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calls her Acencris; and out of Artabanus's history, Meris; Josephus calls her both Acenchere and Thermutis. Epiphanius in Panario saith, that she was honoured afterwards of the Egyptians by the name of Thermutis, the daughter of Amenoph, the son of Pharaoh. Of this last title question might be made, and much spoken ; for the scriptures call her not Pharaoh's son's daughter, but Pharaoh's daughter. Amenophis indeed is placed next before Busiris, or Orus the second, by Eusebius and others; but whether he were a king, or only a regent, I cannot conjecture. For Herodotus, Diodorus, and the ancient historians, name the son of Sesostris, Pheron. Perhaps his name was Pharaoh Amenophis; and his daughter by the Egyptians called rather the niece or grandchild, than the daughter of Pharaoh, because of the glory of Sesostris, and the disreputation of his son. If so, and if that Busiris, or Orus the second, marrying her, pretended any title by her, then is our conjecture strengthened, and then was she both daughter, grandchild, and wife unto Pharaoh ; and surviving him, queen of the land twelve years. But if she were the daughter of Orus the second, and sister of Athoris, or Rathoris, as many think, to whose conjecture I will not oppose mine, then may it seem, that either her brethren were degenerate, or too young to rule, when her father died.
Of the two brethren of queen Thermutis ; and what king it was
under whom Moses was born; and who it was that perished in the Red sea.
SHE had two brethren; the one was Rathoris, or Athoris, who succeeded her; the other Telegonus, who is only named by Eusebius; but his lineage and offspring described by Reineccius. Rathoris, after his sister's death, reigned nine years; after whom Chencres, thought to be his son, reigned ten, and then perished in the Red sea. During the reign of Chencres, Eusebius saith, that Telegonus begat Epaphus upon Io, of which history elsewhere he reporteth otherwise. After the death of Chencres, (whom some call Acencheres; but all or most do style Oeópaxos, a fighter against God,) Acherres reigned eight years, and then Cherres fifteen. This descent seems from father to son. In the eleventh year of Cherres it is said by Eusebius, that Epaphus reigning in the lower part of Egypt built Memphis. This is an argument of that which otherwise was not unlikely, viz. that Egypt was greatly brought out of order by the plagues which God had laid upon it, and the destruction of her king and army in the Red sea; else could it not have had two reigning in it at once; the latter of whom, or his posterity, seems to have taken all from Cherres the grandchild of Chencres. For whereas Armais is said to have reigned four years after Cherres, and Armesis one after Armais, these two kings are by Eusebius and others accounted as one, and his reign said to have been five years. His name is called Armeus, otherwise Danaus, and his
pedigree thus described by Reineccius in Historia Julia.
Libya, who had
Agenor, Belus, and Busiris. Ægyptus, or Ramesses, who Danaus, or Armeus, expel
gave name to the coun- led by his brother Ætry, having expelled his gyptus, after he had reignbrother Danaus, reigned ed five years, became king and begat Lynceus, mar- of Argos in Greece; was ried to Hypermnestra.
father to Hypermnestra. How it might come to pass that the nephews, sons of Epaphus, should have occupied the kingdom after Cherres, it is hard to say; considering that Epaphus himself is reported by Eusebius to have been born in the time of Chencres. But forasmuch as the history of Epaphus's birth is diversely related by Eusebius, it may suffice that Belus, the father of Danaus and Ægyptus, otherwise called Armeus and Ramesses, was equally distant from Busiris, or Orus the second, with Cherres the grandchild of Chencres. And that the posterity of Telegonus did marry very young, it
appears by the history of these two brethren, Danaus and Ægyptus; of whom the former had fifty daughters, the latter fifty sons; perhaps, or rather questionless, by divers women; yet surely they began to beget children in their first youth : howsoever it were, the general consent of writers is, that Armeus, or Danaus, did succeed Cherres ; and according to Eusebius, and good authors approving him, reigned five years. Ramesses followed, who reigned sixty-eight years. This Ramesses, or Ægyptus, is that Armesesmiamum, or Armesesmiamus, under whom, in the opinion of Mercator, and of Bunting that follows Mercator, Moses was born; and the cruel edict made of drowning the Hebrew children. The length of his reign seems to me the chief, if not the only ground of Mercator's opinion. For whereas the Lord said to Moses, Go, return to Egypt: for they are all dead which went about to kill thee, Exod. iv. 19. Mercator hereupon conceives, that it was one and the same king under whom Moses was born, and under whom he slew the Egyptian at the fortieth year of his age, and fled into the wilderness, and there abode for fear; all which circumstances could
with none but this Ramesses, who reigned so long; wherefore, desirous rather to hold a true paradox than a common error, he placeth one Alisfragmuthosis (whose name is found in the list of Egyptian kings, but the time uncertain wherein he reigned) in an age 112 or 113 years more ancient than others left him in; and so continuing the catalogue of his successors from Themosis (whom Eusebius calls Amasis) downwards, with no other variation of the length of each man's reign, than is the difference between Manetho and Eusebius, he finds Moses born under Armesesmiamum, and Israel delivered in the days of his son Amenophis. The very name of Alisfragmuthosis seems to him, with little alteration, to sound like Pharatates, of which name one was thought to have flourished either as a king or a wise man about the time of Isaac. For, saith he, from Alisfragmuthosis to Phragmuthosis, Pharmuthosis, Pharetasis, or Pharatates, the change is not great. Mercator was a man of excellent learning and industry,
and one to whom the world is bound for his
notable works; yet my assent herein is withheld from him, by these
First, I see all other writers agree, that Chencres was the king who was drowned in the Red sea. Secondly, The place, Exod. iv. all are dead, &c. may better be understood of Busiris and all his children, than of one king alone. Thirdly, St. Cyril, in his first book against Julian the apostate saith, that Dardanus built Dardania, when Moses was 120 years old, Ramesses, which was this Armesesmiamum, being then king of Egypt. After Ramesses, Amenophis reigned nineteen years, who is thought by Mercator, and peremptorily by Bunting pronounced, to be the king that perished in the Red sea; of which our opinion being already laid open, I think it most expedient to refer the kings ensuing to their own times, (which a chronological table shall lay open,) and here to speak of that great deliverance of Israel out of Egypt; which, for many great considerations depending thereupon, we may not lightly overpass.
Of the delivery of Israel out of Egypt.
SECT. I. Of the time of Moses's birth, and how long the Israelites were op
pressed in Egypt. TRUE it is that the history itself is generally and well known; yet concerning the time of Moses's birth, who was the excellent and famous instrument of this and other great works of the Highest, the different opinions are very near as many as the men that have written of that argument.
Lud. Vives, in his Annotations upon St. Augustine, citeth many of their conjectures ; as that of Porphyry out of Sanchoniato, that Moses lived in the time of Semiramis; but if he meant the first Semiramis, it was but a fond conceit; for besides that the same is contrary to all stories divine and human; while that Semiramis lived, she commanded Syria, and all the parts thereof absolutely; neither were the Ammonites, or Moabites, or Edomites, while she ruled, in rerum natura.
A second opinion he remembereth of Appion, taken from Ptolemy, a priest of Mendes, who saith, that Moses was born while Inachus ruled the Argives, and Amesis in Egypt.
The third opinion is taken out of Polemon, in his Greek history, the first book ; that Moses was born while Apis the third king ruled Argos.
A fourth is borrowed from Tatianus Assyrius, who, though he cites some authorities that Moses lived after the Trojan war, is himself of opinion, that Moses was far more ancient, proving it by many arguments.
Fifthly, he setteth down the testimony of Numenius the philosopher, who took Musæus and Moses to be one ; confirming the same out of Artapanus, who confesseth that Moses was called Musæus by the Grecians; and who further delivereth, that he was adopted by Chenephis, or Thermutis, the daughter of Egypt; the same which Eupolemus calleth Meris, others (as Rabanus Maurus) Thermothes. y Eusebius also affirmeth, that Eupolemus, in his first book De bono, Moses vir Deo conjunctissimus, is called Museus Judæorum. Eusebius, in his Chronology, finds that Moses was born while Amenophis ruled Egypt. The ancient Manethon calls that Pharaoh, which lived at Moses's birth, Thumosis, or Thmosis; the same perchance which Appion the grammarian will have to be Amosis, and elsewhere Amenophis, the father of Sethosis; to whom Lysimachus and Cornelius Tacitus give the name of Bocchoris. To me it seems most probable, that while Saphrus, called also Spherus, or Ipherius, governed Assyria, Orthopolis Sicyonia, and Criasus the Argives, that then (Sesostris the second ruling in Egypt) Moses was born. For if we believe St. Augustine, it was about the end of Cecrops's time that Moses led Israel out of Egypt: 2 Eduxit Moses ex Ægypto populum Dei novissimo tempore Cecropis Atheni
y Euseb, de Præp. Evang. 1. 3. c. 3. · Aug. 1. 18. c. 11. de Civit. Dei.