclinable; as :suit the hat. This very simple arrangement will help the Nom. Der Schiller, the Schiller. Die Luise, the Louisa. youthful student to understand the phenomena of vision, as Gen. Des Schiller, of the Schil. Der Luise, of the Louisa. the whole may be compared to the eye, and the oiled paper
ler. upon which the picture is painted will represent the expanded Dat. Dem Spiller, to the Schil. Der fuise, to the Louisa. nerve, the retina, or mind of the eye, upon which the pictures
ler. seen by this organ are projected. That such images are Acc. Den Schiller, the Schiller. Die Luise, the Louisa. projected on the retina is shown by using the eye of a sheep or bullock, which may be readily procured from any butcher's
$ 21.-PROPER NOUNS IN THE PLURAL. shop. If the back part of the eye is cut off so as to leave (1.) Proper nouns, when employed in the plural, conform for the retina, and if the cornea of the eye is substituted for the the most part to the rules for the declension of common nouns ; lens in the hat, the image of the external objects will be seen the masculines being varied according to the Old Declension, painted upon the retina at the back of the cornea.
and the feminines according to the New. As an amusing modification of the camera, and to show how Sometimes the plural is made by the addition of 6 to the sinthoroughly the old experimentalists worked out an idea, and gular; as :-Die Schillers, the Schillers ; die Herders, the Herders. applied it in various ways, may be instanced the next form. Those ending in o add for the plural ne or nen; as:-(ato, Cato;
nom. plur. Catone or Catonen, the Catos, etc. THE MAGIC TABLE CAMERA.
(2.) Their inflection is in no wise affected by the presence of A table, FFFF (Fig. 3), is provided with a top, ABCD, in which the article, nor do the radical vowels a, e, u su, ever assume a sheet of ground glass (E) is fitted ; below is the camera (m), with the Umlaut.
[Blei-er-co)n] } leaden.
Solden, made of gold.
en, Nom. Die Leibnige , the Leibnitzes.' Die Schlegel, the Schlegels.
ern, Gen. Der Leibniße, of the Leib- Der Schlegel, of the Schlegels. nitzes.
Tugendhaft, inclined to virtue ; virtaous.
Meisterhaft, Dat. Den Leibnißen, to the Leib- Den Schlegeln, to the Schlegels.
resembling a master; masterly. nitzes.
Blumig, full of flowers; abounding in flowers.
Blumicht, Acc. Dicleibniße, the Leibnitzes. Die Schlegel, the Schlegels.
flowery, that is, like flowers. Waldig,
woody, that is, abounding in woods. Nom. Die luisen, the Louisas. Die Aanen, the Annes.
Salzicht, saltish; somewhat like salt. Gen. Der Luisen, of the Louisas. Der Annen, of the Annes.
Brüderlich, brotherly, or like a brother. Dat. Den kuisen, to the Louisas. Den Annen, to the Annes.
tid, Acc. Die Suisen, the Louisas. Die Annen, the Annes.
Süßlich, sweetish, somewhat sweet.
Beweglich, movable. § 22.-PROPER NAMES OF COUNTRIES, CITIES, ETC.
Irbisch, earthly; belonging to earth. (1.) Proper names of places admit of no changes of formir,
Poetisch, poetical for the purposes of declension, beyond the mere addition of s
inclined to work; diligent. to the genitive singular; as Berlin, Berlin; gen. Berlins, of
inclined to follow (orders), that is, ober
dient. (2.) If, however, the word end in a sound not easily admitting an & after it, the case is distinguished by placing before it a
isch is the ending commonly added to names of places pointnoun preceded by the article; or it is expressed by the prep. ing to things belonging to them; as:–Englisch, schwedish (s 5 ), von; as :-Die Stadt Mainz, the city Mayence. Die Ginwohner von etc. If, however, a name be a town, the suffix er is used in place Paris, the inhabitants of Paris.
of isch; as, das Merseburger Bier, the Merseburg beer. $ 23.-OBSERVATIONS.
$ 27.-DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. (1.) When several proper names belonging to the same per
(1.) Whether an adjective is to be inflected at all or not, do. son, and not preceded by the article, come together, the last one pends wholly upon the way in which it is used ; for, when em. only is declined; as :-Johann Christoph Adelungs Sprachlehre, John ployed as a predicate, it is never declined ;* when as an Christopher Adelung's grammar; if, however, the article pre- attribute, almost always. Be the noun, therefore, masculine, cede, none of them undergo change; as :-Die Werke des Johann feminine, or neuter; be it singular or plural; if the adjective to Gottlob Herber, the works of John Gottlob Herder.
which it is applied be used as a predicate (Sect. IX. Note), its (2.) When a common and a proper name of the same person, form remains unchanged ; thus:preceded by the article, concur, the common noun alone is in Der Mann ist gut, the man is good. fleeted; as :-Der Tod bed König Ludwig, the death of King Die Frau ist gut, the woman is good. Louis ; if no article precede, the proper noun is declined; as, Das Kind ist gut, the child is good. König fudwig: Lob, King Louis' death.
Die Männer sind gut, the men are good. (3.) When a Christian name is separated from a family name Ich nenne die Kinder schön, I call the children beautiful. by a preposition (specially von), the Christian name only admits
$ 28.-DECLINABLE ADJECTIVES. of declension; as :-Die Gedichte Friedrichs vor Schiller, the poems of Frederick of Schiller; if, however, the genitive precede the
(1.) There are two declensions of adjectives, as there are two governing noun, the family name only takes the sign of declen- declensions of nouns—the Old and the New. In either of these, sion; as :-Friedrich von Schilleưs Werte, Frederick of Schiller's according to circumstances, are attributive adjectives declined. works.
The following are the terminations of $ 21.- ADJECTIVES.
THE OLD DECLENSION. (1.) Adjectives are, in German, generally so varied in termi
Plural. nation, as to indicate thereby the gender, number, and case of the words with which they are joined. Before treating of their
Nom. -er, inflection, however, we shall present and explain those significant
Gen. -es, en, -er, -es, en suffixes which are most commonly employed in forming adjec
Dat, -em, tives from other words.
Acc. -en, (2.) Here, as was done in the case of derivative nouns (S$ 10, Adjectives ending in el, en, er, commonly drop the e upon T11), cach suffix is given with its corresponding English equiva- ceiving a suffix; as :lent, its meaning explained, and its use further illustrated by a
Edler Mann, noble man. series of examples.
Ebner Weg, even path. $ 25.-SUFFIXES USED IN FORMING ADJECTIVES.
Lautres Gold, pure gold.
Upon adding en, the e of the termination (en) may be dropped; EQUIVALENTS.
as :-Den heitern, or heitren Morgen, the serene morning. bar, [able, ible, ile] implies ability ; sometimes disposition. In the genitive singular masculine and neuter the termination en,
\ points to something made of that ex en is preferable. ern, pressed by the radical.
§ 29.-RULE FOR ADJECTIVES. haft, [ive, ish]
denotes tendency or inclination; also When the adjective stands either entirely alone before its resemblance.
substantive, or is preceded and restricted by a word that is unig, [y, ful]
represents a thing as being full of that declined or indeclinable, it follows the Old form of declension
denoted by the radical. icht,
denotes similarity of nature or cha-
Plural. lid, [ly, ish, able]
implies likeness or sameness either of
manner or degree; also ability. Nom. Guter Vater, good father. Gute Väter, good fathers, isch, [ish, some, al]
represents something as pertaining or Gen. Gutes (en) Vaters, of good Buter Väter, of good fathers. belonging to.
father. fam, [some, able] expresses inclination; sometimes ability. Dat. Gutem Vater, to good Guten Vätern, to good fathers,
father. $ 26.-EXAMPLES.
Acc. Guten Vater, good father. Gute Säter, good fathers. SUFFIXES.
• The letters er in this word are simply euphonie; while the sof that can be seen ; visible.
the suffix en is dropped, also, for euphony ($ 2. ).
FOR ALL GENDERS
01 ALCOHOLS. ES
FORMULA AS C.H. +20. Nom. Gute Mutter, good mother. Gute Mütter, good mothers. Gen. Guter Mutter, of good Guter Mütter, of good mothers. mother.
Methylic Alcohol, or Wood Spirit CH,O Dat. Guter Mutter, to good Guten Müttern, to good mothers. mother.
Ethylic Alcohol, or Spirits of Wine' C,H,O
•}o. Ace. Gute Mutter, good mother. Gute Mütter, good mothers,
Tritylic or Propylic
н Tetrylic or Butylic
etc. Nom. Gutes Gelb, good money. Gute Gelder, good moneys. Fusel Oil ór Amylio
CHO. Gen. Gutes (en) Geldes, of good Guter Gelder, of good moneys. Hexylic or Caproic
C.; 0. money.
CH, 0. Dat. Øutem Gelde, to good Guten Gelden, to good moneys.
Octylic or Caprylic
C.,,.o. Acc. Gutes Gelb, good money. Gute Gelder, good moneys.
Ethal or Cetylic
The relation which the various derivations from alcohol bear EXERCISE 147 (Vol. III., page 91).
to each other is indicated in this table :1. Wollen Sie mir gefälligst eine Tasse Kaffe oder Thee geben? 2. Seit gestern habe ich mich nicht ganz wohl gefühlt. 3. Seitdem er sein Hydrocarbon
Ether. elterliches Haus verlassen hat, haben wir nichts von ihm gehört. 4. Seit
Compound Aldehyd. Acid.
Radical. meinem zwölften Jahre habe ich mein Vaterland nicht besucht. 5. Seitdem er die Nachricht erhielt, hat er feine Ruhe gehabt. 6. Damit mein Freund
Ethyl. nicht vergebens fomme, werde ich zu Hause bleiben. 7. Ich habe meinen
Ethylic. Ethylic. Acetic. Acetic, Acetic Ether Freund nicht gesehen, seitdem er von Deutschland angelangt ist. 8. Anstatt C,H, C,,
0. CH; | HH, Trine Stiefel anzuziehen, ging er in den Pantoffeln aus. 9. Sagen Sie
H gefälligst Ihrem Freunde, er fönne uns zu jeder Zeit besuchen. 10. Warum benußt er seine Jugend nicht, um die Rentnisse zu erwerben, die er gebraucht.
WOOD SPIRIT, METHYLIC ALCOHOL (CH,O). 11. Wie haben Sie sich befunden, seitdem ich Sie zuleßt fah? 12. Been SPECIFIC GRAVITY AT 0°= 0.8179; BOILING POINT, 650:5. dige Deine Aufgabe, wenn du sie noch nicht beendigt hast, dann wirst du von
This spirit is one of the products of the destructive distilladeinem Lehrer nicht bestraft werden.
tion of wood. It has never been procured by any process of fermentation: hence the derivation of the word from uéou (noine) is
an error. Berthelot obtained it artificially, by acting on marsh LESSONS IN CHEMISTRY.-XXXII. gas with chlorine, thus forming CH,C1, and by treating this ALCOHOL AND ITS DERIVATIONS.
with potash the following reaction took place
CH,Cl + KHO = CHỊ0 + KCl. Both from their chemical interest and commercial value the alcohols form a prominent group. The word was originally When wood is heated in closed iron retorts charcoal remains, applied to that spirit which is the product of the fermentation and tar, mixed with water containing acetic acid and wood of sugar. But further researches extended the limits of this spirits, passes over into the condenser. When this is again definition, and alcohols are now described by Miller to be distilled from chalk, the “wood naphtha” of commerce is the “ neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which result, which is a mixture of methylic alcohol, methyl acetate, react directly upon the acids in such a manner that water is and certain oily hydrocarbons. This liquid is chiefly used for eliminated, whilst ethers are produced.”
mixing with spirits of wine, to form " methylated spirit,” which They are grouped under three heads-monatomic, diatomic, contains 10 per cent. of wood naphtha, and is permitted by and triatomic alcohols ; that is, alcohols which are formed on Government to be sold free of duty, as a solvent for certain
H) gums, resins, etc., which form varnishes, French polish, etc. the type of one, two, or three molecules of water ; thus 0.
ні To procure wood spirit from wood naphtha an equal volume of
concentrated solution of potash is added, and the mixture is If one atom of the H be replaced by ethyl (C.H.), thus ethyl alcohol, or spirits of wine, is the result. If both atoms of acetate is decomposed, forming potassio acetate and wood spirit.
The surface of the liquid is skimmed to remove any oily matters the H be replaced, we have common ether, 01:0. C,H, which rice. Potassic carbonate is now added, so long as it is plays the part which a monatomic element did in Inorganic dissolved, and the liquid arranges itself into two strata ; the Chemistry, and for this reason is termed a monatomic radical. upper, containing the spirit, is decanted. Calcic chloride is now • The only example of a diatomic radical as yet known is added, with which the spirit forms a compound which is not
decomposed at 100° : hence the mixture is distilled in a waterethylene (C.H.). If this replace H, in its type ; 0,, we bath, by which means everything is driven off save the alcohol, C
and H, series, or ethylene oxide, will be
wine; being soluble in all proportions in water, the mixture has
a less volume than the sum of the volumes of its components. CH:}0., or 2(C,H,0), or C.8.0.
It burns with a non-luminous blue flame into carbonic anhydride An instance of a triad alcohol is furnished by glycerine, and water, furnishing an admirable fuel for the chemist, as the
flame is smokeless and hot. whose composition is founded on the type
Thus When wood spirit is partially oxidised by means of spongy
platinum, formic acid is produced ; thusCH:0, is glycerine.
CH,0 + 0, = CH10, + HO. Monatomic alcohols may be represented by the general formula ALCOHOL, ETHYLIC OR VINIC ALCOHOL, OR SPIRITS OF CyH2n+20. By the following table it will be seen that the
WINE (C,H,O). series is as yet incomplete; further research may supply the SPECIFIC GRAVITY AT 0o = 0.815; BOILING POINT, 78.3o. wanting members :
This substance, which is a product of the fermentation of
grape sugar, is the stimulant in all intoxicating drinks. From For the form of the adjective substantively employed after nichts all such liquors it may be separated by distillation. It invarior etwas, see Sect. XIV. 4.
ably carries with it some essential oil of the plant which has
have “H; } 0,, blycol
, or ethylene alcohol. The other of the distilling. It has many properties in common with spirits of