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The Smithfield club have recently ofter- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ed fifteen prizes, amounting to 210 gui.

SIR, Does the i5th, viz. for large oxen which Judent Mr. Sumberland seeins to be have worked two years at least, and eaten no corn, five prizes, for as many distinct on the subject of his letter, which was breeds, each of twenty guineas; for oxen published in your Magazine for July last, which need not bave womed, but must It appears to me that there is another subbe fed without corn or oil-cake, three ject incidentally hinted at in that letter of prizes amounting to 40 guineas : for fat lastisg and infinite importance to mancows that have borne three calves at

kind; and, I think, in its consequences, the least 10 cuineas; for long woolled- more to be deprecated than that of wether sheep, one and two years old, two which Mr. C. complains. The subject prizes of 10 guineas each ; for short to which I allude, is the design of woolled wether sheep, one and two years many persons in this country of teachold, two prizes of 10 guineas each ; and ing the lower classes of the community to for pigs, under two, and under one year read, but not to write. The only plauold, two prizes of ten guineas each. The sible argument that I have heard in departiculars of these prizes, with print- fence of such an illiberal mode of educaed forms of the certificates, required, tion is, that by teaching the lower classes of with each animal to entitle it to be shown, the community to write, you push up out may be had of Mr.Mitchel, No. 7, Clothe of its sphere, u greater portion of the body Fair, near Smithfield-Market.

politic than there is room for it, in a given It may be acceptable to some of


situation, to contain ; and, consequently, readers to be informed, that the Smith- ignorance is preferable to knowledge, in field club consists at present of 225 this instance at least. As, from my sphere members, including most of the noble of observation, there seems to be great and distinguished patrons of agriculture, reason to apprehend, that the opinion is and the rural arts in the British domi- gaining ground, and as it has been recompions, the number of which is rapidly mended from high authority to restrain increasing: his grace the Duke of Bed- the negroes from writing, in order to Ford is the president; Sir John Scabright make a partition wall between them and and Sir Johu Warmington are the stew

the whites; who knows, but that this ards. The meetings are usually held at same partition wall, this insurmountable Freemason's Tavern for transacting busi- barrier, might not find advocates suffi. vess; the subscription is one guinea per cient to set it up on this side the Atlanannum, and the number is unlimited. tic; and, that, at some future period, The great object this club has in view, is the night of ignorance might not once to excite emulation and competition more lay its ebon wand on the human among breeders and graziers, for ascer

mind. taining and adopting those breeds of ani

The subject is, Sir, I am persuaded, mals, which will attain early and

of per

great moment, and I trust that your fect maturity, with the least quantities ingenious correspondents will favor the of food, to the exclusion of coarse and public with a lance or two, in order to unprofitable animals, objects in which accomplish the destruction of the manya themselves and the public are alike interested. Yours, &c.

Yours, &c.

JAS. JENNINGS. Westminster, Jan. 16th, 1809.


headed hydra.

J. Farby, Secretary, lluntshill, Dec. 4th,1808.


For the Monthly Magazine.




Baroineter. Rain.

W. E.


$ & N.&

High Low. Mean. High. | Low. Mean. Inches. E. NW.

Days of Rain,

Snow, &r.

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General Remarks on the Weather, &c. part of this month was most unseason-

observed at Carlisle, during the Yeur ably cold, with frequent heavy falls of


snow, which sometimes apunted to up-

JANUARY. The weather for the first wards of three inches in depth. In the lat-

nine days of this month, was, for the sea ter part of this month all the surrounding

son, unusually mild and pleasant. The mountains were clothed in white. The

remainder was very changeable, when first appearance of swallows here this

frost and snow, and storms of wind and

year was on the 19th.

rain, occurred alternately. On the 10:h, MAY. The mild and pleasant wes-
13th, 14th, 27th, 28th, and 29th, the ther, accompanied with refresbing rains,
wind was extremely violent.

which prevailed during this month, made
FEBRUARY was mild, wet, and stormy, au agreeable and rapid change in the as-

till the 7th, when we had a settled frost, pect of the fields and woodlands, when,

accompanied with light falls of snow till at the end of the month, vegetation and

the 15th, at which time snow lay very foliage was as forward as it has generally

deep in the surrounding country, and all been in the same season of preceding

the mountains in this neigbourhood were years. In the former part of the month

perfectly white. The remainder of the thunder was frequently beard at a dis.

month was fair, and uucommonly plea- tance; on the 5th it was accompanied

sant. During this latter period, the baro witha a heavy shower of extremely large

meter was remarkably high. On the 24th


and 25th, it stood at 30,86. This is the JUNE was not marked by any particle
greatest height it has ever been at since lar meteorological occurrence; the wes-
the commencement of this register. ther was, on the whole,veru dry and bright,

Marcu continued very mild and plea- and the temperature rather higher than
sant till the 17th; the weather afterwards that of the same month of many prece
was cold, with frosty nigh's, strong winds, ding years.
and light showers of snow. The barome, July. The distinguishing feature of
ter, during the last thirteey days of the this month is its high temperature, which
preceding month, and twenty-eight of was generally experienced in every part of
ibis, was constantly above thirty inches. the kingdom : the horiest days bere were
No rain fell liere this month; that which the 12th and 14th, the thermoinete: on
appears in the table (two-tenths) is mel the former day was 32 degrees at four
Red snow.

o'clock P. M. on the latter 84 degrees
APRIL. The weather during the greater at two o'clock P. M, and 4 degrees, the

MONTHLY Mag. No. 181.



temperature for the whole month, is the During this month, the surrounding mounhighest ever observed here. The weather tains were generally patched with snow. continued very fine and brilliant till the The hirundines continued in flocks in this 19tis. During the remainder of this district till the 4th of this month, and mouth we had much distant thunder ac. some stragglers were seen as late as the companied with bcavy rains. In the af 13th. These sojourners appeared rery ternoon of the 25th rain descended in inactive for about three weeks previous such torren's that in the space of an hour to their departure. and a half it amounted to about 2 inches November continued remarkably dry, in depth.

mild, and pleasant till the 16th, during August continued very sultry, wet, which period no 'rain fell, excepting a and gloomy, till the 11th. The remainder light shower on the 5th. The latter part of the month was chiefly fair and brilliant of the month was chiefly wet. The 16th, and exceedingly favourable for the harvest. 17th, 21st, 29th, and 30th, were rather In the evening of the 21st at 15 ininutes stormy. On the 17th, thunder was past 10 o'clock, observed a large and beau heard at a distance. On the morning of tiful meteor in the S. E. fall perpendicu- the 29th the fields in the neighbourhood lar to the earth : its apparent diame- of this city were whiiened with snow for ter about 7 minutes, perfectly round; the first time this season. colour, a brilliant white, and without any DECEMBER. The weather during the train or coruscation : it was visible for former half of this month was drizzling, about six seconds. In the alternoon of the moist, and gloomy. On the morning of 31st we were visited by a inost dreadful the 17th some heary showers of snow fell, fash of lightuing, which appeared to be a accompanied witli a very strong wind, complete sheet of fire; it was instanta. which at mid-day shifted from the S. W. neously succeeded by a loud and appalling to the N. when the thermometer fell sudcrack of thunder, exactly similar, but in denly from 34 degrees to 26 degrees; wę comparably more loud than the report of, then had a remarkably intense frost, with a muskot; the lightning struck some buil a brisk parching wind till the 21st, when dings in the environs of this city, one of on that morning the thermometer rose which was set on fire, but by a timely dis- from 21 degrees to 33 degrees, in the covery was soon extinguished. Some course of ten minutes, and a mild thaw windows were broken, and oth trifling commenced, but in the evening the frost damage sustained, but fortunately nothing set in again; on the following morning very serious happened.

about three inchies depth of snow fell, SEPTEMBER. The weather during the and the weather continued vacillating greater part of this month was unusually between frost and thiaw, which rendered fine. The harvest finished in this district the surface of the earth a complete sheet about the middle of this month, and ne of ice. During the latter part of the ver perhaps was there known a more fa- mouth a very great quantity of snow vourable season for securing the crops was observed on the surrounding moun than that which is past. In the latter part

tains. of the month, the nights were frosty, when The following TABLE exhibits the mean on the mornings of the 28th and 29th ice state of the thermometer and barometer, of considerable thickness was observed, at and the quantiy of rain for the last which time many of the surrounding eight years at Carlisle. mountains were capped with snow, and winter may be said to have already commenced its reign. OCTODER was on the whole remark

1801 48.5 29.796 1,78 31,466 ably cold for the season, the inean tem 1802 | 17,54 29,817 | 1.89 | 28,504 perature (43,92) is lower than that of

1803 17,456 29,895 , 2,10 27,52 the same month of many preceding 1804 48,656 | 29.862 2,02 35,845 years : yet the weather was frequent

1805 47,965 29 859 2,20 26,855 ly bright and pleasant, particularly in 1806 48.914 | 29,770 2,29 | 31,54 he former part of the month. On the

1807 | 46,464 | 29,819 2,04 27.75 14th, 20th, 25th, and 26th, the wind was 1808 47,4 29,875 2,12 27,86 very violent; on the 25th it was accompanied with a heavy fall of rain, which made

the whole 47,8406129.8366 2,055 29,605 the rivers here overflow their banks and Rejoining grounds to a very great extent.


Ylici mo

nieter'. A. mean

baronerer. Barom. kain). An, Mean Apn ran. Ann. qua,

Inches. Inches. Inches,

Mean for

8 years

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Greatest height of the thermometer, tion of Mr. Lukin* of London, who was during this period, 85 degrees May 25th, a casual resident at Lowestor during the 1807. Least do. 5 degrees January 8, autumn of that year. 1804.

As upwards of twelve months experia Greatest height of the barometer 30,36 ence has demonstrated to the gentlemen Feb. 25th, 1808. Least do. 23,20 Janu- of Lowestof (wbat Mr. Lukin's pample ary 10th, 1806.

let on the subject states from liis toriner Greatest range of the barometer 2,66 experience) thar boats constructed upon inches.

this principle cunot be overset or sink The therinometer is situated near, but by any power of wind and water, the fol. not in contact with, a wall facing the N. lowing particulars and description of the E. where there is at all times a free cir- constructien are made public, with the culation of air; the sun never shines on hope of rendering more generally known it, and it is perfectly free from the influ- the EASY MEANS or saving MANY VALUence of reflected heat during the times of ABLE LIVES: which might certainly be registering. This place is about seven- done, it one or two of these boats were teen yards above the level of the sea. built at each of our ports, and every ship

The rain-gauge has an elevation of furnished with one (at least) in proportion three yards from the ground.

to her size. Yours, &c. WM. Pitt.

Descriptions and Dimensions of the LowCarlisle, January 3, 1809.

estof Life-Bout.

Feet In.
To the Editor of the Afonthly Mugazine. Length aloft 40 0


37 0


Breadth amidships
T seems now so generally understood


6 exclusive of rity, and independence of Britain must

a movable wash strake depend in no inconsiderable degree, upon


08 the state of its nautical exertions and

The form the same as the yawns of marine defence; that the lives of its na

that coast; the stern post nearly upval officers and seamen, though always

right. valuable, have in the present times be

External gunwales hollow, forming an coine of the greatest importance to the oblique section of a parabola with the side public welfare. The number of these of the boat, and projecting vine inches valuable men that are every year lost to

from it on each side: these gunwales are their families and to the state by accidents reduced a little in their projection toNOW EASILY PREVENTED, is much larger wards their ends, and are first formed than is apprehended by those who are not

by brackets and thin boards, covered in the habit of particularly noticiig the

at top and bottom with one thickness of frequent· lusses sustained by the upset. good sound cork, and the extremity or aung of ships' boats passing to and from the pex of the projection having two thicke shore,

nesses of cork, the better to defend it To ascertain the truth of this melan. from any violent blows it inay meet with choły fact, as far as relates to the loss of ju hard service. The depth of these gun. lives, so aftlictive to individuals and so in. wates from top to botiom was fifteen jurious to the state, it is only necessary to inches, and the whole covered with refer to the public papers or to the knows very strong canvas, laid on with strong, ledge of the inhabitants of the sea ports.

cement to resist the water, and that will And the fullest assurance that the greater

not stick to any thing laid upon it. part of these accidents might be PREVEN

A false keel of rougit ron three TED, may now be obtained by a refer

inches deep, made of three bars rivelted ence to the committee of the Humane together, and bolted under the common Society, at Lowestoff, in Suffolk, and the keel, which it greatly strengthens, and pilots and boatmen of that part of our

makes a very essential part of her ballast; coast, who can now supply the most sa

being fixed so much below the floor, it has tisfactory evidence of the utility of an

nearly double the power the same weight unimmergible boat, built and launched at

would have if laid on the floor, and there. that place in November, 1807, by order of the gentlemen of that county, who * Mr. Lukin was the inventor of the first bad previously raised a subscription for life boat ever built in England, and obtained a sent particular purpose, qnder the direc patent for it in the year 1765.


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fore much preferable to any other ballast bell, principal of Marischal College, Athat can be used for sailing boats. berdeen, which I was surprised to tind in

Thwarts and gang board as usual; three Mr. Good's Lite of Dr.. Geddes. In demasts and lugs sails, and twelve short tailing the bigotted opposition, which a bars.

bill introduced by Sir George Saville into In this state, this boat is inuch safer parliament in 1778, “intended to reliere than any common buat of the sane die his majesty's subjects professing the Peo: mensions, will carry more sail, and bear pisli religion from certain penalties and more weather; but to make it coinpletely disabilities imposed upon them by an act uniminergible, empty casks of about maile in the inth and 12th of king Wiltwenty-two inches diameter were ranged liam” met with in Scotland, Di. Goud along kvithinside the gunwales, lasted ades, “Pamphlets of the most vehement firmly to the boat, lying even with the zcal, written in the north, were circulated tops of the gunwales, and resting upout with all possible industry throughout the brackets fastened to the timers for that south; and ainongst these I am much a-: purpose; also two sucha casks in the head, stonished to find one by the late very aand two in the stern, and all reinorable iniable and learned Dr. Campbell, who in a short time, if desired; there were was at that time principal of Marischal also saine empty casks placed under the College, in Aberdeen. It is entitled 'A: gang-board; these would be an addition, Vindication of the Opposition to the late to the boat's bungancy if empty, and an intended Bill for the Relief of Ronan Caincrease tu her ballast it full.

tholics in Scotland.' Now I have before Thus equipped, this boat was launchied me a pamphlet, published by Dr. Campon the 19th of November, in a very bell at Aberdeen, in 1779, which breathes squally day. ,,About twenty men were a spirit so totally the reverse of what is launched in her, most of them pilots or here attributed to him by Mr. Good, that

They ran her immediately I must think it impossible that one of an from the beach across the Corton sand, opposite tendency could have been puhoi, in tie midst of the breakers, which would lished by him the year before. The have been alınost certain destruction to pamphlet l allude tn, is entitled "An Arda any cominun sailing buat, as that would dress to the People of Scotland upon the have been filled and sunk immediately. Alarms that hare been raised in regard to

They then turned to the southward along Popery." Its desigw is to recominend a the top of the sand to its end; when they spirit of toleration as the real spirit of tacked and stood to the northward, pulled Christianity; and the same candour and up the plugs in her bottom, and let in as liberality are oonspicuous in this performmuch water as would come in that way; ance, which, Mr. Good ailows, appear the water rose very little above the in his latter works. As it opposed the thwarts, With all this water in it, the reigning prejudices, it procured bina great buat sailed better than without it. The, obloquy from the comunon people, who on plugs were now put in again, and water this account styled him Pope Campbell. poured in by brickets, until it ran osser The author of the pamphlet, which Dr. both guniales; and in this state it was Good has seen, cannot therefore, I think, the opinion of those on board that she be Dr. Campbell, but he must have would have carried sixtyinen without sink. been deceived by a similarity of name or ing, and to upset it is not possible. But something of that kind. This will be it is Mr. Lukin's opinion that more more apparent by a few extracts from the than fifty men should not be taken in pamphlet in my possession, which will when the boat is full of water, and all her evince the candid, enlighteneit, auch casks empty.

Chris.ian principles which filled the mind. It is particularly advisable that all life of its author. It is divided into three boals should be built of the torn most chapters--the first explains the doctrine approved by the pilots or seanten on the of ile gospel in regard to persecution cvast whcre they are to be used; as no and persecutors. From this chapter 1 one foun will suit all sborres, and these extract the following passage; after bare principles of safety are applicable to cvery ing exhibited from the Vow Testament foriu.

the muresisting conduct pursued by the

apostles in the propagation of Christianity. To the Editor of the Monthly Aragazine. in obedience in the commands, and in SIR,

imitation of the example of their amiable ERMIT me, through the median of master, he argues thus: “Is it not most wimbuke relauve tu the late Dr. Carpe supported by the same an.eans, by which

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