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c. 19. Debbaset, of which Joshua xix. 11. Jeconam, or Jokneham, (whose king was s slain by Joshua, and the city was given to the Levites,) and Gaba, after called the city of horsemen, of a regiment there garrisoned by Herod. Then the city which beareth the name of Zabulon, or the city of men, exceeding ancient and magnificent, tburnt to the ground by Cestius, lieutenant of the Roman army. Adrichomius makes it the birth city of Elon judge of Israel, because he is called Zabulonita ; not marking that in the same place he is said to be buried at Ajalon.
To the east of this city of Zabulon is Cateth, of which Joshua xix. 15. on the border of Asher; and beyond it the Lesser Cana of Galilee, where Christ converted water into wine, the native city of Nathaniel, and, as it is thought, of Simon Zelotes. Beyond it begin the mountains of Zabulon, and then the city of Cethron, (in Ziegler, Ghiltron,) which defended itself against Zabulon. Then Bersabe, which standeth in the partition of the upper and nether Galilee, fortified by Josephus against the Romans. Not far from hence standeth Shimron of Meron, whose king was slain by Joshua.
Then Damna, or Dimna, a city of the Levites; then Noa, or rather Neha, of which Joshua xix. 13. then Dothan, or Dothain, where Joseph found his brethren feeding their flocks; the same wherein Elisæus besieged by the Syrians struck them all blind.
Beyond it, towards the east, they imagine y Amthar, or Amathar; then Remmon of the Levites. The last of the cities on the north border of Zabulon is Bethsaida, one of the ten cities of Decapolis, situate on the Galilean sea, and watered by the springs of Capernaum, the native city of the
r Josh. xii. 22.
he thinketh, to be expounded by Ze• Jos. 2. Bel. 19.
lotes. t Jos. 2. Bel. 22.
y The Hebrew Hammethoar (for Judg. xii. 12.
which the Vulgar hath Amtbar, Jos. * The Greater Cana is in the tribe 19. 13.) Vatablus expounds quæ gyof Asher, Josh. xxi. 2. Nathaniel is rat; Junius joins it with the word said to be of Cana in Galilee. Of going before it, and reads RimmoSimon it may be doubted : for Ange- nem Methoarum, Matth
iii. II. lus Caninius reads, Matth. X. 4. Si- Mark i. 6. Luke iv. 10. mon Kanpites, which word, Luc.vi.is,
apostles Peter, Andrew, and Philip. Herein Christ did many miracles; but these people, being no less incredulous than the Capernaims and others, received the same curse of threatened miseries; as, Woe be unto thee, Bethsaida, &c.
Along the west border of Galilee, towards the south from Bethsaida, was the strong castle of Magdalum, the habitation of Mary Magdalen, not long since standing.
And beyond it the strong and high-seated city of Jotapata, fortified by Josephus in the Roman war; but in the end, after a long siege, surprised by Vespasian, who slaughtered many thousands of the citizens, and held 1200 prisoners, whereof Josephus the historian was one.
The last and greatest of the cities on that sea ?, and the lake of Genezareth within Zabulon, was that of Tiberias; from whence afterward the Galilean sea also changed name, and was called, the sea of the city Tiberias, so named in honour of Tiberius Cæsar; it was one of the ten cities, and the metropolis of the region Decapolitan, and the greatest and last of the Lower Galilee. From hence our Saviour called Matthew, from the toll or custom-house, to be an apostle, and near unto it raised the daughter of Jairus from death; it was built (as Josephus réports) by Herod the tetrarch, the brother of Philip, in the beginning of the reign of Tiberius Cæsar, in the most fruitful part of Galilee, but in a ground full of sepulchres: Quum juxta nostras leges, saith he, ad septem dies impurus habeatur, qui in talibus locis habitet ; “ Whereas by our law he should be seven “ days held as unclean who inhabited in such a place ;” by which words, and by the whole place of Josephus, it appears that this Tiberias is not as some have thought) the same as the old Cinnereth, which was seated, not in Zabulon, but in Nephtalim.
Near unto this Tiberias at Emaus there were hot baths, where Vespasian the emperor encamped against Tiberias :
2 The names of the chief cities which in foretimes gave name to the seated about this sea or lake, through lake and country. Matth. ix. Luc. v. which Jordan runneth, were, Caper- Joseph. Ant. 18. 3. Joseph. 10, 15, naum, Tiberias, Bethsaida, Gadara, Adrich, in Zab. Tarichea, and they add Cinnereth,
more into the land, toward the south-west, is Bethulia, seated on a very high hill, and of great strength, famous by the story of Holofernes and Judith, such as it is. Near which standeth Bethlehem of Zabulon: and adjoining unto it Capharath, fortified by a Josephus against the Romans ; and Japha, an exceeding strong place, afterward forced by Titus; who in the entrance, and afterward in fury, slew b 15,000 of the citizens, and carried away above 2000 prisoners.
On the south side are the cities of Cartha of the Levites, and Gabara, of which Josephus in his own Life; then Jafie, according to Adrichomius, (of which Josh. xix. 12.) for he thinks that it is not that Japha of which we spake but now out of Josephus: Jideala, of which Josh. xix. 15. Jerome calls it Jadela ; under it, westward, Legio (afterwards a bishop's seat) and the city Belma, in ancient times exceeding strong, remembered Judith vii. 3. otherwise Chelma. Between Legio and Nazeret is the city d Saffa, or Saffra, the birth city of Zebedæus, Alphæus, James, and John ; then Sephoris, or Sephora, according to Josephus ; Sephorum, according to Brochard; which afterwards, saith Hegesippus and Jerome, was called Diocæsarea, the city of Joachim and Anna, the parents of the Virgin Mary; it was walled by Herod the tetrarch, and by him, as e Josephus speaks, made the head and defence of Galilee; in another place he saith, Urbium Galilæarum maximæ Sephoris et Tiberias. This Sephoris greatly vexed Vespasian ere he won it. Herod Antipas, when he made it the regal seat of the nether Galilee, and surrounded it with a strong wall, called it Autocratorida, which is as much to say as imperial, saith Josephus; and it is now but a castle called Zaphet.
To the south-west of this Sephoris, or Diocæsarea, was that blessed place of Nazareth, the city of Mary the mother of Christ, in which he himself was conceived; it standeth a Joseph. in Vita sua.
xix. 12. whence, i Chron. vi. 77. it is 6 Joseph. 2. Bell. 25.
c Josh. xxi. 34. otherwise Kisloth d Johan. de Montevilla, cap. 4. 20. Thabor, as Junius thinks upon Josh. Joseph. Ant. 18. 3. et in Vita sua.
between mount Tabor and the Mediterranean sea. In this city he abode chiefly twenty-four years, and was therefore called a Nazarite, as the Christians afterwards were for many years. It was erected into an archbishopric in the following age. Near unto it are the cities Buria, afterwards well defended against the Turks, and Nahalal, of which Josh. xix. 15. and Judg. i. 30. where it is called Nahalol; and Josh. xxi. 35. where it is a city of the Levites, near the sea; adjoining to the river of Chison is Sarid, noted in Joshua for the uttermost of Zabulon.
In this territory of Zabulon there are divers small mountains, but Tabor is the most renowned, by the apparition of Moses and Elias, and by the transfiguration of Christ, in the presence of Peter, James, and John, unto whom Moses and Elias appeared ; in memory whereof, on the top of the mountain, the empress Helen built a sumptuous chapel.
The chief river of Zabulon is Chison ; which, rising out of Tabor, runneth with one stream eastward to the sea of Galilee, and with another stream westward into the great
This river of Chison, where it riseth, and so far as it runneth southward, is called Chedumim, or Cadumim; and, for mine own opinion, I take it to be the same which Ptolomy calleth Chorseus, though others distinguish them, and set Chorseus by Cæsarea Palestinæ. There is a second torrent or brook, that riseth in the hills of Bethulia, and falleth into the sea of Galilee by Magdalum; and the third is a branch of a river rising out of the fountains of Capernaum, which falleth also into the same sea, and near fMagdalum ; which torrent they call Dotham, from the name of the city from which it passeth eastward to Bethsaida, and so joining with Jordanis Parvus, which runneth from the valley of 8 Jephthael, which Joshua reckoneth in the bounds of Zabulon, it endeth in the sea of Galilee.
The tribe of Issachar. THE next adjoining territory to Zabulon, to the south * See Laicstan's map in Ortelius.
& Josh. xix. 14.
and south-west, was Issachar, who inhabited a part of the nether Galilee, within Jordan; of whom there were increased in Egypt, as appeared by their musters at mount Sinai, 54,400 able and warlike men, who leaving their bodies with the rest in the deserts, there entered the Holy Land 64,300.
The first city of this tribe, near the sea of Galilee, was h Tarichea, distant from Tiberias eight English miles, or somewhat more, a city wherein the Jews (by the practice of a certain mutinous upstart, John the son of Levi) took arms against Josephus the historian, then governor of both Galilees. This city was first taken by Cassius, and 3000 Jews carried thence captive; and afterwards with great difficulty by Vespasian, who entered it by the sea-side, having first beaten the Jews in a sea-fight upon the lake or sea of Galilee; he put to the sword all sorts of people, and of all ages, saving that his fury being quenched with the rivers of blood running through every street, he reserved the remainder for slaves and bondmen.
Next to Tarichea is placed i Cession, or Cishion, of the Levites, and then Issachar, remembered in 1 Kings iv. 17. then Abes, or Ebets, Josh. xix. 20. and Remeth, of which Josh.xix. 21. otherwise Ramoth, 1 Chron. vi. 73. or Jarmuth, Josh. xxi. 29. this also was a city of the Levites, from whose territory the mountains of Gilboa take beginning, and range themselves to the Mediterranean sea, and towards the west as far as the city of Jezrael; betweer which and Ramoth are the cities of Bethpheses, or Bethpasses, according to Ziegler, and Enadda, or Hen-chadda, near which Saul slew himself; under those k Aphec, or Apheca, which Adrichomius placeth in Issachar; between which and Suna he saith that the Philistines encamped against Israel, and afterwards against Saul; a land thirsty of blood; for herein also, saith he, the Syrians, with thirty-two reguli assisting Benhadad,
h Tarichea in Sueton.
i Josh. xxi. 28. Kishion, which J. Chron. vi. 72. is called Kedesh.
k Josh. xix. i Sam. iv. 1. 1 Kings XX. 26. In the latter two places Ju
nius makes Aphek in Asher, according to Josh, xix. 30. In the first he placeth it in Juda, out of Joshua xv. 53. i Kings xx.