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the mood-signs, which are the vowels that indicate the several | 1 Sin. Imp. Act. Ind., 0; Opt., Ol. ε-βουλευ-o-v, βουλευ-οι-με, moods : for example

Plural Aorist 1,

ε-βουλευσ-α-μεν. βουλευσ-αι Subj., βουλευ-ω-μαι.

1 Sin. Plup. Act. Opt., 01; 1Per. Sin. Ιnd. Pres. M., βουλευ-ο-μαι.

[μενα. 3 Pers. Sing. Ind. Fut., βουλευ-σ-ε-ται. Opt., βουλευ-σ-οι-το.

Present,

βε-βουλευκ-οιμι. βουλευ-οιμι. 1Pers. Plur. Ιnd. Pres., βουλευ-ο-μεθα. Subj., βουλευ-ω-μεθα. GENERAL TABLE OF MOOD-VOWELS IN THE ACTIVE AND 2 Pers. Plur. Ιnd. Pres., βουλευ-ε-σθε. Subj., βουλευ-η-σθε.

MIDDLE VOICES. 1Pers. Sing. Ind. Aor. 1, εβουλευ-σ-α-μην. Subj., βουλευ-σ-ω-μαι.

Singular. Dual. Plurai. 3Pers. Sing. Ind. Aor.1, εβουλευ-σ-α-το. Opt., βουλευ-σ-αι-το. Indicative.

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 In these instances Boulev is the root, and eBoulevo is the stem

Pres. Fut., Act. of the first aorist, while Bovlevo is the stem of the future. The personal endings are μαι, ται, μεθα, τo, etc. ; and the mood

2, Act. and Mid. signs are the vowels o w, € 7, a ai. It may be noticed that the short vowels represent the indicative, and that these short

Mid. Towels are changed into their corresponding long ones for the

Aor. 1, Mid. subjunctive; also that ı enters as an essential into the optative

Pluperf.

-ει -ει (-ει)ς forms, as in βουλευσοιτο and βουλευσαιτo. These two tenses | Imperative. are, you see, very near in form, differing in this only, that the Pres. and Perf. Aor. 2, Act. latter has an a where the former has an o.

Aor. 1, Act.
The personal endings join on immediately to the mood-signs,

Aor. 1, Mid.
Subjunctive

- «η «η and anite so closely with them that they are blended together,

«ω «η «ω and may appear as one: for example, Bovlevo-ys, instead of Optative. βουλευση-15, and βουλευ-η instead of βουλευ-ε-αι.

and Mid. The distinction between the principal tenses and the historic tenses is important. The principal tenses of all moods but the

Aor, 1, Act. and Mid. optative—that is, the prosent, the perfect, and the future-form Infinitive. the second and the third person of the dual in ov, as Bovlev-e

Pres. Fut. Act., 2 Aor. -EL. 1 Aor., Act. and Mid. του, βουλευ-ε-τον, βουλευ-ε-σθον, βουλευ-ε-σθον; while the his

Pres. Fut. Perf. Act., Perf. Mid. -E. toric tenses of all the moods and all the tenses of the optative

Participle. mood form them in ην, ας εβουλευ-ε-την, εβουλευ-ε-την, εβουλευ

Pres. Fut. Perf., Act. Mid., -σθην, εβουλευ-ε-σθην, though, according to some grammarians,

2 Aor., Act.

Pres. Fut., 2 Aor., Mid. -0. the second person of the dual in all these tenses ends in ov.

1 Aor., Act. and Mid. Further, the principal tenses form the third person plural, GENERAL VIEW OF THE PERSON-ENDINGS OF A VERB IN W. active voice, with the termination ou (which is altered for the

ACTIVE FORM.

MIDDLE FORM.

Indic. & Subj., Indic, & Opt.. sake of euphony from yti, voi), which before a vowel becomes

Indie. Subj., Indic. Opt.,

Principal Tenses. Historic Teases. Principal Tenses. Historic Tenses. σιν, and the third person plural middle with νται ; but the | Sing. 1.

ν,
μαι,

μην, historic or secondary tenses have in the active v, and in the 2. •S,

«σαι,

σο, -0. middle vto; as

3.

το.

•ται, βουλευ-ο-νσι = βουλευ-ουσι(ν), ε-βουλευ-0-ν.

Dual 1.

-μεθον, -μεθον. βουλευ-ο-νται, ε-βουλευ-ο-ντο.

ΤΟΥ,

«σθον, -σθον, •την,

-σθον, -σθην. Lastly, the principal tenses in the singular of the present middle Plur. 1: Pev,

*μεν,

-μεθα, μεθα. run thus, μαι, σαι, ται; but the historic tenses thus, μην, σο,

•τε,
-σθε,

-σθε. Το, 48

3. (-ντ) -σι,

ν, σαν. -νται (-αται), -ντο (-ατο). βουλευ-ο-μαι, ε-βουλευ-ο-μην.

Imperative.

Imperative. βουλευ-ε-σαι βουλευ-η, ε-βουλευ-ε-σο Ξε-βουλευ-ου. Sing. 2.

3. -τω.

Sing. 2. (-σο)-o; 3. -σθω. βουλευ-€-ται, ε-βουλευ-β-το.

Dual 2. -τον ; 3. •των.

Dual 2. -σθον; 3. -σθων. 3. «τωσαν.

Plur. 2. -σθε; The person-endings of the subjunctive of the principal tenses Plur. 2. -T€;

3. -σθωσαν,-σθων. correspond to those of the indicative of the principal tenses,

Infinitive.

Infinitive, and those of the optative to those of the indicative of the his. Pres., Future and Aorist 2,

-σθαι. toric tenses, as

Perf. Act. and Aor, 1 and 2 Pass., yai. 2 & 3 Dual Ind. Pres. Act. βουλευε-τον.

Aorist 1 Active,
Subj. βουλευη-τον.

Participle.

Participle.
Mid. βουλευε-σθον. βουλευη-σθον.
3 Plural, Act. βουλευου-σι(ν).

μενος, μενη, μενον. βουλευω-σι(ν).

Stem, vt ; except the Perfect, whose

Stem ends in ot ;
Mid. βουλευο-νται.
βουλευω-νται.

μενος, μενη, μενον, Perf. 1 Sing., βουλευο-μαι.

βουλευω-μαι.

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GREEK.-XXIV. 2 βουλευ-η.

βουλευ-η. 3

EXERCISE 72.--GREEK-ENGLISH. βουλευε-ται.

βουλευη-ται. 2 & 3 Dual Imp. Ιnd., Act. ε-βουλευε-την. Οpt. βουλευοι-την.

1. The file consisted of (tras) a hundred men. 2. The time was Mid. ε.βουλευε-σθην. βουλευοι-σθην.

(literally, it ras of time) a little before sunset. 3. The laws are the 3 Plural Imp. Ιnd., Act. ε-βουλευο-ν.

punishments of transgressors. 4. The punishment for these things βουλενοι-εν.

(or, for these men) is death. 5. Corn failed, and could not be purMid. ε-βουλευο-ντο. βουλευτι-ντο.

chased. 6. You may see the mountain. 7. The valour of Agesilaus 1 Sing. Imp. Ιnd., Mid. ε-βουλενο-μην. βουλευοι-μην. was a pattern. 8. We have no breakfast. 9. I will be the convener. 2

(ε-βουλευε-σο), (βουλευοι-σο), 10. This man is the victor. 11. I am one of these. 12. The king ε-βουλευ-ου.

βουλευοι-0. thinks that you are his (subjects). 13. The planting of trees, ε-βουλευε-το.

βουλευοι-το. therefore, is part of (belongs to) the art of agriculture. 14. They have As already intimated, the mood-vowel of the subjunotive of dition. 17. This shall be in your power. 18. There is no little good

a market. 15. We were in extremities. 16. Cyrus was in this conthe historic tenses differs from that of the indicative in its in harmony. 19. To violenee belong enmities and dangers. 20. I wish being lengthened ; thus, o is lengthened into w, € and a inton, to be superior to my friends in (or by) care. 21. Agesilaus was present and er into p; as

bringing gifts. 22. Ships had come (literally, were present) to Cyrus Indicative,

from the Peloponnesus. βουλευ-ο-μεν, βουλευ-εις, βουλευ-ε-σθε. Subjunctive, βουλευ-μεν, βουλευ-ης, βουλευ-η-σθε.

EXERCISE 73.-ENGLISH-GREEK. The mood-vowel or mood-sign of the optative is , in connec

1. Τοντο επ' εμος [επι εμοι] εστιν. 2. Οι νομοι επι σοι εισιν, 3. Επι σου tion with the preceding mood-vowel of the first person singular cot: fepiecvat.

επηι σιτον προασθαι. 4. Επι τοις πολεμιοις ην παρειναι, 5. Επι παισιν αγαθοις

6. Επ' εμοι εσται τη πολει προσειναι. 7. Αε ζημιαι τους indicative: the pluperfect forms an exception, since its optative αμαρτωλοις προσεισιν. 8. Η επιμελεια ση των φιλων πασιν εστι παραδειγμα, asstumes the mood-vowel of the present; for example :

9. Αί νηες το βασίλει προσεισιν.

2. -τον,
3. «τον,

2. «τε,

«αι,

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-XXXVI. the Gulfs of Panama, Tehuantepeo, and California, large inlets

of the Pacific, and a variety of small bays and sounds stretching NORTH AMERICA.

to Behring Strait, and even beyond that strait into the Arctic NORTH and South America form but one vast irregularly-shaped Ocean. The most important straits have been already men. continent, being connected with each other by the Isthmus of tioned in the preceding remarks. Besides these there are: Panama or Darien; it occupies a part of four zones, extending Frobisher Strait, leading from Davis Strait to Fox Channel ; from the north frigid zone, across the north temperate and Sir Thomas Roe's Welcome, between Southampton Island and the torrid zones, and stretching into the south temperate zone. the mainland; the Strait of Belle Isle, between Newfoundland

Boundaries.--North America is bounded on the north by the and Labrador; the Gut of Canso, between Cape Breton Island Arctic Ocean ; on the south by the Gulf of Mexico and the and Nova Scotia ; and others of less importance. Pacific Ocean ; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; and on the The peninsulas and capes in North America are the following: west by the Pacific Ocean. The mainland of this continent -Peninsulas-Melville Peninsula and Boothia Felix, in the extends from about the parallel of 72° N. lat. to nearly 7° N. Arctic Regions; East Main and Labrador, in the British terri. lat., and from about 53° W. long. to 168° W. long. The most tory; Nova Scotia, east of New Brunswick; Florida, in the northerly point of the mainland of North America is considered United States ; Yucatan, forming part of Mexico, in Central to be Murchison Promontory, in Boothia Felix, in 72° N. lat. America; Lower California; and Alaska. Capes : In the and about 95° W. long. ; the most southerly is Mariato Point, northern regions, projecting into the Arctic Ocean, Icy Cape, in the Bay of Panama, in 7° 15' N. lat. and about 81° W. long.; and Point Barrow, in Alaska; Cape Bathurst, Murchison Promon. the most easterly point is Cape Charles, Labrador, in 52° 18' N. tory, Cape Parry, and Cape Felix, in the British territory; also lat. and 55° 30' W. long; and the most westerly point is Cape Cape Rennel, Cape Clarence, Cape Hay, Cape Adair, Cape Roper, Prince of Wales, in the part formerly called Russian America, Cape Walsingham, and Cape Enderby; Cape Chudleigh and but which now belongs to the United States, and is called Cape Charles, in Labrador; Cape Sable, in Nova Scotia ; Cape Alaska, in lat. 65° 16' N. and long. 168° W. The latter point, Cod, Cape Hatteras, Cape Look-out, etc., all on the east coast situated in Behring Strait, is said to approach the easternmost of the United States ; Sable Point, in Florida ; Cape Catoche, in point of Asia within a distance of 36 miles, a short enough sail Yucatan; Cape Gracios à Dios, on the Mosquito coast; Cape for men migrating eastward from Asia, or even Europe, sup-Blanco, Central America; Cape Corrientes, Mexico; Cape St. posing them to have traversed Siberia, to accomplish even in an Lucas, Lower California ; Cape Mendocino and Cape Blanco, on open boat, and, having done so, to people the New World. the west coast of the United States; with Capes Romanzoff,

Length, Breadth, Area, etc.—The greatest length of North Prince of Wales, and Lisburn, in higher latitudes. To these America, in a straight line from north-west to south-east, from may be added Cape Farewell, in Greenland, and Cape Race, in Cape Lisburn, in Alaska, to the extremity of the Isthmus of Newfoundland. Panama, is about 5,600 miles; while its greatest breadth, from Isthmuses.--The principal isthmus in North America is that east to west, from Cape Canso, in Nova Scotia, to the mouth of called the Mexican Isthmus, which separates the waters of the the Oregon River, is about 3,125 miles. The superficial area Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. At three different points do of this continent, including that of the West Indies and other these waters approach each other. The Isthmus of Panama islands belonging to it, may be reckoned about 8,350,000 square or Darien, already mentioned, is the narrowest portion of this miles, and the population about 50,000,000; thus giving on an region; and at the narrowest point of this isthmus the breadth average about six inhabitants to every square mile.

of the land is only about 28 miles across, from ocean to ocean. The great inland seas and gulfs of North America are the The next isthmus in point of narrowness is that of Tehuantepec, following :-Hudson Bay, which communicates with the Atlantic which is reckoned 125 miles across the land from ocean to Ocean by Hudson Strait, and runs far into the British territory, ocean ; and the last, which is the broadest, is that of Guatemala

, being connected with the Arctic Seas by Fox Channel, Fury or Chiquimula, which is reckoned about 170 miles across the and Hecla Straits, Prince Regent Inlet, Barrow Strait, and land between the Gulf of Honduras and the Pacific. The isthWellington Channel; it is also connected with Baffin Bay by mus which connects California and Lower California is upwards Lancaster Sound; it terminates in James Bay, to the south of 100 miles broad. The Isthmus of Florida is about 150 miles Baffin Bay is connected with the Atlantic Ocean by Davis Strait, broad ; that of Alaska, in the southern part of the territory of and affords immediate access to Lancaster Sound, Smith Sound, Alaska, stretohing out to the south-west, towards the Aleutian and other sounds and inlets on the north. The Gulf of St. Islands, may be about 50 miles, and that of Nova Scotia about Lawrence is the broad estuary of the river of the same name, the same. having the large island of Newfoundland, with other smaller The mountains and plateaus of North America are on a grand ones, at its mouth. The area of Hudson Bay is reckoned at scale. The most extensive chain of mountains is that called the 350,000 square miles ; its length from north to south being Rocky Mountains, next the Pacific, which extend in parallel about 1,000 miles, and its breadth about 500 miles. Baffin Bay ranges from north to south, or from the shores of the Arctic is about 1,500 miles

long, and about 300 miles broad; its sur- Ocean to Lake Nicaragua, in Central America, a distance of face, including Davis Strait, is not less than that of Hudson nearly 5,000 miles; and which vary in height from 3,000 feet Bay, being at least 400,000 square miles. The Bay of Fundy to nearly 18,000 feet above the level of the sea. The principal runs from the Atlantic between Nova Scotia and New Brans- plateaus are the great basin of Utah, the highlands of Oregon, and wick. It is remarkable for its high tides, which have been the mountain range of California. The next chain is that of the known to rise 90 feet. The Gulf of Mexico, which is about Appalachian or Alleghany Mountains, on the eastern side

of the 1,100 miles long, and about 500 miles broad, washes the continent, next the Atlantic, and within the United States; southern shores of the United States, and the western these mountains extend from about the parallel of 34 N. lat. shores of Mexico; it is connected with the Caribbean Sea, to the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, a distance of about which washes the shores of the West India Islands, and of 2,000 miles, their breadth on an average being about 120 miles

. the northern part of South America; the last-named sea is Their average altitude is about 2,500 feet; and the highest about 1,800 miles, and on an average about 1,000 miles broad. sammits are rather more than 6,400 feet. The Ozark MounThe Bay of Campeachy, or Campeche, is the southern part of tains occupy a space about 300 miles long and 100 miles broad the Gulf of Mexico. The warm Gulf Stream rushes from the and vary in height from 1,000 to 2,000 feet. The table-land in Gulf

of Mexico through the Strait of Florida, between Cuba Labrador has an average height of 2,000 feet; but the Arctic and the peninsula of Florida, and crosses the Atlantic in an highlands have a considerably less elevation. In the Mexican easterly direction, preserving its higher temperature in the isthmus, the plateau of Chihuahua varies from 4,000 to 6,000 middle of the ocean, and being sensible in this respect when it feet in height; and farther to the south the

plateau of Anahuac reaches the Azores: the stream continues its course to the varies from 6,000

to 9,800 feet in elevation. In this table-land shores of England and Ireland, and is one of the chief causes of there are several mountains, chiefly volcanic, which rise to an the temperate climate and mild winters of the United Kingdom. enormous height above the level of the sea, such as Jornllo

, In the Caribbean Sea, to the south-east, are the Gulf or Bay Popocatepetl, and Orizaba. The altitude of Popocatepetl is of Honduras, the Mosquito Golf, and the Gulfs of Darien and 17,720 feet above the sea-level; it is reckoned the highest peak Maracaibo, of which the last-named enters the north coast in North America. The plateau of Central America extends of South America. On the western side of North America are from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec to that of Panama, diminish

ing in height from about 5,500 feet to about 200 or 300 feet 2. When geographical or other proper names indicating posat its extremity. Between the mouth of the river Chagres on session, domain, authorship, etc., or merely for the purpose of the Atlantic side, and the city of Panama on the Pacific side, defining them, are joined to other nouns : for example, la cit-tò the distance is about 42 miles; and the highest ground on the di Ve-ne-zia, the city of Venice ; il -gno di Spagna, the king. proposed line of railway between these points is less than 300 dom of Spain; il mé-se di -glio, the month of July; il no-me feet.

di Fran-ce-sco, the name of Francis; l' 6-so-la di Cor-fù, the SUMMARY OF BOUNDARIES. SUMMARY OF PENINSULAS.

island of Corfu; la re-gi-na d' In-ghvil-tér-ra, the Queen of EngNORTH.--Arctic Ocean.

Melville Peninsula, Arctic Regions. land ; il di Prús-sia, the king of Prussia ; l' im-pe-ra--red WEST.-Pacific Ocean. Boothia Felix, Arctic Regions,

All-stria, the emperor of Austria; l' as--dio di Mán-to-va, the SOUTH.-Pacific Ooean. East Main and Labrador.

siege of Mantua; lo stret-to di Gi-bil-têr-ra, the straits of East.-Isthmus of Panama, At- Nova Scotia, Dominion of Canada. Gibraltar ; l' im--ro di Rús-sia, the empire of Russia; le trolantic Ocean. Florida, United States.

-die di Al-fil-ri, the tragedies of Alfieri ; le com--die di Gola Yucatan, Central America.

-ni, the comedies of Goldoni. SUMMARY OF SEAS, GULFS, ETC. Lower California.

3. When words expressing quantity, weight, or any kind of Baffin Bay, between Greenland and Alaska.

measure, are joined to other nouns: for example, ú-na quan-ti-Prince William Land.

SUMMARY OF CAPES,

di -co-re, a quantity of sheep; ú-na lb-bra di cár-ne, a pound Gulf of Boothin, E. of Boothia Icy Cape, N. of Alaska.

of meat; un cen-ti--jo di fil-no, a hundredweight of hay; Felix.

Point Barrow, N. of Alaska. -na do=-=-na do cuc-cha-jo, đi gán-ti, d -va, a dozen of Hudson Bay, between East Main Cape Bathurst, N. of British North spoons, gloves, eggs; un brúc-cio di pán-no, a yard of cloth ; and Rupert's Land.

America.
James Bay, S. of Hudson Bay. Murchison Promontory, N. of

ú-na bot-ti-glia di vi-no, a bottle of wine ; ú-na ca-ráf-fa d' d-cqua, Gulf of St. Lawrence, between New British North America,

a decanter of water; un' ón-cia di caf.fe (kahf-fe), an ounce of Brunswick and Labrador. Cape Farewell, S. of Greenland.

coffee ; -no di die-ci ám-ni, wine of ten years. Bay of Fundy, between Nova Scotia Cape Chudleigh, N.E. Labrador. For the sake of elegance, the preposition di is, however, and New Brunswick.

Cape Charles, S.E. Labrador. sometimes omitted after the words ca-sa, house; pa-láz-zo, Delaware Bay, U.S. east coast. Cape Race, S.E. Newfoundland. palace ; piáz-zi, place, square; vil-la, villa ; gal-le-ri-a, gallery ; Chesapeake Bay, U.S. east coast. Cape Sable, S.W. Nova Scotia. fa-mi-glia, family ; pôr-ta, gate, entry, and some others, when Gulf of Mexico, between United Cape Cod | E. of United they are followed by the name of the owner or of the person States and Mexico.

Cape Hatteras S States. Caribbean Sea, between Mexico Cape Sable, S. of Florida.

after whom they are called : for example, in cá-sa Al-tiê-ri, at and West India Islands. Catoche Point, N.E. Yucatan.

the Altieri-house; vi-ci-no al pa-láz-so Bor-ghé-se, near the BorBay of Honduras, W. of Caribbean Cape Gracios à Dios, E. of Hon ghese-palace; súl-la piáz-za Bar-be-ri-ni, on the BarberiniSea.

duras.

square ; per la vil-la Pan-ft-li, for the villa Panfili; nél-la gal. Bay of Guatemala, S.W. of Carib- Cape Corrientes, W. of Mexico. le-ri-a -rio, in the Doria-gallery ; dél-la fa-mi-glia Co-lon-na, bean Sea,

Cape St. Lucas, S. of Lower Cali- of the Colonna family; la pôr-ta San Gio-ván-ni, St. John's. Bay of Campeche, S. of Gulf of fornia.

gate or entry ; a -sa 'l zi-o (instead of a -sa del ri-o), at the Mexico.

Cape Mendocinow. of United house of the uncle; 6-ra a co-sa qué-sto, 6-ra a -sa quell' ál-tro Day of Panama, S. of Isthmus of Cape Blanco } States.

(instead of di qué-sto, di quell ál-tro), now at the house of this Panama.

Cape Romanzoff, w. of Alaska.
Gulf of Tehuantepec, S. of Mexico. Cape Prince of Wales, W. of Alaska. one, then at the house of the other.
Gulf of California, between Penin- Cape Lisburn, W. of Alaska.

English compound nouns, or combinations of nouns, for the sula of California and the

greatest part must be decomposed by the genitive case with the

SUMMARY OF ISTHMUSES. mainland.

case-sign di, especially when one of the nouns merely defines and Queen Charlotte Sound, E, coast Chignecto, Nova Scotia.

qualifies the other, which is the principal word conveying the of British America. Tehuantepec, Mexico.

principal idea: for example, garden door, pôr-ta di giar-di-no (door Panama, Central America.

of the garden); stone-quarry, cơ-va di piê-tra (quary of stone); SUMMARY OF STRAITS.

SUMMARY OF MOUNTAINS. autumn fruits, frút-ti d' au-tún-no (fruits of autumn); a music Davis Strait, S. of Baffin Bay. Rocky Mountains, comprising- amateur, un di-let-tán-te di mú-si-ca (an amateur of music) ; Hudson Strait, between Atlantic Western Ranges, from North Leipzig fair, fiê-ra di Li-psia (fair of Leipzig) ; ox-tongue, linand Hudson Bay.

Coast to Central America. gua di bôve (tongue of an ox); horse's head, -sta di ca-vál-lo Belleisle Strait, between Labrador The principal peaks areand Newfoundland.

(head of a horse); felt-hat, câp-pel-lo di fél-tro (hat of felt);

Mount St. Elias, Alaska.
Frobisher Strait, N. of Hudson Mount St. Helens, w. United sugar-box, cás-sa di zúc-che-ro (box of sugar).
Strait.

Whenever it is necessary with greater precision to define the

States. Camberland Strait, N. of Frobisher Mount Hood, W. United States. noun in the genitive case so as to distinguish it from other Strait.

Mount Brown, British Columbia. objects of the same class, the article, according to its peculiar Fox Channel, Arctic Regions. Mount Hooker, British Colum- function of particularising that which is general, must be joined Yucatan Channel, between Yucatan

bia.

to the case-sign di. and Cuba.

Fremont's Peak, W. United The disregard of this rule will not unfrequently cause amJuan de Fuca Strait, between United States.

biguity: for example, il pa-dró-ne dél-la -sa dó-ve a-bi-tió-mo, States and Vancouver Island. Orizaba, Mexico. Behring Strait, between N. America

the master of the house where we live (il pa-dró-ne di ca-sa, is Popocatepetl, Mexico. and Asia. Alleghanies or Appalachian Moun

the master of the house in general); un boc--le del -no che Gut of Canso, between Cape Breton tains, comprising the Eastern bév-vi l' ál-tra sé-ra, a measure (= about two pints) of the wine Island and Nova Scotia,

Ranges.

which I drank the other evening (un boc-ca-le di ví-no, is a measure of wine in general); il mer.cá-to dei ca-vál-li, the horse

market (il mer-cá-to di ca-vál-li, is merely a place where horses LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-XII. are sold); il mer-cá-to dél-la sel-vag-gi-na, the game-market; THE PREPOSITION DI-ITS USE, ETC.

il ma-gaz-zi-no, dél-la -glia, the straw-magazine (ma-gaz-si-no

di -glia, is merely a magazine full of straw); il ma-gaz-ki-no The proper use of the words di, a, da, in, con, per, su, só-pra, fra, dél-le -gna, the wood-magazine. and tra, is of such primary importance in Italian, that I shall English adjectives, indicating the material or stuff from which devote this lesson to an elementary explanation of some of anything is manufactured, or denoting qualities attributed or their peculiarities.

derived from proper names of countries, nations, or towns, for Di.

the greatest part will be translated into Italian by means of The use of this word very frequently coincides with the use of nouns in the genitive

case : for example, a gold watch, un o-rothe case-sign, or preposition of, in English grammar :

-gio d' 0-ro (a watch of gold); a marble statue, u-na stá-tua di 1. When the questions of whom? of which of what? whose? már-mo (a statue of marble); a wooden table, ún-a tá-vo-la di that kind or sort of? require the genitive also in English: for lé-gno (a table of wood); an iron gate, ú-na pôr-ta di fér-ro (a example, L' a-mó-re del pá-dre, the love of the father; i paé-si gate of iron); a silver spoon, un cuc-chia-jo d' ar-gên-to (a spoon del prín-ci-pe, the countries of the prince; la cle-mên-za di Dio, of silver); a meritorious soldier, un sol-dd-to di merito a the clemency of God ; la gran-déz-za

dél-la cit-td, the greatness soldier of merit); a spirited or talented youth, un gió of the town; il V-bro di Giá-co-mo, the book of James. spl-rito, di ta-lên-to (a youth of spirit, of talent); I'

-ta d' I--lia (silk of Italy); Viennese citizens, cit-ta-di-ni di di ú-na cô-sa, to request one for something; by than, as, più di Viên-na (citizens of Vienna). It is, however, quite allowable to du-e -la scudi, more than two thousand crowns. say: sta-tua mau-nô-jea, sol-đá-to e-ri-te-to-le, gió-ba-me spi-ri In some instances the peculiarity in the use of di may, with-so, cit-ta-di-ni Vien-né-si.

out difficulty or twisting, be explained by ellipsis, particularly Adverbs of place or time before nouns, or even adjectives, of when it denotes descent or children: for example, Gian-null i this class, frequently, also, are translated by the genitive case : Se-ve-ri-no, Céc-co di Mes-sé-re An-giu-lie-ri, in Boccaccio, where for example, the back door or room, la pôr-ta la stán-za di die. fi-gliuo-lo, child or son, is understood. tro (the door or room of behind); the hind-feet, i pil-di di die In the following and other exercises the pupil himself most tro (the feet of behind); the following day, il giór-no di do-más examine whether he is to use before any noun or adjective the ni (the day of to-morrow); the present age, il món-do d'og-gi- article or not, the prepositions di, a, and da only being occadi (the world of now-a-days); after the present fashion or style, sionally employed to denote the genitive, dative, and ablative. al mo-do d' og-gi-di (after the fashion of now-a-days); the whole It is, moreover, to be noted, that the words are placed in the last night, la not--ta di jê-ri (the whole night of yesterday); order in which they are to be translated into Italian. I have yesterday, il giór-no di -ri (the day of yesterday).

thought it useful, in some cases, to denote the pronunciation of Whenever the infinitive mood of any verb explains and defines the < or .. I have done so by placing after such words in another word, the preposition di must be placed before it (just parenthesis ts, thus (ts), when the pronunciation of the ? or as the preposition of with the present participle of English is to be the sharp, hissing one ; and ds, thus (ds), when the programmar in such cases): for example, Ha ú-na gran vô-glia di nunciation of the or is to be the soft one. viag-gi-re, he has a great desire to travel or of travelling; è têm-po di an--re, it is time to go or of going; ra-gió-ne di la

VOCABULARY. men-tár-si, right to complain or of complaining ; l' o-no-re di ve

Abyss, a-bis-so, m. Fertility, fer-ti-li-tà, f. Perfection, per-fedér-vi, the honour to see you or of seeing you; li-cên-sa di par- Air, á-ria, f.

Action, a-zió-ne, f. Field, cám-p0, m. sió-ne, f.

Garden, giar-di-no, m. Physician, mé-di-, m. tir-si, permission to go away or of going away.*

And, e.

Glory, gló-ria, f. Pleasure, pia-c6-16, 22. Di is also placed after the words quán-to, how much, or great, And not, e non. Happiness, fo-li-ci-tà, f. Practice, es-er-ci-rio, n. or long; as, al-quan-to, something, a little, some; tán-to, so Are, só-no.

Here are, tc-co.

Prince, prin-ci-pe, m. much, or great, or long; al-tret-tún-to, just as much, equal; Aunt, zí-a (ts), f. Highest degree, Rainbow, ar-co-be-co, little, few; mól-to, much, a great deal; niên-te, nothing ; Beauty, bel-Us-za (ts), f. cól-mo, m.

16-110, m. più, more; mé-no, less; tróp-po, too much, etc.: for example, Behaviour, coir-dót- Interest, in-ter-Es-se, m. Return, ri-tór-no, m. quán-to di -ja sa-rêb-be per me, how great a nuisance would it

ta, f.
Is, è.

Rising, le-var, m. be for me; -po al-quan-to di têm-po, after some time; tán-to

Belong, ap-par-tên. Is not here, non è Room, cá-me-ra, i. di vi-no ed al-tret-tán-to d'á-cqua, so much wine and just as Belongs, ap-par-tiê-ne. Is useful, gió-va.

go-no.

qui.

Says, di-ca.

Sense, sén-so, in. much water; po-co di ú-ti-le ne ri-ca-ve-ré-te, you will derive Body, cór-po, m. Language, Un-gua, f. Shortens, ac-cór-cia. from this little advantage; mól-to di mu-le ne po-tréb-be se-gui-re, Brother, fra-ta-lo, m. Leads, con-dú-ce. Sister, 50-rél-la, f. a great deal of evil might be the consequence of it.

Child, fan-ciál-lo, m. Legislator, le-gi-sla Soldier, sol-dd-to, 2. In these two phrases, la Di-o mer-ce! thank God! and la Dio Colour, co-tó-re, m. té-re, m.

Soul, a-ni-ma, i. grá-zia, the grace of God, the word di is understood, and in full Commerce, common Life, vi-ta, f.

Spring, pri-ma-ri-ra, i. they run thus : la di Di-o mer-cè, and la di -o grá-zia. When,

cio, m.

Man, uó-mo, m.; pl. Sun, só-le, m. however, Di-o is placed after the words mer-cé and grá-zia, the

Countenance, fi-so-no gli ub-mi-ni.

Tells, di-ce. case-sign di cannot be omitted: for example, la mer-cè di Dt-o, Courage, co-rág-gis, m. Mind, á-ni-ma, f. ; spí

mi-a, f.
Master, pa-dró-ne, m. Temperance, tem-pa-

rán-za, f. and la grá-zia di -o.t

Cousin, cu-gi-na, f. Ti-to, m.

Three motives, tre moThe word di is sometimes a mere expletive: for example, e-gli Darkness, o-scu-ri-tà, t. Mirror, spło-chio, m. ti-vi, pl. di-ce di si, ed 1-0 di-co di nô, he says yes, and I say no; qué-sto Dawn, spun-tár, m. Money, da-na-ro, m. Tranquillity, quil-ts, . diá-vo-lo di qué-sta fém-mi-na, that devil of a woman; quel po- Day, giór-no, m. Must always obey, de Treasure, te-sh-10, n. ve--no di mi-o fra-tel-lo, that poor brother of mine.

Disorder, dis-or 20-10 86m-pre ob-be-1 True, tế-ro. As a last remark on the use of the case-sign di for the present,

di-ne, m.

di-re.

Uncle, ri-o (ts), n. I shall state that this word, among all the prepositions of the Dress, d-bi-to, m. Night, not-te, f. Usage, ú-80, m. Italian language, is of by far the most extensive use. The Error, er-ró-re, m. Ornament,

Warmth, ca-lo-re, m. reason of this is that di, properly and philosophically speaking, Father, pá-dre, m.

Exercise, móto, m. mén-to, m.

Will, oo-lon-tů, L. merely expresses the mental separation of ideas or notions, while Fault, er-ró-re, m.

Palace, pa-láz-zo (ts), m. Wise man, sá-vio, m. (n.

Parents, ge-i-tô-ri, pl. | Young mau, gió- 8da indicates a real separation of objects, which distinction constitutes the principal and fundamental difference between these

EXERCISE 3. two important words di and da. The mere mental separation

1. The rising of the sun. 2. The dawn of the day. 3. The of ideas or notions may, however, serve any connection and return of spring. 4. The warmth of the air. 5. The beauty of relation between words, ever so loose and general, and no reader, the flower. 6. The darkness of the night. 7. The abyss of bearing this truth in mind, henceforth need be surprised at error. 8. The fertility of the fields. 9. The colours of the rainmeeting, in Italian books and conversations, with frequent sub-bow. 10. The senses of man. 11. The faults of young men. 12. stitutions of the case-sign di for many other prepositions : for Money is the soul of commerce. 13. Usage is the legislator of example, for a : l'-schia è ú-na í-so-la as-sa-i vi-ci-na di Ná-po-li, languages. 14. The master of the

garden is not here. 15. The Ischia is an island very near to Naples; for da, as, u-sci-re del-la palace belongs to the prince. 16. Here are the rooms of the pri-gió-ne, to go out of or from prison ; é-gli di pri-gió-ne il uncle. 17. The dresses belong to the cousin, and not to the trás-se, he took him from prison ; for con, as, di gran-dís-si-ma aunt. 18. The brother tells the sister the will of the father

. for-za si com-bat--a da cia-scú-na pár-te, they fought with the 19. The children must always obey the parents. 20. The greatest energy on each side ; for in, as, 1-o l'uc-ci-si di leo-le bat. physicians say, the disorder shortens life. -glia, I killed him in fair fight; for per, as, é-gli pia-gné-a e di useful to the body and to the mind. 22. The countenance is gran pie-tà non po-té-a môt-to -re, he wept, and on account of the mirror of the soul. 23. Tranquillity

of mind is the highest his great emotion he could not utter a word. It is evident that the variable nature of di will admit of many wise man. 25. The true ornament of the soldier is courage,

degree of happiness. 24. Temperance is the treasure of the translations into English: for example, by with, as, só-no con 26. Practice leads to perfection. 27. Interest, pleasure, and tên-to di te, I am satisfied with thee; by at, as, mi ri-do di lui, I glory are the three motives of the actions and of the bedalaugh at him; by of, as, mo-rir di -me, to die of hunger; by as, viour of men. as, ser-vír di rt-go-la, to serve as a rule ; by for, as, pre--re ú-no

KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN ITALIAN.-II. • Which special class of verbs, nouns, and adjectives requires the

EXERCISE 1. preposition di before the infinitive mood governed by them, will be ex 1. The cloth. 2. Of the knife. 3. To the plate. 4. From the plained hereafter. For the present, the above-stated merely general salt. 5. The aliments. 6. From the

courtyards. 7. To the cockz rule will be, I think, sufficient.

8. From the dreams. 9. In theatre. 10. In the brook. 11. In the + Some other important omissions of the case-sign di will be ex- lungs. 12. With money. 13. With the pocket-bandkerchief

. 14

. plained hereafter.

With the hats. 15. For pleasure, 16. For the cloak. 17. For the

or-na

21. Exercise is

young men. 18. On the bridge. 19. On the pictures. 20. Upon this for ape, seemed, when added to the term satyrus, a fit descriptive earth. 21. The footman, 22. Of the bridegroom. 23. To the epithet for the orang-outang. stranger. 24. From the mattress. 25. The spits. 26. Of the

The orang was, probably, the only ape known to such ancient emeralds. 27. To the writers. 28. From the printers. 29. In state. naturalists as Aristotle, Pliny, and Galen. The latter is thought 30. In the mirror, 31. In the boots. 32. With study. 33. With the spirit

. 34. With the sculptors. 35. By tools. 36. For the wood to have dissected some of these animals as the best available cleaver, 37. For the sword-cutler. 38. Upon the rock, 39. On the

means of gaining a knowledge of the human skeleton. benches 40. The eye.

41. Of the bird. 42. To the friend. 43. The regions inhabited by these apes are Borneo, Java, Sumatra, From the bone. 44. The errors. 45. Of the engravers.

46. To the and the islands of the Malay Archipelago, the latter being ungrateful. 47. From the trees. 48. In honour. 49. In the year. called, by a living writer, the home of "the orang-utan and of 50. In the ears. 51. With love. 52. With the dress. 53. With the the bird of paradise." Solomon may have procured his apes from wicked. 54. By deceit. 55. For the workman. 56. For the flat- India (1 Kings x. 2), and the common English name of the terers. 57. On the building. 58. Upon the unhappy.

animals is derived, by some, from a Sanscrit word.

In the gloomy depths of tropical forests the orangs find RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.

a home exactly suited to their organisation and wants. Being

strict vegetarians, they obtain abundance of food at all seasons THE APE FAMILY: ORANG-OUTANG-CHIMPANZEE

from the luxuriant fruits nourished by the fertilising warmth GORILLA.

of an endless summer. Their four hands, long arms, and NATURALISTS place man at the head of vertebrated animals, agile forms adapt them for living and travelling among the but immediately after come the apes, taking rank as the highest dense foliage, so that they are as truly formed for the forests of all brute creatures. Uneducated men do not, however, re as birds for the air. gard these singular "four-handed” beings with much liking or Opportunities for observing these creatures are rare, and respect. Curiosity is, indeed, always excited when an ape is neither orang, chimpanzee, nor gorilla is at present in the seen, and the surest way to draw London to the Zoological Regent's Park. The stuffed skins, well set up, and the skeletons Gardens would be an advertisement that an orang, a chimpanzee, may, indeed, be studied in the British Museum; but something or still better, a gorilla, had come into the possession of the more than dried bones and preserved integuments are necessary society. But the curiosity of most spectators would be modified to give a vivid idea of the activities and energies of life. by a feeling of shrinking, or even of disgust. Scientific anatomists Whether the orang is the most clever of the apes, or the most might examine with unmixed delight these men-like animals, capable of education, cannot be ascertained with our present but the greater number would feel as if a hideous caricature of limited knowledge. We will shortly present in one view the the "human form divine” were set before them. As the Roman various points of resemblance or difference between the several poet Ennius felt, 2,000 years ago, so do men regard an ape now, species, only remarking at present that the capacity for as " turpissima bestia" (most hideous creature).* The same imitating human actions seems to be rather stronger in the sentiment is shown in many old writers, who represent the chimpanzee than in the orang. Some of these apes are said demons in the forms of apes. What will ladies, who protest to exceed man in height. One killed in Sumatra was found "they will never be married,” say to the old notion, that all to measure seven feet, and possessed strength in proportion. such dames would be attended by troops of apes in purgatory?+ Let the reader picture to himself an ape seven feet high,

But, notwithstanding this wide-spread feeling of dislike, man covered with long and light-brownish hair, broad-chested, longis irresistibly drawn to study creatures so strangely resembling armed, but short-legged, running along the ground with a himself in form, and so able to imitate many of his actions. waddling gait, but climbing trees like a cat, and springing from The marvellous stories of travellers, and the fancies of certain branch to branch with the activity of a squirrel and a speed theorists have further stimulated this curiosity. We have been truly marvellous. This orang was discovered by a body of told of apes walking erect like men, and playing on flute-like armed sailors, and instinctively showed his dread of man by instruments; that some were regarded as degenerated human attempting to hide himself amidst the foliage of the highest tribes, and possessed the gift of language. William Bosman, tree. The strength of this ape may be estimated from the fact, the Dutch traveller in Africa, sagely conjectured that apes re- that after receiving five musket-balls in his body, he sprang so frained from speaking, when near men, lest they should be caught vigorously from tree to tree, that the men were forced to fell and set to work! Some of our readers are probably familiar every tree in the clump before they could bring their victim to with the question, “Are not men simply improved and educated the ground. Even then the dying ape taxed to the utmost the apes ?" There must be something worthy of consideration in an strength of his assailants, and snapped a stout spear in two as order of animals respecting which such an inquiry could be put. if it had been a lath. His peculiar expression when dying, and

We may here ask, what is an ape? Were we to reply, "It is the mode in which he placed his hands on the wounds, as if to a four-handed, vertebrated mammal,” the answer would be stop the flow of blood, made some of the sailors feel as if they correct, but not sufficiently full, as the same definition would were killing a being of their own race. apply to most of the monkeys. We must, therefore, add that THE CHIMPANZEE (Simio troglodytes) has been described the true apes are without tails, and have no cheek pouches, in under various names, among which are Black Orang, Pygmy, which to stow away food as it is gathered. The absence of Smitten, Pongo, and Troglodytes, the last being the most abtails and of cheek pouches distinguishes the apes from the mon- surd. The reader will admit this, when he bears in mind that keys and baboons. These cheek pouches are, it is true, generally troglodytes* is a Greek word, signifying a dweller in caves. As absent in the slow monkeys (Semno pithecus); but the long tails the chimpanzees live in trees, the application of such a term to of the various species in this family must always clearly separate them may seem like a freak of fancy. These apes have been them from the orang or the chimpanzee.

honoured by receiving a name which anciently designated a We must now give a short description of each of the apes supposed nation living along the shores of the Red Sea, and of named at the head of this paper, and conclude with some special whom the old writers tell many a wondrous tale. They were notes on the whole family.

small people, rode on small horses, fed on great serpents, had THE ORANG-OUTANG.—The orang-outang, or red ape of Asia, not the gift of speech, but were able to laugh, and were poswas named Simia satyrus by Linnæus, but is now usually sessed of the fountain of the sun, which gave them an abundant known as Pithecus satyrus. Orang appears to be a Malay word, supply of hot water every evening! meaning "men," or "people,” and utan signifies "a forest;" so The chimpanzee is thought by some to stand nearer to man that orang-utan (or outang) denotes “the people of the woods.” than the other apes, and even Linnæus was for a time at a loss Simia, a word derived from the Greek, and signifying flat-nosed, whether to rank the creature as the lowest among men or the is appropriate to the whole order. The epithet satyrus would highest among the quadrumana. Some eminent men now deny naturally be selected by those whose minds were filled with the the first place even among the apes to the chimpanzee, urging fabulous stories of the satyrs, beings intermediate between man the claims of the gorilla, or those of the kooloo-kamba. Such and brutes. The name pithecus (wionkos), being the Greek word doubts" may well make men hesitate before they give the last **Simia quam similis, turpissima bestia, nobis.”

correction to their zoological creeds. The chimpanzee appears Nothing," act ii., scene i., and the “Taming of the Shrew," act ii., For allusions to this idea, see Shakespeare's " Much Ado About to have the power of walking more upright than the orangs; the

• Tpwylošúrns, from tpuyan, a cave, and dów, I hide or live in.

scene i.

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