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In the author they agree, because both are of God, and therefore both one testament and will of God in substance of doctrine. For as there was ever one church, so was there one covenant, one adoption, and one doctrine. As the old law doth point at Christ, so doth the new law teach Christ; the old proposing him as to come, the new as already come; one and the same thing being promised in both, both tending to one and the same end, even the salvation of our souls; which, according to St. Peter, is the end of our faith. For although it be said, that Moses did promise by observing the law an earthly kingdom, a land flowing with milk and honey, the propagation of children, and other worldly blessings; yet all these were but figures to teach, and pledges to assure the fathers of those spiritual blessings by Christ; for by the earthly he raised their minds to the hope of heavenly. And the fathers, notwithstanding these worldly goods, did yet acknowledge themselves strangers and pilgrims, expecting the heavenly Jerusalem ; according to this place of Heb. xi. 13. All these died in faith, and received not the promises, but saw them afar off, and believed them, confessing that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. To which purpose also St. Augustine: b Omnino pauci veterem legem intelligunt, non attendentes per promissa terrena æterna promitti; “ Few," saith he, “ do un“ derstand the old law ; not attending that by things earth“ ly eternal are promised." And St. Jerome: Noluit Deus pascere Judæos more pecorum corporalibus donis opibusque, ut Judæi somniant; “ God would not feed the “ Jews as beasts, with corporal gifts and riches, as them“selves dream.” And this may be gathered out of God's own words : Ego sum Deus tuus, et ero vobis in Deum; “I am thy God, and I will be your God;" for the words, I will be your God, prove that it was not for the present, or for perishable things, that God gave them this promise, but in respect of the future; to wit, the safety of their souls. For as God created both body and soul, so hath he of his goodness not left the better part uncared for, which liveth ever.
b Lib. de Civitate Dei, 18. 15.
cIn Sophon. 3. 9.
The agreement between the Old and New Testament in substance infers also the agreement in foundation. For Christ is called the foundation of the law, laid both by the apostles and prophets ; in whom all the promises of God, in the Old and New, are assured; the fathers having eaten the same spiritual food which we eat in our sacraments.
The agreement in effects is, in that the knowledge of our sin and misery, which is taught us by the law, maketh way, and, as it were, serveth in subordination to the gospel, the proper effects whereof are mercy and salvation; to which the law serving as an introduction, (for to those which acknowledge their sin and misery God sheweth his mercy and salvation,) may be said to agree with the gospel in the effects. For otherwise, if we sever the law from subordination to the gospel, the effects are very different ; the one sheweth the way of righteousness by works, the other by faith ; the law woundeth, the gospel healeth ; the law terrifieth, the gospel allureth ; Moses accuseth, Christ defendeth; Moses condemneth, Christ pardoneth; the Old restraineth the hand, the New the mind : d Data est lex que non sanaret, saith St. Augustine, sed quæ ægrotantes probaret ; “ The law was given, not to help, but to discover “ sickness :” and St. Chrysostom, Data est lex, ut se homo inveniret; non ut morbus sanaretur, sed ut medicus quereretur ; “ The law was given that man might find and “ know his own imperfection ; not that his disease was “ thereby holpen, but that he might then seek out the
physician.” For Christ came to save the world, which the law had condemned. And as e Moses was but a servant, and Christ a son, so the greatest benefit was reserved to be brought, as by the worthiest person, saith Cyril: for this law made nothing perfect, but was an introduction of a better hope.
d Homil. ad Rom.
e Heb. vii,
Of the rest of the points proposed. THE seventh consideration is of the end and use of the law, which is to bring us to Christ; for finding no righteousness in our own works, we must seek it in some other. But this is the last, and remote, and utmost end ; the next and proper end of the law is to prescribe righteousness, and to exact absolute and perfect obedience to God. f Cursed is he which continueth not in all the things of this law.
The second end of the law is to render us inexcusable before God, who knowing so perfect a law, do not keep it; the law requiring a perfect and entire, not a broken or half obedience; but both inward and outward righteousness, and performance of duty to God and men.
The third and chief end of the law is, as hath been said, to send us to Christ and his grace, being in ourselves condemned and lost. For the law was delivered with thunder, and with a most violent and fearful tempest, threatening eternal death.
The fourth end of the law was to design and preserve the place of the church and true people of God, and to hold them in one discipline and awe, till the coming of Christ; after whom the church was to be dispersed over the whole world.
These be the ends of the moral law. The end and use of the ceremonial law is to confirm the truth of Christ and the New Testament. The use of the judicial, to teach us natural equity and right, whereto we must conform ourselves.
The sense and understanding of the law is double, literal and spiritual; by the literal, we are taught the worship and service of God; by the spiritual, the figures and mystical fore-speakings of Christ.
Lastly, for the durance or continuance of the 8 law, the same had being until the passion of Christ ; before which time, and while Christ taught in the world, both the old and the new were in force. But after that the true sacrifice was offered upon the altar of the cross, then the Jewish sacrifices and ceremonies, which were types and figures of Christ, (Christ being the body of those shadows,) ceased to bind the consciences any longer; the mystery of our redemption being now by Christ, and in him finished. In token whereof the veil of the temple rent asunder ; noting, that the ceremonial veils and shadows were now to be removed, not that the moral law of the commandments was hereby abolished, or weakened at all; otherwise than that it had not power to condemn according to the Jewish doctrine, as aforesaid. For the observing of the law was by Christ himself severely commanded; our love towards God being thereby to be witnessed. And herein David so much rejoiced, as he preferred the observation of the law before all that the world could yield: In via testimoniorum tuorum delectatus sun, sicut in omnibus divitiis ; " I have “ been delighted in thy law as in all manner of riches :" and again, The law of thy mouth is good for me above thousands of gold and silver. This is the love of God, saith St. John, 1 Ep. v.3. that we keep his commandment. And that there is no excuse for the neglect of the things commanded in the law, God himself in Deuteronomy witnesseth; h This commandment, saith he, which I command thee this day, is not hid from thee, neither is it far off. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it us, and cause us to hear it, that we may do it? Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it us ? &c. But the word is very near unto thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart, for to do it. Behold, saith Moses, I have set before thee this day life and death, good and evil ; in that I command thee this day to love the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, and to keep his commandments, and his ordinances, and his laws, that thou mayest live, &c. Neither is it said in vain, in St. Matthew xix. 17. Si vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata; “ If thou wilt enter into life, keep the com“ mandments :” and in St. John xii.50. Scio quia mandatum ejus vita æterna est; “ I know that his commandment is “ life everlasting.” And if this be the charity of God, or of men towards God, as St. John hath taught, to wit, that we keep his commandments; certainly he is but a liar, that professeth to love God, and neglecteth to observe the word of his will with all his power. And though I confess it is not in man's ability, without the special grace of God, to fulfil the law, (Christ only as man excepted,) yet if we rightly consider the merciful care which God had of his people in those his commandments, we shall find in ourselves how we borrow liberty, and rather let slip our affections, and voluntarily loosen them from the chains of obedience, to which the word of God and divine reason hath fastened them, than that we are excusable by those difficulties and impossibilities, which our mind (greedy of liberty) proposeth to itself. For this is the love of God that we keep his commandments, and his commandments are not grievous, 1 John v. 3. and if we examine every precept apart, and then weigh them each after other, in the balance of our consciences, it is not hard for any man to judge, by what easy persuasions we steal away from our own power, as unwilling to use it against our pleasing desires.
f Gal. iii. 10.
& Gen. xlix. 10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a law.
giver from between his feet, until Shiloh come.
SECT. XIII. of the several commandments of the Decalogue; and that the
difficulty is not in respect of the commandments, but by our default.
FOR by the first we are commanded to acknowledge, serve, and love one God. Now, whereby are we enticed to the breach of this precept? seeing every reasonable man may conceive and know, that infinite power cannot be divided into many infinites; and that it is of necessity that by this Almighty unity all things have been caused, and are continued. And if brute beasts had this knowledge of their Creator, and how in his providence he hath also provided