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stantly, that the great Zamolxis flourished among them, when Atlas lived in Mauritania, Nilus and Vulcan in Egypt, and Ochus in Phænicia. Yea, some of the French do not blush to maintain, that the ancient Gauls taught the Greeks the use of letters and other sciences. And do not we know that our bards and druids are as ancient as those Gauls, and that they sent their sons hither to be by them instructed in all kind of learning ?
Lastly, whereas others bestow this invention on Moses, the same hath no probability at all; for he lived at such time as learning and arts flourished most, both in Egypt and Assyria, and he himself was brought up in all the learning of the Egyptians from his infancy.
But true it is, that letters were invented by those excellent spirits of the first age, and before the general flood, either by Seth or Enos, or by whom else God knows ; from whom all wisdom and understanding hath proceeded. And as the same infinite God is present with all his creatures, so hath he given the same invention to divers nations; whereof the one hath not had commerce with the other, as well in this as in many other knowledges; for even in Mexico, when it was first discovered, there were found written books after the manner of those hieroglyphics, anciently used by the Egyptians and other nations; and so had those Americans a kind of heraldry, and their princes differing in arms and scutcheons, like unto those used by the kings and nobility of other nations: s Jura naturalia communia, et generalia, &c. “ Natural laws are common and gene66 ral.”
Of the kings of Tyre. BUT whatsoever remaineth of the story and kings of Phoenicia, (the book of Zeno, Sachoniatho, Mnaseas, and others of that nation, being no where found,) the same is to be gathered out of the scriptures, Josephus, and Theophilus Antiochenus. Agenor lived at once with Joshua, to whom succeeded
Phønix, of whom that part of Canaan, and so far towards the north as Aradus, took the name of Phænicia : what king succeeded Phoenix it doth not appear; but at such time as the Grecians besieged Troy, Phasis governed Phænicia.
In Jeremy's time, and while Jehoiakim ruled in Juda, the Tyrians had a king apart; for Jeremy xxvii. 3. speaketh of the kings of Zidon, of Tyre, of Edom, &c. as of several kings.
In Xerxes' time, and when he prepared that incredible army wherewith he invaded Greece, Tetramnestus ruled that part of Phoenicia about Tyre and Zidon; who commanded, as some writers affirm, Xerxes' fleet, or rather, as I suppose, those 300 galleys which himself brought to his aid ; for at this time it seemeth that the Phænicians were tributaries to the Persians: for being broken into reguli and petty kings in Jeremy's time, they were subjected by Nabuchodonosor ; of whose conquests, in the chapter before remembered, Jeremiah prophesied.
Tennes, though not immediately, succeeded Tetramnestus, remembered by D. Siculus in his fourteenth book.
Strato, his successor, and king of Zidon, Alexander Macedon threw out, because of his dependency upon Darius, and that his predecessors had served the east empire against the Grecians. But divers kings, of whom there is no memory, came between Tennes and Strato. For there were consumed 130 years, and somewhat more, between Xerxes and Alexander Macedon. And this man was by Alexander esteemed the more unworthy of restitution, because (saith Curtius, 1. 4.) he rather submitted himself by the instigation of his subjects, (who foresaw their utter ruin by resistance,) than that he had any disposition thereunto, or bare any good affection towards the Macedonians.
Of this Strato, Athenæus out of Theopompus reporteth, that he was a man of ill living, and most voluptuous ; also that he appointed certain games and prizes for womendancers and singers; whom he to this end chiefly invited and assembled: that having beheld the most beautiful and
+ Athen. I. 12. C. 13.
lively among them, he might recover them for his own use and delights. Of the strange accident about the death of one Strato king of these coasts, u St. Jerome and others make mention; who having heard that the Persians were near him with an army too weighty for his strength, and finding that he was to hope for little grace, because of his falling away from that empire, and his adhering to the Egyptians, he determining to kill himself, but fainting in the execution, his wife, being present, wrested the sword out of his hand, and slew him; which done, she also therewith pierced her own body, and died.
After Alexander was possessed of Zidon, and the other Strato driven thence, he gave the kingdom to Hephæstion to dispose of; who having received great entertainment of one of the citizens, in whose house he lodged, offered to recompense him therewith, and willingly offered to establish him therein: but this citizen, no less virtuous than rich, desired Hephæstion that this honour might be conferred on some one of the blood and race of their ancient kings, and presented unto him Balonymus, whom Curtius calls Abdolominus; Justin, Abdolomius; and Plutarch, Alynomus : who, at the very hour that he was called to this regal estate, was with his own hands working in his garden, setting herbs and roots for his relief and sustenance; though otherwise a wise man, and exceeding just.
These were the ancient kings of Zidon; whose estate being afterwards changed into popular or aristocratical, and by times and turns subjected to the emperors of the east, there remaineth no further memory of them, than that which is formerly delivered in the tribe of Asher.
The kings of Tyre, who they were before Samuel's time, it doth not appear: Josephus the historian, as is said, had many things wherewith he garnished his Antiquities from the Tyrian chronicles; and out of Josephus and Theophilus Antiochenus there may be gathered a descent of some twenty kings of the Tyrians; but these authors, though they both pretend to write out of Menander Ephesius, do in no sort agree in the times of their reigns, nor in other particulars.
u Hieron. 1. 1. cont. Jovin.
Abibalus is the first king of the Tyrians that Josephus and Theophilus remember, whom Theophilus calls Abemalus; the same perchance that the son of Sirach mentioneth in his 46th chapter, speaking of the princes of the Tyrians.
To this Abibalus, Suron succeeded, if he be not one and the same with Abibalus. David, saith Eusebius out of Eupolemus, constrained this Suron to pay him tribute, of whom also David complaineth, Psalm lxxxiii.
Hiram succeeded Suron, whom Josephus calls Irom, and Theophilus sometimes Hieromenus, sometimes Hieromus, but Tatian and Zonaras Chiram. He entered into a league with David, and sent him cedars, with masons and carpenters, to perform his buildings in Jerusalem, after he had beaten thence the Jebusites. The same was he that so greatly assisted Solomon ; whom he not only furnished with cedars, and other materials towards the raising of the temple, and with great sums of money, but also he joined with him in his enterprise of the East India, and of Ophir, and furnished Solomon with mariners and pilots; the Tyrians being of all nations the most excellent navigators; and lent him 120 talents of gold. Of this y Hiram, there is not only mention in divers places of scripture, but in Josephus's Antiquities, the 7th and 8th chap. ver. 2, 3. in Theophilus's 3d book, in Tatianus's oration against the Greeks, and in Zonaras, tome the first. This prince seemed to be very mighty and magnificent; he despised the twenty towns which Solomon offered him ; he defended himself against that victorious king David ; and gave his daughter in marriage to ? Solomon, called the Zidonian; for whose sake he was contented to worship Asteroth, the idol of the Phænicians. Hiram lived 53 years.
Baleastartus, whom a Theoph. Antiochenus calleth Bazo
Præp. Evang. 1. 9. C. 4. y 2 Sam. v. &c. 2 Sam. v. 1 Kings i. 9. 20. i Chron. xiv. 2 Chron.ii. 8,9.
z i Kings xi.
rus, succeeded Hiram king of Tyre and Zidon, and reigned seven years, according to Josephus.
Abdastartus, the eldest son of Baleastartus, governed nine years, and lived but twenty years according to Josephus: but after Theophilus he reigned twelve years, and lived fifty-four, who being slain by the four sons of his own nurse, the eldest of them held the kingdom twelve years.
Astartus, brother to Abdastartus, recovered the kingdom from this usurper, and reigned twelve years.
b Astarimus, or Atharimus, after b Theophilus, a third brother, followed Astartus, and ruled nine years, and lived in all fifty-four.
c Phelles the fourth son of Baleastartus, and brother to the three former kings, slew Astarimus, and reigned eight months, and lived fifty years.
Ithobalus, (or Juthobalus in Theophilus,) son to the third brother Astarimus, who was the chief priest of the goddess Astarta, which was a dignity next.unto the king, revenged the death of his father, and slaughtered his uncle d Phelles, and reigned thirty-two years; the same which in 1 Kings xvi. is called Ethbaal, whose daughter Jezebel Achab married.
Badezor, or Bazor, the son of Ithobalus, or e Ethbaal, brother to Jezebel, succeeded his father, and reigned six years, and lived in all forty-five.
Mettimus succeeded Badezor, and reigned but nine years, saith f Josephus; he had two sons, Pygmalion and Barca, and two daughters, Elisa and Anna.
Pygmalion reigned after Mettimus his father forty years, and lived fifty-six. In the seventh year of whose reign Elisa sailed into Africa, and built Carthage, 143 years and eight months after the temple of Solomon ; which by our account was 289 years after Troy was taken, and 143 before Rome; and therefore that fiction by Virgil of Æneas
b Josepb. 54. Theoph. 58.
• 1 Kings xvi. 31. Joseph. six years. Theoph. 26.
f Joseph. 9. Theoph. 29..