and Dido must be far out of square. For Pygmalion, covetous of Sicheus's riches, who had married his sister Elisa, slew him traitorously as he accompanied him in hunting; or, if we believe & Justin and Virgil, at the altar : whereupon Elisa, fearing to be despoiled of her husband's treasure, fled by sea into Africa, as aforesaid ; whom when Pygmalion prepared to pursue, he was by his mother's tears, and by threats from the oracle, arrested. Barca accompanied his sister, and assisted her in the erection of Carthage ; and from him sprang that noble family of the Barcæ in Africa, of which race descended many famous captains, and the great Hannibal. Servius interprets this name of Dido by Virago, because of her manlike acts ; others from Jedidia, a surname of Solomon.

Eluleus succeeded Pygmalion, and reigned thirty-six years; the same that overthrew the fleet of Salmanassar in the port of Tyre; notwithstanding which, he continued his siege before it on the land-side five years, but in vain.

After Eluleus, Ethobales governed the Tyrians, who vaunted himself to be as wise as Daniel ; and that he knew all secrets, saith Ezekiel, of whom the prophet writeth at large in his 28th chapter: out of whom it is gathered that this prince died, or was slain in that long siege of Nabuchodonosor; who surrounded and attempted Tyre thirteen years together, ere he prevailed.

Baal followed Ethobales, and reigned ten years a tributary, perchance to Nabuchodonosor ; for after his death it was governed by divers judges, succeeding each other; first by Ecnibalus, then by Chelbis, Abarus the priest, Mittonus, and Gerastus, who held it among them some seven years and odd months; after whom Balatorus commanded therein as a king for one year; after him Merbalus, sent from Babylon, four years; after him Irom, sent thence also, twenty years. In the 17th of whose reign Cyrus began to SECT. III. Of Bozius's conceit, that the Edumeans inhabiting along the Red

govern Persia.

8 Justin. 1. 11. Virgil. 1. 1.

sea were the progenitors of the Tyrians, and that the Tyrians from them received and brought into Phænicia the knowledge of the true God.

OF the great mutations of this kingdom and state of the Tyrians, mixed with a discourse of divers other nations, there is one Bozius that hath written a tract at large, entitled, De Ruinis Gentium. And although the great and many alterations found in this and other cities, yea in all things under heaven, have proceeded from his ordinance who only is unchangeable and the same for ever; yet whereas the said Bozius, enforcing here-hence that the prosperity and ruin of the Tyrians were fruits of their embracing or forsaking the true religion, to prove this his assertion, supposeth the Tyrians to have been Edumeans, descended from Esau, Jacob's brother: first, it can hardly be believed that Tyre, when it flourished most in her ancient glory, was in any sort truly devout and religious. But to this end (h besides the proof which the scriptures give of Hiram's good affection, when Solomon built the temple) he brings many conjectural arguments, whereof the strongest is their pedigree and descent; it being likely, in his opinion, that the posterity of Esau received from him by tradition the religion of Abraham and Isaac. That the Tyrians were Edumeans he endeavours to shew, partly by weak reasons painfully strained from some affinity of names, which are arguments of more delight than weight; partly by authority. For Strabo, Herodotus, Pliny, and others, witness that the Tyrians came from the Red sea, in which there were three islands, called Tyrus, Aradus, and Zidon ; which very names (as he thinketh) were afterwards given to the cities of Phænicia. Considering therefore that all the coast of the Red sea was (in his opinion) under the Edumeans, as Elah and Esiongaber, or under the Amalekites, who descended of Amalek the nephew of Esau, whose chief city was Madian, so called of Madian the son of Abraham by Cethura,' whose posterity did people it'; the consequence appears good, (as he takes it,) that the Tyrians originally were Edomites ; differing little or nothing in religion from the children of Israel. Hereunto he adds, that Cadmus and his companions brought not into Greece the worship of Astartis, the idol of the Sidonians. That the parents of Thales and Pherecydes being Phoenicians, themselves differed much in their philosophy from the idolatrous customs of the Greeks. That in Teman, a town of the Edumeans, was an university, wherein, as may appear by Eliphas the Temanite, who disputed with Job, religion was sincerely taught.

h Boz, de Ruin. Gent. 1. 5. c. 7.

Such is the discourse of Bozius, who labouring to prove one paradox by another, deserves in both very little credit. For neither doth it follow, that if the Tyrians were Edumeans, they were then of the true religion, or well affected to God and his people ; neither is it true that they were Edumeans at all. In what religion Esau brought up his children, it is nowhere found written; but that himself was a profane man, and disavowed by God, the scriptures in plain terms express. That his posterity were idolaters is directly proved in the 25th chapter of the 2d book of Chronicles. That the Edomites were perpetual enemies to the house of Israel, save only when David and some of his race, kings of Judah, held them in subjection, who knows not ? or who is ignorant of David's unfriendly behaviour amongst them, when first they were subdued ? Surely, it was not any argument of kindred or alliance between Tyrus and mount Seir, that Hiram held such good correspondence with David, even then when Joab slew all the males of Edom: neither was it for their devotion to God, and good affection to Israel, that the Edomites were so ill entreated. It seemeth that the piety and ancient wisdom of Eliphaz the Temanite was then forgotten, and the Edumeans punished for being such as David in his own days found them. Although indeed the city of Teman, whence Eliphas came to reason with Job, is not that in Edumea, but another of the same name, lying east from the sea of Galilee, and adjoining to Hus, the country of Job, and to Sueh the city of Bildad the Shuite, as both such chorographers who best knew those parts do plainly shew, and the holy text makes manifest. For Job is said to have exceeded in riches, and Solomon in wisdom, all the people of the east; not the inhabitants of mount Seir, which lay due south from Palestina. True it is, that Eliphaz the son of Esau had a son called Teman, but that fathers were wont in those days to take name of their sons, I no where find. And Ishmael also had a son called Thema, of whom it is not unlike that Theman in the east had the name; forasmuch as in the seventh chapter of the book of Judges, the Midianites, Amalekites, and all they of the east, are called Ishmaelites. And he that well considers how great and strong a nation Amalek was, which durst give battle to the host of Israel, wherein were 600,000 able men, will hardly believe that such a people were descended from one of Esau's grandchildren. For how powerful and numberless must the forces of all Edom have been, if one tribe of them, yea, one family of a tribe, had been so great! surely mount Seir, and all the regions adjoining, could not have held them. But we nowhere find that Edom had to do with Amalek, or assisted the Amalekites, when Saul went to root them out. For Amalek is nowhere in scripture named as a tribe of Edom, but a nation of itself, if distinct from the Ishmaelites. The like may be said of Midian, that the founder thereof being son to Abraham by Keturah, doubtless was no Edomite. And thus much in general for all the seigniory of the Red sea coast, which Bozius imagines the Edumeans to have held: if the Edomites in aftertimes held some places, as Elan and Ezion-gaber on the Red sea shore, yet in Moses's time, which was long after the building of Tyre, they held them not. For Moses himself saith, that Israel did compass all the borders of Edom; within which limits had Midian stood, Moses must needs have known it, because he had sojourned long in that country, and there had left his wife and children, when he went into Egypt.

But conjectural arguments, how probable soever, are needless in so manifest a case. For in the 83d Psalm, Edom, Amalek, and Tyre, are named as distinct nations; yea, the Tyrians and Sidonians being one people, as all good authors shew, and Bozius himself confesseth, were Canaanites, as appears Gen. x. 15, 19. appointed by God to have been destroyed, and their lands given to the children of Asher, Josh. xxix. because they were idolaters, and of the cursed seed of Canaan, not cousins to Israel, nor professors of the same religion. For though Hiram said, Blessed be God who hath sent king David a wise son ; we cannot infer that he was of David's religion. The Turk hath said as much of Christian princes, his confederates. Certain it is that the Sidonians then worshipped Astaroth, and drew Solomon also to the same idolatry.

Whereas Hiram aided Solomon in building the temple, he did it for his own ends, receiving therefore of Solomon great provision of corn and oil, and the offer of twenty towns or villages in Galilee. And if we rightly consider things, it will appear that Hiram in all points dealt merchant-like with Solomon. He allowed him timber, with which Libanus was and yet is overpestered, being otherwise apt to yield silks ; as the Andarine silks, which come from thence, and other good commodities. For corn and oil, which he wanted, he gave that which he could well spare to Solomon. Also gold for land; wherein Solomon was the wiser, who having got the gold first, gave to Hiram the worst villages that he had, with which the Tyrian was ill pleased. But it was a necessary policy which enforced Tyrus to hold league with Israel. For David had subdued Moab, Ammon, Edom, the Aramites, and a great part of Arabia, even to Euphrates; through which countries the Tyrians were wont to carry and recarry their wares on camels to their fleets on the Red sea, and back again to Tyrus; so that Solomon, being lord of all the countries through which they were to pass, could have cut off their trade.

But the Israelites were no seamen, and therefore glad to share with the Tyrians in their adventures. Yet Solomon,

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