is was founded, and by which it received legislature is tlieir surety. But if ye deits first footing in the earth ? Ought there stroy the hedges and the bulwarks which not to appear in the servant, sone portion, the laws have raised, we shall cry with some traces of the spirit of the master? Israel in the days of Ezekiel, “bebold our To the dispensation of the gospel, which bones are dried, our hope is lost, we are is the dispensation of grace, mercy, and cut off for our parts.' There is no more peace, ought there not to be a suitable- security for the true religion. Protestanness in the methods employed to pro- tism is gone! All is lost! We shall all mote it? Shall we then think of any ex- be Papists presently! Shall we never repedient for detending the cause of Christ, flect on the denunciation of the proplets different from those which he himself and cursed be the man that trusteth in inan, bis aposties so successfully employed? and maketh Alcsh his arm, and whose Nay, it were well, if all ihat could be heart departeth from the Lord.' Let me said were, that we employ ditlerent nea- tell those people so distrustful in God's sures from those employed by them: providence and promises, and so confisome of ours, I am afraid, on examination, dent in the arm of flesh, that the true will be found to be the reverse of their's. religion never flourished so much, never Christ engaged by being lovely, we would spread so rapidly, as when, instcad of perconstrain by being frightful. The foriner secuting, it was persecuted; instead of conquers the heart, the latter at most but obtaining support froin banah sarictions, forces an external and hypocritical com- it bad all the terrors of the magistrate and pliance, a thing hateful to God, aud dis- of the laws armed against it. “Do we honourable to the cause of his son. . provoke the Lord to jealousy; are we

“ But, say our opponents in ibis argu- stronger than he?!” p. 11, 12. ment, Popery is a superstition so banetu! The title of the second chapter of the as not to deserve any favour, especially pamphlet is, “The Conclusion to which at the hands of Protestants. Jis jutule sound Pulicy would lead us in Regard tn. rance to them, and persecuting spirii, if the Toleration of Papists.” In page 28 there was nothing else wc but to accuse of this chapter, he wbserves : “As tv the it of, would be sufficient to justify the aspect which their (tle Papists') tenets the severest treatment we could give it. Fear to civil socicty (for it is not in a neThis treaiment to Papists couid not be ligious nor in a moral view, but solely in called persecution, but just retaliation, # political, that I am liere considering er the necessary means of preventing per- them) it must he acknowledged that is dition to ourselves. I do not saytliat either social uniun their tenets are 110 wise iiiPopery or Papists deserve favor from us ; verse, witness those kingdoms and states on tbe contrary, I admit the truth of the in Europe, wliere the whole or the greater charge against them, but not the conse- part of the people are popish. It has quence ye would draw from it. Let pope. been remarked forever, that the Romish ry be as bad as it will call it Beelzebuli religiou is not equally favourable to a

you please; it is not hy Beelzebub that free government, is the Protestant. But I am tir casting out Beelzebub, but by though there be seinething like a servility, the spirit of God. We exclaim against of spirit in implicit faith, or the beliet of Supery, and in exclanning against it we infallibility in any linnan tribunal, which betray but tno manifestly, that we have is more conceal to political slavery; is imbibed of the character, tur ubuch we cannot be saki that the former is incoinpadetest it. In the most unlovely spirit of tible with civit treedom. This country, as Popery, and with the unhallonci arms of well as others, was tree even when Rouau Popery, we would fight against Popery, Catholic: and it would not be just to deny It is not by such weapons ibat God buch that there have been of that communion promised to consume the man of sin, but eminent patrons of the liberties of the it is by the breath of his mouth, thar is his people." uurd. As for us, thonyh we be otien loud And again in page 10. “But just op enough in our pretensions to faith, our unjust, s.ky some, it is better to have it taub is not in his word; we liave nu faith (the law against popery) as a rod ovet Tiuw is weapons invisible and impalpable, their heads: that is in other words, “Though fre and steel suit us a great deal better, we have no mind to do injustice at preChristians in ancient times confided in the sent, we wish to have it in our power to divine promises, we in these days contide he unjust with impunity when we please; in acts of parliament. They trusted to way to bribe others to be villains (for the the sword of the spirit for the defence of law gives a liigh reward to informers) that Iruth and the defeat of error, we those who have tw religion at all, ito sabte trust to the sword of the magistrate. of virtile or bunur tway be tempteil by God's prospises do well enough, when the avarice. Is this a law becoming a "Christian nation? Is it such as it would be. he will find but few precedents to support, cume the ministers of religion to inter- " that all the lineal male descendants of pose for either, preserving or enforcing ? certain ancient families are entitled to Woe to him' saith the prophet, “ibatesta- bear supporters." If he had said that for blisheth a city by iniquity! and shall the many generations they have assumed the eity of God itself, his church, his cause, bearing of supporters he would have been the cause of truth and purity, be esta- nearer the truth, as, generally speaking, blished by such accursed means; Are we these families have really no legal right to protestants, and do we say, 'Let us do evil such honour. One, for instance, assumes that goud may come?' Yet of such the the bearing of bulls, because it pleased apostie tells us their damnation is just the fancy of one of his ancestors to I have ever been taught, as a Christian place on each side of the gate leading to principle, and a Protestant principle, that bis mausion two bulls by way of ornaa good cause ought to be promoted by ment. It' the object of N. Y. was to lawful means only; and that it was in make the public believe and acknowledge the true spirit of Popery to think that their title, it will completely fail, as such the end would justify the nieans. We are attempt only provokes discussion, which How adopting all their maxims and make I have no doubt would set aside most, if ing them our own: we seem resolved not all, their pretended claims to this that we shall have nothing on this hand honour. to reproach Papists with. A great out- At all events, it is only the head of the cry has been raised of late about the pro- family, that can bave any just pretengress

of Popery. I join in the complaint, sions. I see her progress where I least expected

The Lord Lyon of Scotland grants supit, and I lament it heartily, the more espe, porters to heads of families and harvcially as she comes in so 'questionable au nets, but they are never borne by the jushape. If we must have Popery, I would nior branches of the family. above all things have her retain her own N. Y. roundly asserts that such and likeness. The devil is never so dangerous such families are entitled to bear supporas when he transforms bimself into an ters; and it is but fair to suppose he angel of light."

has good grounds for his assertion, at the This pamphlet of Dr. Campbell's is same time to call on him to state them is reviewed in the liontily Review for Fe- equally so. hruary, 1780, where it is thus spoken of, The insertion of the ahore will oblige Is This excellent address does no small

Yours, &c.

HERALDICUS. honor to the head and heart of its author, it hreathes a truly candid and liberal spi. To the Editor of the Monthly Muguzine, rit, and well deserves the serious attention SIR, of every one who is desirous of acting N reply to your correspondent under according to the genuine principles of the signature of W. I. in your last pubProtestantism and Christianity." lication, respecting the importation of

I am solicitous to remove the stain, foreign planis, sea-shells, &c. I beg leave which Mr. Good has, I am well persua. to observe that thoscthings, and every obded, through mistake, affixed to Dr. ject of natural history to which lie al. Campbell's reputation for candor and ludes, may be imported into this country liberality of sentiment, from the affection- by paying a certain sum, ad valorem, i.e. a ate veneration which I, in common with per centage on the value, to be ascertainhis otirer pupils, entertwin for the memory ed when they are landed on tlie quays; of this great and enlightened man, I but it frequently bappens that masters should be sorry likewise that the bigotry of vessels, to whose care these things of the present tiine; which is alas ! but are entrusted, cmit to enumerate thein too powerful, should bave to plead the in the ship’s inanifest, previous to its sanction of such a name,

being produced at the custoin-house,

Pat. Forbes. whereby they becomie, by the Manifest Manse of Bohurm, Banífshire,

act, liable to seizure; but wlien that cauDec, 26, 1808.

tion has been observed, regular report and entry inade at the customs for the

duties thereof, they are subject to no deTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tention by the revenue officers, nor SIR,

considered contraband by any law what. OUR correspondent N. Y. vol. xxv. *p. 297, lays down a principle as the

Yours, &c

I. H. law of armoury, which I am apprehensive Customshouse, Dec. 10, 1808.


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But to say

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, and bis attempts to reason upon any subSIR,

ject, in which his own nature is concernY attention was atcracted by an ar- ed, batlled and confounded in every direc

ucle in the “Extracts from the Port- tion. This false system of philosophy folio of a Man of Letters” in your last has been gradually growing up to its pre. number, relative to the Pere Bouhours, of sent heiglit ever since the time of Lord critical celebrity. Your correspondent Bacon, from a wrong interpretation of stared, that lie had written lives of the word experience ; confining it to a Saint Ignatius and Saint Xavier, in which knowledge of things without us, whereas he land compared the one to Cæsar, and it in fact includes all knowledge, relathe other to Alexander.

ting to objects either within or out of the If your correspondent will take the mind, of which we have any direct and trouble to consult the "Manière de bien positive evidence. Physical experience l'enser dans les Ouvrages d'Esprit, par le is indeed the foundation and the test of Père Boulours," Ed. Paris, 1785, p.


part of philosophy, which relates to 145, he will find that the remark does physical objects : farther, physical anapot belong to Bouhours, but to the great logy is the only rule by which we can Prince de Condé, of whomit is said in the extend and apply our immediatc knowsame work, “ Qu'il étoit de ces hommes ledge, or reason on the nature of the difextraordinaires en qui l'esprit & la science ferent substances around us. pe cedent point à la valeur heroique.”- that physical experiment is either the llis expression was this :“St. Ignace, c'est test, or source, or guide, of that other Cesar qui ne fait jamais rien que pour de part of philosophy, which relates to our bonnes raisons : St. Xavier, c'est Alexan- internal perceptions, that we are to look die que son courage empore quelquefois.” in external nature for the form, the sub

There follow several observations upon 'stance, the colour, the very life and being the propriety of this comparison, by of whatever exists in our own minds, or which, I am inclined to think, the absur- that we can only infer the laws which redity which your correspondent fancied gulate the phenomena of the mind, from he had discovered, will be entirely re- ihose which regulate the phenomena of moved. The arguments, which are ex- matter, is to confound two things essentremely neat and ingenious, are too much tially distinct. Our knowledge of menat length to be inserted here.

tal phenomena from consciousness, reflecThe learning and abilities of the Pere tion, and observation of others, is the Bouhours were held in great estimation true basis of metaphysical inquiry, as the during the reign of Louis XIV, and it is knowledge of facts is the only solid basis no inconsiderable testimony in his favour, of natural philosophy. To argue otherthat Lord Chesterfield had the highest wise, is to assert that the best method opinion of his taste and judgment, of ascertaining the properties of air is which appears in many of his Lordship’s by making experiments on inineral subletters to AIr. Stanhope.

stances. It is assuming the very poist Yours, &c.

E.S.S. in dispute, namely the strict analogy be

tween mind and matter (insoinuch that To the Editor of the Alonthly Magazine. we may always judge of the one by the SIR,

other) on no better a foundation than a T

mean and palpable play of words. sequent letter to trouble you with Lord Bacon was undoubtedly a great some reflections on the prevailing sys- man, indeed one of the greatest that lem of metaphysical reasoning; I mean have adorned this or any other country. the material or modern philosophy, as it Ile was a man of a clear and active spirit, has been called. According to this phi- of a most fertile genius, of vast designs, losophy, as I understand it, all thought is of general knowledge, and of profound to be resolved into sensation, all

wisdom. He was in one sense what Plato lity into the love of pleasure, and all ac- was among the ancients, and what Burke tion into mechanical impulse. These was in our own times; or he united the three propositions taken together,embrace powers of iinagination and understanding almost every question relating to the hu- (as they are generally called)in a greater man mind, and in their different rainifi- degree than any other man, except cations and intersections form a net, not them. These three are perhaps the unlike that used by the enchanter of old, strongest instances of men, who by which whosoever has once fairly thrown, the rare privilege of their nature over him, will find all further ciforts raiu were at once poets and philosophers,





and saw equally into both worlds-the and phenomena of the material world ; Inaterial and the risitile, and the incorpo, and we have hastily concluded (reversvig real and invisibile form of things. Tie the problem that the only way to arrise school-men and their followers attended atine knowledge of ourselves also was lo to nothing but the latter : they seeintis lay asiile ibe dictates of our own have discarded with the same inditturci ce SCIOUS.ess, thou lies, and fcelings as deboth kinds of experience, that which ceiitiil and insuiticient guides, though they relates to external ubjects, and to our own are the only things that can give us the internal feelings. From the imụerfect least light ipon the subject. We seem to state of knowledge, they had few fricts have resigned the use of our natural unto go by; and intoxicated with the 10- derstandings, and to have given pour velty of their vaiir distinctions they own existence as a non-cntity. We look would be likely enough to despise the for our thoughts and the distinguishing clearest and most obvious sugrestions of properties of our minds in some image of their own minds. Hence arose "their them in matter, as we luoki tu see our Logomachies," their everlasting word- faces in a glass. We no longer decide figiits, their sharp disputes, their captious, physical probleins by logical dilemmas, bootless controversies. As Lord Bricou but we decide questions of logic by thie expresses it, " they were made fierce evidence of the senses. Instead of putting with dark kceping;" signifying that their our reason and invention to the rack, and angry and unintelligible contests with one setting our ideas to quarrel with one anoanother, were the consequence of their ther on all subjects, whether we have any not having really any distinct objects to knowledge of them or not, we have aengage their attention. “

They built en- dopted the casicr method of suspending tirely on their own whims and taneies; the use of our faculties altogether, and and, buoyed up by their specific levity', settle all controversies by means of “four they mounted in their airy disputations, champions ficrce, hot, cold, moist, and in endless flights and circles, clamouring dry," who, with a few more of the reJike birds of prey, till they requally lost tainers and hangers-on of matter, detersight of truth and nature.” This great mine all questions relating to the nature man did the highest service to philosophy of man and the limits of the human unjn wishing to recal men's attention to derstanding very learnedly. That which facts and experience, which had been we seck lowerer, namely the nature of foulishly neglected; and so by incorpo- the mind, and the laws by which we rating the abstract with the concrete, and think, feel, and act, we must fiud in the general notions with indiviciual objects to mind itself, or not at all. The mind bas give to our reasonings that solidity and laws, powers, and principles of its own, firmness which they must otherwise al- and is not a mere dependent on matter. ways want. He did nothing therefore but This original bias in favour of mechanical insist upon the necessity of experience. reasoning and physical deinoustration, He laid the most stress upon this, be- was itself owing to the previous to. cause it was the piost wanted at the time, tal neglect of them in matters where they particularly in natural science; and from were strictly necessary, strengthened by ihe wider field that is open to it there, as the powerful aid of Hobbes; who was well as the prodigious success it has met indeed the father of the modern philosowithi, this latter sense of the word, in phy. Ilis strong mind and body appcar which it is tantamount to physical expe- to have resisted all impressions but those riinent, bas so far engrossed all our atten- which were derived from the downright tion, that mind has for a good wbile past blows of matier. All his ideas seemed been in great danger of being overlaid by to lie, "like substances in his brain:

We run from one error into an. what was not a solid, tangible, distinct," other; and as we were wrong at first, so palpable, ohject, was to him nothing. The ju aliering our course, we have faced external image pressed so close upon liis about into the opposite extreme; we de- mind that it destroyed all power spised experience altogether before, now sciousness, and left no room for'attention we would have nothing but experience, any tling but itself. He was by naand experience of the grossest kind, as ture a materialist. Loe assisted greatly if there was some charm or talisman in in giving popularity to the same scheme, the name. We have (it is true) gained as well by espousing many of Hobbes's much by not consulting the suggestions of metaphysical principles, as by the doubtour own minds in things where they could ful resistance he made to the rest. And inform us of nothing, naraely in the laws it has of late been perfected, and has



r of con


received its last polish and roundness in They were eager to be acquainted with its the hands of some French philosophers, shape and figure, or at least with the place as Condillac, and others.

where it was lodged. Without some senHaving thus explained in a general sible token, or the testimony of persons way the grounds of my dissent from the who had inquired into the fact, they could system here spoken of, and shewn that not be certain whether they had a soul or they do not militate against the true basis not. Accordingly, many voyages of disof all philosophy, experience, in the only covery were made for this purpose along rational sense of the word, I shall pro- the nerves, and the conduits of the aniceed to state (as briefly as I can) the out- mal juices. Some thought they had lines of a system, which I should wish to found it seated on the top of the pineal see established in its room. The princi- gland, and others traced it to the cellular pal points which I shall attempt to make and membranous substance of the brain, out are, that the mind is something dis- where all the nerves terminate. Howe tinct from matter; that the thinking prin- ver this might be, it was agreed on all ciple is one, or that thought is the result hands that the last agent in matter was of the impression of many different ob- the truc seat or cause of thought and conjects on the same conscious being; that sciousness, because we had no right to supthis faculty of perceiving different impres- pose the existence of a principle beyond, sions at once, of combining, comparing, of which we could have no positive eviand distinguishing them, is the great in- dence. But we might with just as much strument of knowledge and understand- propriety insist on seeing the very ing; that it is a totally distinct thing from thoughts themselves lying naked in the sensation, memory, or association; that brain, or deny that they had ever existed, abstraction is the limitation of this faculty, as conclude that we have got at the seat or immediately follows from our imperfect of the soul, because we can go no farther conception of things, sinco, if we were with our dissections and experiinents. to wait till we had a perfect knowledge The argument is a good one, it we supof all the parts of any object, we could pose the mind to be one department of never have any conception of it what- inatter; when we can trace the natural ever; that reason is the power of disco- connection of causes and effects no furvering truth by means of certain neces- ther, there we ought to stop. But if sary connections between our ideas; that there is reason to believe that the mind the mind of man is active both in thought is not material, then, by the nature of the and volition; that motives do not deter- supposition, it must lie out of the reach mine the will mechanically; that self- of all such experiments... The argument love is not the sole spring of all our at- in favour of the materiality of the mind tachments and parsuíts; and that there from the want of anatomical experiments are of her principles in our nature (as the to prove the contrary, therefore, firstlove of action of power, and the love of of all supposes that the mind is material, truth) which are necessary to account for and the subject of such experirnents.the passions and actions of men, besides The simple arguinent by which I satisfy the love of pleasure, and aversion to myself that mind is not the same thing

as matter is this, that there is something And, first, I shall endeavour to shew in the nature of thought essentially disthat the mind itself is not material, or tinct from any idea we have of the comthat the phenomena of the mind or think- mon properties and operations of matter, ing principle do not originate in the com- and that something so distinct in essence mon properties of what is called matter. and in kind, cannot be resolved into The advocates for the doctrine of mate- any combination or modification of rialism have been generally persons of other properties which in themselves strong understanding, and clear heads, are allowed to have no sort of relation who could not bear for a inoinent the or afhnity to it. The jumbling of these icast uncertainty in any thing which was together in different forms and quantities the object of their inquiries. The obscure may produce an intermediate result dit and silent, strange and mysterious opera- fering from them all, and yet partaking tious of thought, therefore, puzzled them of the nature of all; but it cannot progreatly, and they wished 10 translate them duce a result, of which there is not the mto some less hieroglyphical language. slightest trace or resemblance to be found They wanted to see how the mind act- in any of thein. There is in matter noe til, as children like to lonk into a watch thing at all like thought, or that ever MOSTHLY Mag, No. 181.




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