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lago. Marry, heaven forbid!

Enter Emilia. Light, gentlemen ; I'll bind it with my shirt. Æmil. 'Las, what's the matter? what's the Enter Bianca,

matter, husband ? Bian. What is the matter, ho? who is 't that laro. Cassio hath here been set on in the dark, cry'd ?

15. By Roderigo, and fellows that are 'scap'd; lago. Who is 't that cry’d?

He's almost slain, and Roderigo dead. Bian. O my dear Cassio! my sweet Cassio! | | Æmil. Alas, good gentleman! alas, good Cassio! O Cassio! Cassio! Cassio!

suspect | lago. This is the fruit of whoring.-Prythee, lago. O notable strumpet!- Cassio, may you

Æmilia, Who they should be, that have thus mangled you? 10 Go know of Cassio where he supp'd to-night :Cus. No.

(to seek you. What, do you shake at that? Gra. I am sorry to find you thus ; I have been Bian. He supp'd at my house; but I therefore lago. Lend me a garter: So.--0, for a chair,

shake not. To bear him easily hence!

lago, 0, did he so? I charge you, go with me. Bian. Alas, he faints:--( Cassio! Cassio! Cassio!15| Æmil. Fie, fie upon thee, strumpet!

Iago. Gentlemen all, I do suspect this trash | Bian. I am no strumpet; but of life as honest, To be a party in this injury.

JAs you that thus abuse me. . Patience a while, good Cassio.-Come, come; Amil. As I? foh! fie upon thee! Lend me a light.-Know we this face, or no? lago. Kind gentlemen, let's go see poor Cassio Alas! my friend, and my dear countryman,

dress'd:Roderigo? no:-Yes, sure; O heaven! Roderigo. Come, mistress, you must tell us another tale.-Gra. What, of Venice?

\.Emilia, run you to the citadel, Iago. Even he, sir; did you know him? And tell my lord and lady what hath hap'd.Gra. Know him? ay.

Will you go on, I pray?- This is the night, [Aside. lago. Signior Gratiano: I cry you gentle pardon; 25 That either makes me, or fordoes' me quite. These bloody accidents must excuse my manners,

[Exeunt. That so neglected you. Gra. I am glad to see you.

SCENE II. lago. How do you, Cassio:-0, a chair, a chair! A Bed-chamber: Desdemona in bed, asleep. A Gra. Roderigo!

light burning lago. He, he, 'tis he:-0, that's well said; the chair:- s A chair brought in.

Enter Othello. Some good man bear him carefully from hence; Oth. ? It is the cause, it is the cause, my soul, I'll fetch the general's surgeon.--For you, mistress, Let me not name it to you, you chaste stars!

"To Bianca. 35 It is the cause.—Yet I'll not shed her blood; Save you your labour.. He that lies slain here, Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, Cassio,

[you:

And smooth as monumental alabaster. Was miy dear friend; What malice was between

[Takes off his sword. Cas. None in the world ; nor do I know thel. Yet she must die, else she'll beti

Yet she must die, else she'll betray more men”. man.

40 Put out the light, and then-Put out the light*! lago. [To Bianca.] What, look you pale?-0, If I quench thee, thou flaming minister, bear bim out o’the air.

II can again thy former light restore,

[Cassio is borne off: Should I repent me:—but once put out thy light, Stay you, good gentlemen.-Look you pale, mis- Thou cunning'st pattern of excelling nature, tress?

451 know not where is that Promethean heat, Do you perceive the gastness of her eye? | That can thy light relumine. When I have Nay, if you stare, we shall hear more anon:

pluck'd thy rose, Behold her well; I pray you, look upon her; ✓ I cannot give it vital growth again, Do you see, gentlemen nay, guiltiness will speak. It needs must wither :-I'll sniell it on the tree. Though tongues were out of use.

1500 balmy breath, that dost almost persuade ? To fordo, as has been before observed, is to undo, to ruin, to destroy. ? Dr. Johnson assigns the following meaning to this soliloquy: “ I am here (says Othello in his mind) overwhelmed with horror. What is the reason of this perturbation? Is it want of resolution to do justice? Is it the dread of shedding blood ? No; it is not the action that shocks me, but it is the cause, it is the cause, my soul; let me not name it to you, ye chaste stars! it is the cause,—Mr. Steevens adds, that “Othello full of horror at the cruel action which he is about to perpetrate, seems at this instant to be seeking his justification, from representing to himself the cause, i. e. the greatness of the provocation he had received.” 3 «« This is the second attempt of Othello (continues Mr. Steevens) to justify what he has undertaken. First he says, It is the cause, i. e. his own cause; now he is willing to suppose himself the preventer of succeeding mischief to others." - Dr. Farmer observes, that “this has been considered as a very difficult line. Fielding makes Betterton and Booth dispute about it with the author himself in the other world. The punctuation recommended by Dr. Warburton (and which we have adopted), gives a spirit to it which I fear (adds he) was not intended. It seems to have been only a play upon words. "To put the light out, was a phrase for to kill." 322

Justice

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Justice herself to break hersword! Once more...y 1 Oth. By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in his Be thus when thou art dead, and I will kill thee,

hand. And love thee after: Once inore, and this the lo perjur'd woman! thou dost stone my heart, last:

And mak'st me call, what I intend to do,
So sweet was ne'er so fatal. I must weep, 15 A murder, which I thought a sacrifice':
But they are cruel tears: This sorrow's heavenly :/ I saw the handkerchief.
It strikes, where it doth love.—She wakes

| Des. He found it then; Des. Who's there? Othello?

I never gave it him :-Send for him hitber, ' Oth. Ay, Desdemona.

And let him confess a truth,
Des. Will you come to bed, my lord? 1101 Oth. He hath confess'd.
Oth. Have you pray'd to-night, Desdeniona? Des. What, my lord?
Des. Ay, my lord.

Oth. That he hath-us'd thee,
Oth. If you bethink yourself of any crime, Des. How? unlawfully?
Unreconcil'd as yet to heaven and grace,

Oth. Ay. · Solicit for it straight.

[that?|15Des. He will not say so. Des. Alas, my lord, what may you mean by Oth. No, his mouth is stopp'd;

Oth. Well, do it, and be brief; I will walk by: Honest Iago hath ta'en order for 't'. I would not kill thy unprepared spirit;

Des. O, my fear interpets then, What, is he No,-Heaven forefend! I would not kill thy soul. 1

(revenge Des. Talk you of killing?

120 Oth. Had all his hairs been lives, my great Oth. Ay, I do.

Had stomach for them all. Des. Then, heaven

Des. Alas, he is betray'd, and I undone. Have mercy on me!

Oth. Out, strumpet! Weep'st thou for him to Oth. Amen, with all my heart !

my face? Des. If you say so, I hope you will not kill me. 25 Des. O, banish me, my lord, but kill me not. Oth. Hum!

Oth. Down, strumpet! Des. And yet I fear you; for you are fatal then, Das. Kill me to-morrow, let me live to-night. When your eyes roll so: Why I should fear, I Oth. Nay, if you strive, know not,

Des. But half an hour. Since guiltiness I know not; but yet, I feel, 130 Oth. Being done, fear.

There is no pause. Oth. Think on thy sins.

| Des. But while I say one prayer. Des. They are loves I bear to you.

Oth. It is too late, (He smothers her. Oth. Ay, and for that thou dy'st. Des. That death's unnatural, that kills for loving. 35/

Æmilia within Alas, why gnaw you so your nether lip?

My lord, my lord! what ho! my lord, my lord! Some bloody, passion shakes your very frame: Oth. What noise is this ?-Not dead? not yet These are portents; but yet, I hope, I hope,

quite dead? They do not point on me.

II, that am cruel, am yet mereiful; Oth, Peace, and be still!

|40|1 would not have thee linger in tby pain. Des. I will so: What's the matter? Oth. That handkerchief, which I so lov'd, andl Æmil. What ho! my lord, my lord! gave thee,

Oth. Who's there? Thou gay'st to Cassio.

itmil. O, good my lord, I would speak a word Des. No, by my life and soul;

with you.

[dead. Send for the man, and ask him.

Oth. Yes ; tis Æmilia :-by-and-by.- She's Oth. Sweet soul, take heed,

|'Tis like, she comes to speak of Cassio's death; Take heed of perjury; thou art on thy death-bed. The noise was high.--Ha! no more moving? Des. Ay, but not yet to die.

Still as the grave.--Shall she come in? Were't good! Oth. Yes, presently:

150 | think, she stirs again :-No.-What's the best! Therefore confess thee freely of thy sin ;

lIf she come in, she'll sure come to my wife:For to den v cach article with oath,

My wife! my wife! what wife? I have no wife: Cannot remove, nor choak, the strong conception O insupportable! O heavy hour! That I do groan withal. Thou art to die.

Methinks, it should be now a huge eclipse Des. O, heaven, have mercy on me! 55 Of sun and moon; and that the aftrighted globe Oth. I say, Amen.

I Should yawn at alteration. Des. And have you mercy too! I never did | Æmil. I do beseech you I may speak with you, Offend you in my life; never lov'd Cassio, 10, good my lord ! But with such general warranty of heaven

Oth. I had forgot thee: 0, come in, Æmilia: As I might love: I never gave him token. 60 Soft, by-and-by:-Let me the curtains draw.

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1 The meaning is, (says Dr. Johnson, who adds, that this dreadful scene is not to be endured.) Thou hast harden'd my heart, and makest me kill thee with the rage of a murderer, when I thought io bere sucrificed thee to justice with the calmness of a priest striking a victim.” ie, has taken measures.

Where harm, ,

Where art thou? What's the matter with the I Æmil. My husband ? now?

[Unlocks the door. Oth. Ay, 'twas he that told me first;
Enter Emilia.

An honest man he is, and latcs the slime
Æmil. O, my good lord, yonder's foul murder That sticks on filthy deeds.
Oth. What? now?

[done. 51 Emil. My husband? Æmil. But now, my lord.

| Oth. What needs this iteration, woman? Oth. It is the very error of the moon;

I say, tlıy husband. She comes more near the earth than she was wont, 1 Emil. O mistress, villainy hath made mocks And makes men mad.

(netian,

with love ! Emil. Cassio, my lord, hath kill'd a young Ve-10 My husband say, that she was false ? Call' d Roderigo.

| Oth. He, woman; Oth. Roderigo kill'd!

I say, thy husband; Do'st understand the word: And Cassio kill'd!-

My friend, thy husband, honest, honest lago. Emil. No, Cassio is not kill'd. (tune, Emil. If he say so, may his pernicious soul

Oth. Not Cassio kill'd: Then murder's out of 15 Rot half a grain a day! he lies to the heart; And sweet revenge grows harsh.

She was too fond of her most filthy bargain, Des.' 0, falselv, falsely murder'd!

1 Oth. Ha! Amil. Alas! what cry is that?

Æmil. Do thy worst: Oth. That! what?

svojce: This deed of thine is no more worthy heaven,

This deed of the
Æmil. Out, and alas ! that was my lady's 20 Than thou wast worthy her.
Help! help, ho! help!-O lady, speak again Oth. Peace, you were best.
Sweet Desdemona! O sweet mistress, speak! Æmil. Thou hast not half that power to do me

Des. A guiltless death I die.
Æmil. O, who hath done

As I have to be hurt“. O gull! O dolt!.. This deed?

125 As ignorant as dirt! thou hast done a deed, Des. No body; I myself; farewell:

I care not for thy sword; l'll make thee known. Commend me to my kind lord; O, farewell.[ Dies. Tho' I lost twenty lives:--Help! help, ho! help!

Oth. Why, how should she be murder'd? The Moor hath kill'd my mistress! Murder! Æmil. Alas, who knows?

murder! Oth, You heard her say herself, it was not I. \30 Enter Montano, Gratiano, lago, and others. &mil.She said so; I must needs report the truth. Mon. What is the matter?How now, general? Oth. She's, like a liar, gone to burning hell; Æmil. O, are you come, lago? you have done Twas I tbat kill'd her.'

well, Æmil. O, the more angel she,

\That men must lay their murders on your neck. And you the blacker devil!

133/ Gra. What is the matter? Oth. She turn'd to folly, and she was a whore. Æmil. Disprove this, villain, if thou be'sta man: Æmil. Thou dost belie her, and thou art a devil. He says, thou told'st him that his wife was false; Oth. She was false as water?

I know, thou did'st not, thou'rt not such a villain; Æmil. Thou art rash as fire, to say

Speak, for my heart is full. That she was false ; 0, she was heavenly true! 40 lago. I told him what I thought; and told no more

Oth. Cassio did tup her; ask thy husband else: Than what he found himself was apt and true. 0, I were damn'd beneath all depth in hell,

Æmil. But did you ever tell him, she was false ? But that I did proceed upon just grounds

Jago. I did. To this extremity: Thy husband knew it all. Amil. You told a lie; an odious, damned lie; Æmil. My husband

145/Upon my soul, a lie; a wicked lie: Oth. Thy husband.

| She false with Cassio !-Did you say, with Cassio? Æmil. That she was false to wedlock ?

lago. With Cassio, mistress; Goto, charm your Oth. Ay, with Cassio. Nay, had she been true,

tongue'. If heaven would make me such another world | Æmil. I will not charm my tongue; I am Of one entire and perfect chrysolite,

bound to speak; I'd not have sold her for it.

I İMy mistress here lies murder'd in her bed.

140

1 Mr. Steevens is of opinion, “ that some theatrical direction has been omitted; and that when Othello says, Not dead ? not vet quite dead? I, that am cruel, am yet merciful; I would not have thee linger in thy pain :-So, so—he then stabs her, repeating the two last words, as he repeats the blow. After a repetition of wounds, Desdemona might speak again, with propriety, and yet very soon expire. The first resolution of Othello was to poison her; but from this measure he is dissuaded by the policy of lago. He is next determined to use the poniard; but, his tenderness awaking, he cannot bear to deform those beauties which he had so often approached with other sensations and for different purposes. Therefore, says he, I'll not shed her blood, nor scar that whiter skin of hers than. snow, and smooth as monumental alabaster: And this resolution we are to imagine he would have kept, but that he was averse to employing those means again, which had already appeared to be uncertain in their effect.” ..? As water, that will support no weight, nor keep any impression. Villainy has taken advantage to play upon the weakness of a violent passion. “She means to say, I have in this cause power to endure more than thou hast power to inflict. i.e. Apply some power, strong as a charm would be, to your tongue; for, nothing less can stop its volubility.

All

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All. O heavens forefend!

O murd'rous coxcomb! what should such a fool Æmil. And your reports have set the murder on. Do with so good a wife?.. Oth. Nay, stare not, masters; it is true, indeed.

[Iago stabs his wife, then runs out. Gra. 'Tis a strange truth.

| Oth. Are there no stones in heaven (lain! Mon. O monstrous act!

5 But what serve for the thunder?- Precious vilÆmil. Villainy, villainy, villainy!

Gra. The woman falls; súre he has kill'd his I think upon't, - I think, Ismell’t';- O villainy! I thought so then ;-I'll kill myself for grief. Æmil. Ay, ay; 0, lay mne by my mistress' side! O villainy, villainy!

Gra. He's gone; but his wife's kill'd. Iugo. What, are you mad? I charge you, get 10 Mon. 'Tis a notorious villain. Take you this you home.

[speak;

weapon, Amil. Good gentlemen, let me have leave to Which I have here recover'd from the Moor: 'Tis proper I obey him, but not now :-

Come, guard the door without; let him not pass, Perchance, Iago, I will ne'er go home.

But kill him rather: I'll after that same villain, Oth. O! O! O! (Othello looking on his wife. 15 For 'tis a damned slave. [Eseurt Mon. and Gra. Æmil. Nay, lay thee down, and roar;

| Oth. I am not valiant neither, For thou hast kill'd the sweetest innocent, But every puny whipster gets my sword: That e'er did lift up eye.

But why should honour out-live honesty? Oth. O, she was foul!

[Rising. Let it go all. Iscarce did know you, uncle:There lies yourniece, 201. Emil. What did thy song bode, lady? Whose breath, indeed, these hands have newly Hark, canst thou hear me? I will play the swap, stopp'd;

And die in music. Willow, willow, willow.I know, this act shews horrible and grim.

Moor, she was chaste; she lov'd thee, cruel Moor: Gra. Poor Desdemona! I am glad thy father's So come my soul to bliss, as I speak true; dead;

125 So speaking as I think, I die,–I die. [Dies. Thy match was mortal to him, and pure grief Lil Oih. I bave another weapon in this chamber, Shore his old thread in twain: did he live now, . It is a sword of Spain, the ice-brook's temper:;This sight would make him do a desperate turn: Or, here it is:--- Uncle, I must come forth. Yea, curse his better angel from his side,

Gra. [reithin.] If thou attempt it, it will cost And fall to reprobation.

1301 thee dear; Oth. 'Tis pitiful: but yet Iago knows,

Thou hast no weapon, and perforce must suffer. That she with Cassio hath the act of shame

Oth. Look in upon me then, and speak with me, A thousand times.committed; Cassio confess'd it; Or, naked as I am, I will assault thee. And she did gratify his amorous works

Re-enter Gratiano. With that recognizance and pledge of love 135/ Gra. What is the matter? Which I once gave her; I saw it in his hand; Oth. Behoki! I have a weapon : It was an handkerchief, an antique token

A better never did itself sustain My father gave my mother.

Upon a soldier's thigh : I bave seen the day, Æmil. O heaven! O heavenly powers!

That, with this little arm, and this good sword, Iago. Come, hold your peace.

401 have made my way through more impediments Amil.'Twill out,'twill out:-I hold my peace, Than twenty times yourstop:-But,O vain boast ! sir ? no,

Who can controul his fate? 'tis not so now.No, I will speak as lib'ral' as the north;

Be not afraid, though you do see me weapon'd; Let beaven, and men, and devils, let them all, Here is my journey's end, here is my butt, All, all, cry shaine against me, yet I'll speak. 45 The very sea-mark of my utmost sail. lago. Be wise, and get you home.

Do you go back dismay'd: 'tis a lost fear; &mil. I will not. [lago offers to stub his wife. Man but a rush against Othello's breast, Gra. Fie!

And he retires;- Where should Othello go? Your sword upon a woman?

Now, how dost thou look now? O ill-starr'd Emil. O thou dull Moor! that handkerchief, 50 weich?! thou speak'st of,

Pale as thy smock! when we shall meet at compt, I found by fortune, and did give my husband; This look of thine will hurl my soul from heaven, For often, with a solemn earnestness,

And fiends will snatch at it. Cold, cold, my girl: (More than, indeed, belong'd to such a trifle) Even like thy chastity. He begg'd of me to steal it.

550 cursed, cursed slave !-Whip me, ye devils, lago. Villainous whore !

From the possession of this heavenly sight! Æmil. She give it Cassio! no, alas ; I found it, Blow me about in winds! roast me in sulphur! And I did give it my husband.

Wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire ! Jago. Filth, thou liest.

[men: O Desdemona! Desdemona! dead? Æmil. By heaven, I do not; I do not, gentle-160 Dead? O! O! O!

· Liberal is free, under no controul. Steel is hardened by being put red-hot into very cold water. Wench originally signified only a young woman,

Enter

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Enter Lodovico, Cassio brought in; Montano, Oth. O fool! fool! fool!
with Iago, prisoner ; und Officers.

| Cas. There is, besides, in Roderigo's letter,
Lod. Where is this rash and most unfortunatel How he upbraids Iago, that he made him
nan?

Brave me upon the watch; whereon it came Oth. That's he that was Othello; here I am. 5 That I was cast : And even but now he spake, Lod. Where is that viper? bring the villain After long seeming dead,lago hurt him, forth. lago set him on.

[us: Oth. I look down towards his feet";—but that's Lod. You must forsake this room, and go with a fable.

Your power and your command is taken off, If that thou be'st a devil, I cannot kill thee.. 10 And Cassio rules in Cyprus. For this slave,

[Othello wounds lago. It there be any cunning cruelty, Lod. Wrench his sword from himn.

That can torment him much, and hold him long, lago. I bleed, sir ; but not kill'd.

It shall be his: You shall close prisoner rest,
Oth. I am not sorry neither; I'd have thee live;l 'Till that the nature of your fault be known
For, in my sense, 'tis happiness to die. 115 To the Venetian state. -Come, bring hiin away.

Lod. O thou Othello, that wast once so good, Oth. Soit you; a word or two, betore you go.
Fall’n in the practice of a cursed slave,

I have done the state some service, and they What shall be said to thee?

I

know it; Oth. Why, any thing:

No more of that:-I pray you, in your letters, An honourable murderer, if you will;

20 When you shall these unlucky deeds relate, For nought I did in hate, but all in honour. Speak of me as I am; nothing extenuate, Lod. This wretch hath part confess'd his vil Norset down aught in malice:then must you speak lainy:

Of one, that lov'd not wisely, but too well; Did you and he consent in Cassio's death? Of one, not easily jealous, but, being wrought, Oth. Ay.

125 Perplex'd in the extreme; of one, whose hand, Cas. Dear general, I never gave you cause. I Like the base Judean', threw a pearl away Oth. I do believe it, and I ask your pardon.

Richer than all his tribe; of one, whose subdu'd Will you, I pray, demand that demi-devil,

eyes, Why he hath thus ensnar'd my soul and body? |

Albeit unused to the melting mood,
lago. Demand me nothing: What you know, 30 Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees
you know:

Tleir med'cinable gum: Set you down this :
From this time forth I never will speak word. And say, besides,--that in Aleppo once,
Lod. What? not to pray?

Where a malignant and a turban'd Turk
Gra. Torments will ope your lips.

Beat a Venetian, and traduc'd the state,
Oth. Well, thou dost best.

135 I took by the throat the circumcised dog,
Lod. Sir, you sballunderstand what hath befall’n, And smote him—thus.

[Stabs himself.
Which, as I think, you know not: Here is a Lod. O bloody period!
letter,

Gra. All that is spoke, is marr'd.
Found in the pocket of the slain Roderigo;

Oth. I kiss'd thee, ere I kill'd thee;-No way
And here, another: the one of them imports 401

but this, [Falling upon Desdemonu. The death of Cassio to be undertook

Killing myself, to die upon a kiss.

Dies. By Roderigo.

Cas. This did I fear, but thought he had no Oth. O villain!

weapon;
Cas. Most heathenish, and most gross!

For he was great of heart.
Lod. Now here's another discontented paper, 45 Lod. O Spartan dog ,
Found in his pocket too; and this, it seems, I More fell than anguish, hunger, or the sea!
Roderigo ineant to have sent this damined villain; Look on the tragic loading of this bed; (To lago.
But that, belike, lago in the interim

This is thy work: the object poisons sight;
Came in and satisfied him.

Let it be hid. --Gratiano, keep the house,
Oth, O the pernicious caitiff!-

150|And seize upon the fortunes of the Moor,
How caine you, Cassio, by that handkerchief for they succeed on you.-Toyou, lord governor,
That was my wife's!

Remains the censure of this hellish villain; Cas. I found it in my chamber:

The time, the place, the torture,-0, inforce it! And he himself confess'd, but even now,

Myself will straight aboard; and, to the state, That there he dropp'd it for a special purpose, 55 This heavy act with heavy heart relate. Which wrought to his desire.

[Ereunt.

ten eri

BASE

"To see if, according to the common opinion, his feet be cloven. ? i. e. in the snare, by the stratagem. By the Judean (which is the reading of the elder quarto, and adopted by Theobald and Warburton), the latter says, is meant Herod, whose usage to Marianne is so apposite to the speaker's case, that a more proper instance could not be thought of. Besides, he was the subject of a tragedy at that time, as appears from the words in Hamlet, where an ill player is described'"_to out-herod Herod.”—The metaphorical term of a pearl for a fine woman, is so common as scarce to need examples. The dogs of Spartan race, says Hanmer, were reckoned anong those of the most fierce and savage kind. si.e. the sentence.

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