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by two nations, the one springing from the sons of Cham, the other from Sem: but those of Sem were but as strangers therein for a long time, and came thither in effect but with one i family, to wit, that of Abraham, and a few of his kindred. The other for the greatest part were the Canaanites, the ancient lords and possessors of those territories, by process of time divided into several families and names; whereof some of them were of eminent stature and strength, as the Anakims, Zamzummims, or Zuzei, Emims, Horites, and others. These (as men most valiant and able commonly do) did inhabit the utter borders and mountains of their countries; the rest were the Zidonians, Jebusites, Amorites, Hevites, Hetites, and others, who took name after the sons of Canaan, and after whom the country in general was still called.
As for the Hebrews which descended of Shem by Abraham, they were of another family, and strangers in that country ; especially the Israelites, and this was some cause that the Canaanites did not affect them, or endure them; no more than the Philistines did, who descended also of Cham by Mizraim. For though Abraham himself, being a stranger, was highly esteemed and honoured among them, especially by the Amorites inhabiting the west part of Jordan; yet now even they which descending from Abraham, or from his kindred, abode and multiplied in those parts, were alienated in affections from the Israelites, as holding them strangers and intruders; k making more account of their alliance with the Canaanites, and the rest of the issue of Cham, with whom they daily contracted affinity, than of their old pedigree from Abraham.
True it is, that these nations descended of ' Abraham, or of his kindred, who had linked themselves and matched with the Canaanites and others, had so far possessed themselves of the borders of those regions, as they began to be equal in strength to the bordering Canaanites, if not superior. For of Lot came those two great families of the Moabites and Ammonites; of Esau the Idumeans; of Madian the Madianites; of Ismael, the eldest son of Abraham, came the Ismaelites, with whom are joined, as of the same nation, the Amalekites, whom though the more common opinion thinketh to have been a tribe of Edom, because Esau had a grandchild of that name, yet manifest reason convinceth it to have been otherwise. For the Israelites were forbidden to provoke the m Edomites, or do them any wrong; whereas contrariwise, Amalek was cursed, and endless war decreed against him : but hereof more elsewhere, chap. viii. sect. 3. Of n Ismael's eldest son Naboth sprung the Arabians of Petræa, called Nabathæi. Now even as Abraham besought God to bless Ismael, so it pleased him both to promise and perform it. For of him those twelve princes came which inhabited, in effect, all that tract of land between Havilah upon Tigris, and Sur, which is the west part of the desert of Arabia Petræa. Yet howsoever the strength of these later named nations, which descended from Abraham, were great, yet it is not unlikely but that some reason which moved them not to favour the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan, was in respect of fear; because all princes and states do not willingly permit any stranger or powerful nation to enter their territories. Wherefore, though all these families beforenamed were not so united in and among themselves, but that they had their jealousies of each other, and contended for dominion ; yet fearing a third more strong than themselves, whether they stood apart or united, they were taught by the care of their own preservation, to join themselves together against Israel; though they did it nothing so maliciously and resolvedly as the Canaanites did. For the Idumeans only denied the Hebrews a passage, which the Moabites durst not deny, because their country lay more open, and because themselves had lately been beaten out of the richest part of their m Deut. xi. 5.
i It seemeth also that Hus, the son of Nachor, and Elihu his friend, son of Nachor, and Buz his brother, which is called a Buzite. See here. planted themselves in the east side of after, chap. 1o. sect. 7. Jordan about Basan, where they find k Exod. xvii. 16. the land of Hus : in which both Job
1 Deut. xi. 5. dwelt, as one of the issue of Hus the
dominions by the Amorites ; and as for the Ammonites, their country lay altogether out of the way, and the strength of Sehon and Og, kings of the Amorites, was interjacent: and besides that, the P border of the Ammonites was strong, by reason of the mountains which divided it from Basan. Again, that which moved the Moabites in their own reason not much to interrupt Israel in the conquest of Sehon the Amorite, and of Og his confederate, was, that the Moabites might hope, after such time as the Amorites were beaten by Moses, that themselves might recover again their own inheritance; to wit, the valleys and plains lying between the mountains of Arabia and Jordan: but as soon as Sehon was slain, and that the king of Moab, Balak, perceived that Moses allotted that valley to the tribes of Gad and Reuben, he began to practise with Balaam against Israel, and by the daughters of Midian, as aforesaid, to allure them to idolatry. And thus at length the Moabites, by special occasion, were more and more stirred up to enmity against Is
And as for divers of the rest that were descended from Abraham's kindred, we may note, how in the beginning, between the authors of their pedigrees, God permitted some enmity to be as it were presages of future quarrels, which in the posterity might be the easier incensed by the memory of old grudges; and withal by some disdain from the elder in nature to the younger. For the Ismaelites being descended from the eldest son of Abraham, and the Edomites from the eldest son of Isaac, Jacob being but a second son of a second brother, those princes which were descended of the elder houses, being natural men, might scorn to give place, much less to subject themselves to their inferiors, as they took it; and for a more aggravation, the issues of Esau, princes of Idumæa, might keep in record, 9 that their parent was bought out of his birthright by Jacob's taking his advantage, and that he was r deceived of his father's blessing also by him; and that s Jacob after reconciliation came not unto him, as he promised, unto Seir, or Idumæa.
p Numb. xxi. 24.
a Gen. xxv.
r Gen. xxvii.
s Gen. xxxiii. 14.
So also in the posterity of Ismael, it might remain as a seed or pretence of enmity, that their forefather was by the instigation of Sarah cast out into the desert, with his mother Hagar, and had therein perished, but that it pleased God by his angel to relieve them. Ismael also had an Egyptian both to his mother and to his wife, and Amalek was also an Horite by his mother; which Horites were of the ancient Canaanites. The Idumeans also, or Edomites, were by their maternal line descended of the Canaanites. For + Esau took two wives of that nation; one of them was Adah, the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and the other Aholibamah, the grandchild of Zibeon the Hevite, lord of Seir, before the same was conquered by Esau, and called after his name Edom, or Edumea.
Lastly, It appears that all those families of the Ismaelites, Amalekites, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, &c. were in process of time corrupted, and drawn from the knowledge and worship of God, and became idolaters, infected and seduced by the conversation of those people among whom they dwelt, and by those wives of the Canaanites which they had married ; only a few of the Kenites, and those Midianites which inhabited on the edge of the Red sea, whereof Jethro was priest or prince, or both, worshipped the true and ever living God.
SECT. II. of the kings of the Canaanites and Madianites, mentioned in the
ancient wars of the Israelites. OF the kings of the Canaanites descended of Cham, (for Melchizedek may be thought to be of a better pedigree) we find four named by Moses, and thirty-one remembered by Joshua, though few of these named, otherwise than by the cities over which they commanded; to which each of them had a small territory adjoining, and no other dominion. These Canaanites, in a general consideration, are to be understood for all those nations descended of Cham by Canaan; as the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Gergesites,
Hevites, &c. and so here we understand this name in speaking of the kings of the Canaanites; and so also we call the country of their habitation, the holy land, or the land of promise ; for God hath appointed that the seven principal families should be rooted out, and that his own people should inherit their lands and cities. But if we consider of the name and nation in particular, then is their proper habitation bounded by Jordan on the east, and by the Mediterranean sea on the west; in which narrow country, and in the choicest places thereof, those Canaanites which held their paternal name chiefly inhabited.
The first king of these nations, named in the scriptures, was "Hamor, or Hemer, of the Hevites, whom Simeon and Levi slew, together with his son Sichem, in revenge of their sister's ravishment.
Arad was the second king which the scriptures have remembered, who had that part of Canaan towards the south, neighbouring Edom and the Dead sea ; the same which surprised Israel as they encamped in the * wilderness, in the edge of Idumæa.
The third named was Sehon, king of Essebon, who before Moses's arrival had beaten the Moabites out of the west part of Arabia Petræa, or Nabathea, and thrust them over y Arnon into the deserts, the same whom Moses overthrew in the plains of Moab; at which time he took Essebon, and all the cities of the Amorites.
Presently after which victory, z Og was also slain by Israel, who commanded the north part of that valley between the mountains Traconi, or Galaad, and Jordan, who was also a king of the a Amorites.
The fifth was Adonizedek, king of the Jebusites and of Jerusalem, with whom Joshua nameth four other kings:
Hoham, king of Hebron.
u Gen. xxxiv.
z Josh. ix. Joseph. Ant. lib. 4. c. 5.
Numb. xxi. 35