Ituræos taxi torquentur in arcus,

Of eugh the Ituræans' bows were made. The city Chamath, or Hamath, in Nephtalim, seems to have been as ancient as the other in Ituræa, both built by Amatheus, the eleventh son of Canaan. Whether in the time of David this or the other had Tohu for king, it is not certain ; for Hamath, or Emath, beyond the mountains, and Hammath in Nephtalim were both neighbours to Damascus; of whose subjugation Tohu rejoiced, because Hadadeser, whom the Damasceni came to help, was his enemy. This Tohu, fearing the strength and prosperity of David, hearing of his approach towards his territory, bought his peace with many rich presents, and with many ancient vessels of gold, silver, and brass.

But it seemeth that David, in such great success, would not have had peace with Tohu, if he had been king of any place in Nephtalim, and therefore it is probable that he ruled in Tsoba; which city Solomon, after his father's death, made himself master of, as a part of the lands (2 in the larger and conditional promise) allotted by God to the children of Israel.

But this Hammath of Nephtalim, in the end, and after divers mutations and changes both of name and fortune, being, as it hath been said, possessed by Antiochus Epiphanes, it was called Epiphania.

While St. Jerome lived, it remained a city well peopled, known to the Syrians by the name Amathe, and to the Greeks by Epiphania.

§. 6. Of Reblatha and Rama, and divers other towns. IN the border of Hamath, or Emath, towards Jordan, standeth the city Reblatha, or Ribla, watered from the fountain Daphnis, which falleth into the lake of Meron. Hereunto was Zedekias brought prisoner, after his surprise in the fields of Jericho, and delivered to Nabuchodonosor; who, to be avenged of Zedekiah's infidelity, beyond the proportion of piety, first caused the princes, his children, to be slain in his presence; and to the end that this miserable spectacle might be the last that ever he should behold in this world, and so the most remembered, he commanded both his eyes presently to be thrust out ; and binding him in iron chains, he was led a slave to Babylon, in which estate he ended his life. Of which seldom-exampled calamity, though not in express words, a Jeremiah the prophet foretold him in Jerusalem not long before: but Ezekiel thus directly, speaking in the person of God; b I will bring him to Babel to the land of the Chaldæans; yet shall he not see it, though he shall die therein.

? Of the larger promise expressed, for one of the bounds, see chap. 7. Deut. i. 7. where Euphrates is named

sect. 2. Hieron. de Locis Hebr.

There are, besides these before remembered, many other strong cities in Nephtalim, as that which is called c Cedes; there are two others of the same name, one in d Issachar, another in Juda, of which Josh. xv. 23. and therefore to distinguish it, it is known by the addition of e Nephtalim, as Judg. iv. It is seated on a high hill, whence Josh. xx. 7. Kedesh in Galilæa in monte Nephtali ; Josephus calls it Cedesis; and in St. Jerome's time it was called Cidissus. Belforest greatly mistakes this Cedes, and confounds it with Cades in the desert of Pharan.

After the king thereof, among other of the Canaanites, perished by the hand of Joshua, it was made a city of refuge, and given to the Levites. Herein was Barak born, who overthrew the army of the second Jabin of Hazor, at the mount Tabor. It was sometime possessed by Teglatphalassar, when he wasted all Nephtalim; afterwards by the Romans, and numbered for one of the ten cities of the Decapolitan region : when it had embraced the Christian faith it was honoured with a bishop's seat; but in time it fell with the rest into the power of the Saracens and Turks, and by them it was demolished.

From Cedes, some four Italian miles towards the south

a Jer. lii. il. &c. 1 Ezek. xii. 13.

c Or Kedesh, Josh. xix. 37. and x. 7. and xxi. 32. item Judg. iv. 6.

i Chron. vi. 72. which, Josh. xix.

20. is called Kishian.

e Sometime Kedesh in Galilee, i Chron. vi. 76. Josh. xii. 22. 2 Kings xv. 29.


west, standeth Sephet, otherwise Zephet, which was also one of the ten Decapolitan cities ; a place exceeding strong, and for many years the inexpugnable fortress of the Christians, and afterwards of the Saracens; for from hence they conquered all the neighbour cities of those regions, both inland and maritimate near it. Touching Rama of Nephtalim, seated northward near Sephet, this is to be noted, that there are fdivers places of this name in Palæstine, all situate on hills, and therefore called Rama: (Rama Hebræis excelsum, “Rama with the Hebrews is high.") Also that from this Rama, Josh. xix. 36. they read Arama, making the article (which it hath in the Hebrew, as being a name of divers towns) to be a part of the word; whence, casting away the aspiration, they read Arama. From Sephet towards the west, they place & Bethsemes, of which Josh. xix. 38. which defended itself against Nephtalim, Judges i. 33. but paid them tribute. On the other side of Sephet, towards the east, was Bethanath, who also kept their city from the Nephtalims.

Adjoining to which standeth Carthan, h or Kiriathaiim, a city of the Levites, not far from the mountain out of which the springs of Capernaum arise, called Mons Christi; a place by our Saviour often frequented; as also then when calling his disciples together, he made choice of twelve, which he called and ordained to be his apostles or messengers; of which place, or the acts therein done, there is often mention in the i evangelists.

Adjoining to these are Magdalel, a place of strength; and k Masaloth, of which we read, that it was forced by Bacchides, in the time of the l Maccabees; also (according to s See in Benjamin and in Ephraim. 1. So it appears by comparing the

& Other cities there were of this places, Josh: xxi. 32. and i Chron. pame, (which is as much as domus vi. 76. Adrichomius, both here and Solis ;) as that in Juda, 2 Kings xiv. elsewhere deceived by the double 15. where Joash, king of the ten tribes, name, makes two of one; although overcame Amasia of Juda, of which I deny not but that there was another also I understand the place, Josh xxi. Kiria-thaiim in Reuben; of which 16. and 1 Sam. vi. 14. and 2 Chron. Josh. xiii. 19. xxix. 18. A third, as it seems, was i Mark iji. Matt. x. Acts i. Matt. v. in Dan, 1 Kings iv. 9. which, Josh. 6,7. xix. 41. is written Hershemes, which k Josh. xix. 38. is as much as civitas Solis, Judg. i. 11 Macc. ix. 2. 31,

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Adrichomius, one of the two Berothæs of Nephtalim. For Adrichomius maketh two of this name in this tribe; mone near Chamath in the north border, of which Ezek. xlvii. 6. another (upon a weak conjecture out of Joseph. Ant. lib. 5. c. 2.) he therefore placeth in this tract near the waters of Merom, because the kings that joined with Jabin against Joshua, which encamped at the waters of Merom, Josh. xi. 5. are by Josephus said to have encamped at the city Berotha in Galilee, not far from Cedesa Superior, which is also in Galilee; all which may be true of that Berotha of which Ezekiel, seeing it is in that Galilee which is called the Upper Galilee, or Galilee of the Gentiles. The same Adrichomius placeth the region of Berim near Abela, (of which Abela, or Abel-beth-mahacah, we have spoken already.) This he doth upon a conjecture touching the place, 2 Sam. xx. 14. where some read Abel et Bethmahacah, et omnia loca Berim; but the better reading is, et omnes Berim, that is, with all the Beræi ; for Shebah, being of Benjamin, (in which tribe also there is a city called Berotha, or Beeroth,) drew the men of that city after him.

To the north of Berotha of Nephtalim standeth Sebarim under Libanus, remembered by Ezekiel, xlvii. and Aroseth Gentium, near the waters of Merom, or Samochonitis, the city of Sisera, lieutenant of the army of the second Jabin ; from whence, not far off, towards the sea of Galilee, is Edrai, or Edrehi, a strong city; besides many others, whereof I find no particular story of importance, as Ser in Josh, xix. 35. called Triddim -Tzer, and named for the first of their fenced cities; whence they make two cities, Assedim and Ser; then Adama, which they call Edama; also Hion, which they call Ahion ; of which in the books of Kings. Then the strong city of Cinnereth, after called Gennezareth, whence we read of the land and lake of Gennezareth, the same lake which is also called the sea of n Tiberias. In the body of the land they place Gal

m Barathena Ptolomæo in fine Ara- rotk. Hieron. Judg. iv. Lyr. in Judg. biæ Desertæ : Junio eadem cum Be- iv. Josh. xix. 37. 1 Kings xv. 20. rotha, una civitatum Hadadezeris. 2 Kings xv. 29. 2 Sam. viii. 8. Josh. xviii. 25. Asi- Mar. vi. 53. Luke v. 1.

gala to the south border; of which 1 Macc. ix. 2.° also divers others named, Josh. xix. as Ucuca, or Chukkok ; Horem and Azanoth-tabor, (which they place towards the east parts;) and, out of the same place of Joshua, Jirzoni, Lakkum, Jepnael, Heleb, and p Reccath; which two last they place near Cæsarea Philippi. To these they add out of Joshua, Nekeb and Adami; for which two Junius readeth Fossa Adamæi, making it no town, but a ditch cast by some of Adamath, as it seems; or at least the custody of which march or limit belonged to the town. To these, out of Numb. xxxiv. 10. they add Sephana, which, 1 Sam. xxx. 28. seems to be called Sipmoth. As for Tichon and Helon, whereof the former they fetch out of Ezek. xlvii. 16. and the latter out of Joshua xix. 33. it may appear by Junius's translation, that neither are to be taken for cities; for the former he readeth Mediani, and for the latter Quercetum. The city of 9 Nephtalim, which they make the native place of Toby, and Naasson near unto it, they fetch out of the vulgar translation, Tob. vii. 7. but in the Greek text there is no sign, neither of the one nor of the other.


The tribe of Zabulon. OF Zabulon, or Zebulon, another of the sons of Jacob by Leah, there were mustered at mount Sinai 57,400 able men, besides women, children, and aged unable persons; all which dying in the deserts, there entered the Holy Land of their issues 65,000 fit to bear arms; who inhabited that part of Canaan from Asher to the river Chison, southward, and from the sea of Galilee to the Mediterranean, east and west.

The cities within this tribe which border Asher are, Sicaminum on the sea-shore, of which Joseph. Ant. 13.

• This place of the Maccabees war- ready, that it is also called Kiriarants no Galgala, or Gilgal, in Nephbut may

well be understood of 9 In the place i Reg. iv. is, which Gilgal in Benjamin, or in Manasseh. also they bring to prove that there

p This Reccath, or Rakkath, Junius was a city called Nephtalim, as it is thinks that it is the same with Kar- evident by the following verses the than, (one of these being made of ribe of Nephtalim is meant, and not other by transposition of letters,) of any city of that name. which Karthan we have noted al




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