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act of navigation advantageous altogether America ancient ancient Egypt ancient Greece annual produce artificers and manufacturers barrel bounty branches of trade Britain British cafe capital carried chap cheaper civil coin colony trade commerce commodities consequence considerable corn merchant defend discourage duty East Indies effect empire employed employment encourage endeavoured England equal established Europe European exclusive company exercised expense exportation fame manner farmer fishery foreign trade gold and silver greater quantity home market importation increase industry inhabitants interest justice less maintain Mediterranean sea ment mercantile system militia money price monopoly mother country nations naturally necessarily occasion ordinary otherwise particular perhaps pound weight pounds principal profit prohibited proportion provinces raise rate of profit regulations render revenue rude produce scarcity seems seignorage shillings society sovereign Spain Spain and Portugal standing army statute superiority supposed surplus produce tion wealth whole wines of Portugal wool
309 ページ - ... the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual, or small number of individuals, to erect and maintain ; because the profit could never repay the expense to any individual or small number of individuals, though it may frequently do much more than repay it to a great society.
107 ページ - The colonists carry out with them a knowledge of agriculture and of other useful arts, superior to what can grow up of its own accord in the course of many centuries among savage and barbarous nations. They carry out with them too the habit of subordination, some notion of the regular government which takes place in their own country, of the system of laws which supports it, and of a regular administration of justice ; and they naturally establish something of the same kind in the new settlement.
337 ページ - ... not only to prepare them for the field, but to carry them to it. As the superiority of the modern artillery too over that of the ancients is very great, it has become much more difficult, and consequently much more expensive, to fortify a town so as to resist even for a few weeks the attack of that superior artillery.
109 ページ - The cheapness and plenty of good land encourage improvement, and enable the proprietor to pay those high wages. In those wages consists almost the whole price of the land; and though they are high considered as the wages of labour, they are low considered as the price of what is so very valuable.
233 ページ - It is a very singular government in which every member of the administration wishes to get out of the country, and consequently to have done with the government, as soon as he can, and to whose interest, the day after he has left it and carried his whole fortune with him,* it is perfectly indifferent though the whole country was swallowed up by an earthquake.
174 ページ - In the total exclusion from the colony market, was it to last only for a few years, the greater part of our merchants used to fancy that they foresaw an entire stop to their trade ; the greater part of our master manufacturers, the entire ruin of their business ; and the greater part of our workmen, an end of their employment.
307 ページ - They are so far, perhaps, more inconsistent than even the mercantile system. That system, by encouraging manufactures and foreign trade more than agriculture, turns a certain portion of the capital of the society from supporting a more advantageous, to support a less advantageous species of industry.
68 ページ - The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition, when suffered to exert itself with freedom and security, is so powerful a principle, that it is alone, and without any assistance, not only capable of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity...
287 ページ - He seems not to have considered that in the political body, the natural effort which every man is continually making to better his own condition, is a principle of preservation capable of preventing and correcting, in many respects, the bad effects of a political economy, in some degree both partial and oppressive.
108 ページ - In other countries, rent and profit eat up wages, and the two superior orders of people oppress the inferior one. But in new colonies the interest of the two superior orders obliges them to treat the inferior one with more generosity and humanity; at least where that inferior one is not in a state of slavery.