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grego, or thick shaggy great-coat, with a French General has been planted, mere hood, which gives them a very wild and cantile prosperity has instantly withered. barbarous appearance. There are also Dantzic, Hamburge, Amsterdam, of about the harbour some few Maltese, of which the Maltese must have heard as a superior class, such as the port-cap: places famous throughout ages, for comtains, the officers of the Sanctà, and mercial wisdom and greatness, groan others, who imitate the English; but it is under exactious too beavy to be endured. easy to distinguish them, not only by their The little state of Ragusa, in their own dingy countenances, but by their broad neighbourhood, which they have seen cocked hats, large silver buckles, and gradually rising into eminence by a strict other artic'es of dress, by no means of attention to its inercantile and maritime the newest London mode. Before the interests, lias been at once beggared and present war with Turkey, the Greeks, 'laid waste. Odessa and Trieste, fostered whose ships frequented this port, added by the special care of their respective greatly to the diversity of the scene. sovereigns, the Russian and Austrian EmThey were a race of men exceedingly perors, bave been reduced, by merely distinguishable from the others, tall and coming within the vortex of French incommanding in mien, with lony mus- fluence, to a state of bankruptcy. The tachios and bushy hair: on the crown of Malte e, who of late years have traded the head they wore a small red skull-cap, frequently to the Adrinic and the Black with a black silk tassel; otien a flower Sea, masi be struck with the face of these stuck behind the ear, and always a rosary two places; but still more inust they condepending from the neck; with boosè gratulate themselves on observing, that jackets and broad trowsers, the leg being their own port, formerly of no account in bare from the knee downwards. commerce, is now a scene of far greater still earlier period, one night have seen activity and profit, than either Genoa, here the natives of every nation trading Naples, Venice, or even that famous in the Mediterranean; Russians, Swedes, centre of Mediterranean traffic, Leghorn. Danes, Americans, Spaniards, Italians, These are circumstances which tend to Dalmatians, Ragusans. These indeed, attach the Maltese strongly to the Eng. bore in their dress and personal appear- lish government.

There are other ance no very striking characteristicks; powerful, motives to the same sentiment; but the various forms of their shipping, but in perceiving their own palpable and and colours of their pendants, gave an

immediate interest, these islanders are additional liveliness and picturesque effect sufficiently sharp-sighted. I cannot bete to the harbour. The events of the war ter illustrate this, than by a remark have unfortunately banished most of the which was made to ne by one of the foreign flags; but have by no means li most intelligent of their chief magistrates. mited, in an equal degree, the trade which “ Most of the towns-people, (said he) they used to carry on at Malta. Cir. who used to wear caps, have now hats; cuitous modes of conveyance are now

those whom I remember walking on foot, found out; and though no doubt the ty now ride; they who had formerly an ass rannical edicts of the oppressor of Europe or muie, now keep their calesses, (the have loaded commerce with vumberless coach of the country) and all this within difficulties and impediments, yet unless the course of thie tive or six years that he should attam an absolutely unlimited the English have been here. On the controul over every part of the continent, contrary, the French not only put an end and should continually direct the most to all our trade, but broke up our very severe and vigilant attention to this sin- fishing boats for fire-wood. Is it possible gle object, means would undoubtedly be that we should not draw an inference in discovered to carry on a contraband favour of England, from such comparitrade, for which the situation of Malta is so peculiarly favourable.

The Maltese must be the most stupid For the Monthly Magazine. people on the face of the earth, if they MEMOIR upon the VINEYARDS und WINES did not know how to appreciate the value of CHAMPAGNE in FRANCE, in ANSWER of English protection; not only by the to certuin QUERIES, circulated by thriving state of their own affairs, but by the

From LES ANNALES DE Contrast with the misery and ruin which the French system bas entailed on all the THE late province of Champagne, stantinople. Wherever the foot of a under the names of La Marne and La

Haute

sons ?

M. CHAPTAL.

CHIMIE.

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Haute-Marne, has been long celebrated The lower mountain comprehends a as the vineyard of France,

great quantity of vineyard countries; There are two kinds of wines which dis- among which we may distinguish Chatinguish this district.

mery, Ecueil, and Ville Demange: this White wines: called Riviere de Marne last place in particular, when the season wines.

is good, yields wine which will keep for Red wines: called Montagne de ten or twelve years. Rheims wines.

The lower mountain extends to the The white wines are produced from banks of the river Aisne. As the wines vineyards situated in the valleys and upon it produces are of a middling quality, it the sides of the hills in Epernay, Dizy, scarcely requires to be particularized. Avenay, Cramant, Lemesnil, Monthelon, The district of Saint Thierry, comChouilly, Moussy, &c. : but in conse- prehends a large extent of grounds, quence of one of those varieties of nature, containing large vineyards, such as Saint for which we cannot always account, the Thierry, Trigny, Chenay, Villefranques, estate of Cumieres, in the midst of so Douillon, Hermonville, which produce many vineyards celebrated for white very agreeable red wines of a pale colour, wines, and under the same exposure, very much in request among the dealers. produces red wines only, and of a quality But the wine properly called Clos far superior to the above wines.

Saint Thierry, and coming from the archAmong all the vineyards on the river bishopric of Rheims, is the only wine Marne, the cantons of Hautvillers, Ma- which unites the rich colour and flavour of reuil, Cumieres, and Epernay, are the Burgundy to the sparkling lightness of most advantageously situated: they ex- Champagne, Clos Saint Thierry, holds the tend along the river Marne, with this dis same rank among Champagne wines, that tinction, that the quality of the wine falls Clos-rougeut does among those of Buroff in proportion as the vineyard is distant gundy. from the river: for this reason Hautvillers In the enumeration of the vineyards of and Ay have always enjoyed a preference the mountain, some readers may perhaps over Epernay and Pierry; and the latter expect to find Sillery mentioned, once so over Cramant, Lemesnil, &c. and these remarkable for red and white wines : thie last over Monthelon, Moussy, &c. truth is, that Sillery wine is in a great

South exposures produce upon the measure composed of the wines produced banks of the Marne excellent white wines, in the territories of Verznay, Mailly, and but their declivities and posterior parts, Saint Basle, once made, by a particular which are called the mountains of Rheims, process, by the marechale d'Estrées, and although situated in general towards the for this reason long known by the name north, and alınost always to the east, also of Vins de la Marechale. At the revoluyield red wines of a good quality, and of tion this estate was divided, and sold to a fine taste and aromatic flavour. different rich proprietors of Rheims: the

The slope which overhangs Rheims is senator of Valencia, however, the heir to divided according to the quality of its a great part of this vineyard, neglects no wines; hence we have wines of tlle moun means of restoring Sillery to its former retain, of the lower mountain, and of the putation. estate St. Thierry.

Series of Questions put by 11. Chaptal, The mountain comprehends Verzy, St.

with their Answers.

; Chigny, Rilly, and Villers-Allerand; and I. Which is the most advantageous Expoamong these vineyards, the most esteemed

sure for the Vine? are Verzy, Verznay, and Mailly. The The most advantageous exposure for rest, although very good, are of a differ- the vine is, without contradiction, the ent quality.

south and the east; but it has been ascerThe vineyard of Bouzy, which termi- tained that certain advantages of soil and nates the chain or the horizon between the nature of the plant must also concur: south and east, and which, therefore, be- otherwise various districts, su longs to the two divisions, ought not to be mery, Vanteuil, Reuil, &c. with the same omitted. It produces excellent, fine, and exposure and climate, and also watered delicate red wines, which, from its expo- by the Marne, would enjoy the same cesure, participate in the good qualities of lebrity as Cunieres, Hautvillers, and Ay. Verznay and the good red wines of La It must be confessed that the former diss Marne,

tricts produce inferior kinds of wine; but

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it remains to be decided whether we ought beds, the moisture of which is constantly to ascribe this difference to the culture, sucked up by the vegetative channels centres the plants, or the soil.

the vine-plant.
II. Are the high Erposures, the middle CULTIVATION OF THE VINF.

Elevations, or the lower Grounds, best V. How is the Vine planted ?
adapted for Vineyards ?

In November or December, when the Of all situations, the middle grounds season admits of it, the vine is planted by are most esteemed: the heat being more making an oblong hole or furrow, one foot concentrated in them, they are exempt and a half in depth, by two or three feet from the variations of the atmosphere in length: the plant is introduced into it which prevail on eminences, and from and covered with earth. the humidity and exhalations which issue VI. Whut is the way in which the from the lower regions: the elaboration of

Shoots are made ? the sap or juice is thercfore more com The plants are inserted into turfs, or plete in the middle grounds.

in longuetles. The longuette is a mere III. Does an East or I'est differ much naked twig, which liad been left the year

from a South Exposure, in occasioning, preceding, and which is now carefully a sensible Difference in the Quality of raised and detached, leaving the young the Wines ?

roots behind it. A western exposure is unfavourable to The turf-plant, or marcotte, consists in vegetation : it burns and parches without digging up a turf in the marshes, and inany advantage, nor does it give time for troducing into it in spring, by ineans of a the juice to be elaborated, and spread hole inade in the middle of the turf, the through all the channels of vegetation, longuette or slip intended to be planted : when iists, humidity, or dew, succeed: this shoot with its earthy appendage is it is a certain fact, that there is a differ- then fixed in the ground, sloping it as ence of one third in the quality and va

usual: the root is formed in the course of lue between vines situated in east and the year, and with a pruning-knife the lonwest exposures.

guette is cut close to the top of the shoot, IV. Describe the Nature of the Ground and they are then removed by men, or on

or Soil which produces the best ll'ine. the backs of animals, in order to be after.

Next to exposure, the nature of the wards planted: this last way is the snost soil and of the ground influences the qua- expensive, but it is the surest, and advanlity of the wine. It must be admitied, ces the vine very fast in respect to vegetahowever, that grounds with a northernex- tion. posure produce wines of a generous and One hundred longuettes or bare slips spirituous descripiion; while another ex cost four or five livres, and turf plants posure, perhaps to the south, yields a cost from 12 to 14 livres. poor and common sort of wine. It is But as two longuettes are requisite for therefore to the salts and the juices of the each hole or furrow, when they plant in earth, combined with the influence of the this way there is a trilling saving, alatmosphere, that we must ascribe the though the other niethod is far presergonduess and qualities of soils adapted for able. vineyards.

VII. Is Grofting advantageous ? The most proper soil for vines is a. Grafting is not in general use, except sandy granitic earth, neither compact, in the vines helonging to the vine-dres. nor too thick, nor clayey: frequentiy in sers themselves, and in the large plant : the best exposures, we meet with sony these vines when grafted become vellow, seils, which give very strong wives; but and languish. The graft remains for

some warm and dry seasons are requisite in years exposed to the air, humidity, and to these cases, and a necessary maturity: he- bad managernent of the labourer, and in neath these stony soils, there are clayey short to all the intemperance of the cliand unctunus parts, and plenty of springs, mate. which conduce to the elaboration of the VIII. How long does a good Vine Plant juice.

last ? In general throughout Champagne the A gond vine-plant lasts 50 or 60 years, Soils proper for vines rest upon banks of and frequently longer, according to the chalk. The vine, indeed, conies up slowly care which has been taken of it, in this kind of soil, but when it has fairly A vine-plant is veteriorated generally taken root it grows to perfection: the by the bad management of the vine-dresheat of the atmosphere is tempered and sers with respect to the shoots or slips; if mundified by the coolness of the chally they are not sunk deep enough in the HUxTwxX Mac. No, 182.

T

ground,

ground, the vine plant becomes over. XIII. How many Eyes are left in the whelmed with roots, which at last form a

Plunt? solid cake, and absorb all the juices from Three eyes upon each branch: when the ground: the vine being thus incapa- the vine is weak, one branch only is cut ble of shooting, the evil ought to be in- off. stantly remedied.

XIV. At whal Height from the Ground IX. What kind of Grapes are best

is the Plant pruned ? adapted for While Wine Black and white grapes are plantedin. is not marked with old prunings, the

When the plant is young and the rind discriminately in the same vineyard: and plant is cut at the height of three or four this is perhaps wrong; for the term of inches: the vine-dressers cut higher, bematurity is not the same with both kinds cause they frequently cultivate three of grape. The reason assigned for this branches, and leave four eyes. practice is, that wine made from black XV. To whut Height is the line allowed grapes alone would be too vinous, and

to rise ? would become muddy (sujet à tocher) in Not higher than a foot and a half,—to hut seasons; while wine inade from white avoid dilating the sap too much. grapes would be too soft : the latter kind of grapes would be too soft, as containing

XVI. At what Season does the first Opemore inucilage (muqueux).

ration in the Vineyards commence ? X. Is the Black Grape preferable to the

After having pruned the vine, the first White ?-Stute the Cause of this Supe- operation is that of hoeing: this conriority.

sists in digging up the earth around There is not much variety in the grapes for a moment, and detach the earth

the plants, so as to uncover their roots of Champagne.

The black are generally preferred to the from them which may have becoine clotwhite grapes for several reasons: in the ted; the hoe being always inserted into the first place, the black grapes resist much earth about a foot from the plant. better the rains and trost so common about

At the end of March, or beginning of vintage time. Secondly, because there is April, when the thaws have softened the more vinosity and tineness in the black ground, the being commences. grape, and it gives more of what is called XVII. What is the Period of Planling by body to the wine: the white on the con

Slips or Cultings ? trary is too mucilaginous, renders the This kind of planting is performed at wine soft, and exposesit to become yellow, the time when the vine is planted. or to thicken.

XVIII. In what Manner is this kind of There are whole cantons, however, such

Planting managed as Chouilly, Cramant, Avise, Bisseuil, &c. In pruning, the vine-dresser reserves, in where there are but very few black grapes, the barest and most sterile places, cerand yet their wine is in high estimation. tain skips, upon which he leaves only two XI. Which of the Exposures is most subo or three stalks, according to the strength

ject to the Hourfrosts of Spring? of the slip: the hole or furrow being made, The effects of frost are only to be feared the slip is gently inclined, by disengaging at sunrise: the eastern exposures are con- the roots, and liy means of a pair of tongs sequently most apt to suffer, although it the stalks are held while placing in the has been ascertained that vine-plants furrow, at from four to six inches distance freeze in every exposure.

from each other: the slip being thus fixed Thus, all the preservative methods hi- at the dep:h of a foot or thereabout, it therto indicated, such as fumigations, or hand-basketfull of nianure is thrown at the poles arıned with long branches of foliage root of the slip; the lvole is then filled up capable of being agitated by the air, are with natural earth in a lvose mamer, in mere reveries of the imagination : they order to admit of the two or three stalks have been employed indeed in small en- sending out their shoots without being closures; but they never preserved a sin- bruised. gle cluster of grapes, and are incapable of XIX. How many Operations are there to being applied to a large vineyard.

be performed between the Pruning und XII. Al whut Period is the Vine to be the l’intage Season? pruned ?

The prunings being over, as the same About the end of February or beginning vines are not pruned every year, and even of March, the most essential operation in those which have been pruned the must be performed, namely, that of cut- earth has not been thoroughly stirred, the ting the plant. When it is very stro.g, vines are trimmed at the beginning of two branches or stumps only are left. May: this triniming is called labourage au

buurgeoil,

bourgeon, and is followed by the tyeing up which we generally feel about the part of the vine plants.

afflicted, proceeds from inflammation, XX. Which is the most favourahle Moment which your correspondent forgets is the

for Tyeing and Päring the Vine ? consequence and not the cause of heat, While the vine is in flower, it must not The fibres, by means of which we rebe touched : it must be pared when the ceive the sense of pain, are covered and flower has nearly passed away, and at the defended from external matter by the height indicated in Art. XV. it must af- third and innermost skin. This covering terwards be tied in such a way as to en- being destroyed or otherwise materiallyinvelop the slip, without iinpeding the jured by fire, air, or any other extraneous circulation of the air or the growth of the matter having access to the nerves causes suckers.

exquisite pain, which water or wet cloths Finally; about the middle of August, do but increase. Spirits of turpentine, in order to clear away the grass from the which one of your correspondents sugroots of the plant, and to raise up the gests, or any other sort of oil, by supplygrapes which may have fallen to the ing the place of a covering, instantly reground, a third and last trimming takes lieves the pain. If a blister be not very place.

large, honey, or white lead, should be The following is the routine practised laid on to keep the air out.

Ifit is large, in the vineyards of Champagne:

it should be punctured, and oil applied ; 1. They are cut in February or March.

but the skin should not be taken off un2. Hoed in March.

til it is dressed. The propriety of keep3. Pruned in April and May.

ing the air from burns may be proved by 4. Tied or propped up in April and May. any one who has courage to try the fol. 5. First trimming for the shoots, Jowing simple experiment: “ Let a drop 6. Pare and tie in June.

of hot sealing wax fall upon the finger; 7. Second triniming in July.

bear the pain till it is gone off, and let 8. Third trimnining in August.

the sealing wax remain upon the finger XXI. How is it ascertained thut the Grape five or ten minutes; then take it off,

is sufficiently ripe, in order to commence and no marks of a burn will be found. the Lubours of the Vintage ?

On the other hand, a blister is raised, At the end of September, or later if if it is instantly taken off.”

Glaziers use the season has been backward, before white lead whenever they receive burus proceeding to the labours of the vintage, from soldering irons. If you put your in order io obtain the fruit at the most hand or foot into a bason of water rather complete state of ripeness,

hotter than you can bear, the pain is The stalk of the grape must be brown greater the moment you take it out, than and woudy;

while it remains in. Your's, &c. The grape pendent ;

C. T. The skin or pellicle of the grape tender, and not brittle when chewed; To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

When a seed can be easily detached SIR, froin the juice of the grape: which should WAS rather surprised when I read in its turn present a vinous and transpa

your “ Proceedings of Learned rent appearance, without having any green Societies,” (No. 181, p. 60.) that Mr.

William Garrard has laid before the When the grape stones are brown, dry, Royal Society the discovery which he and not glutinous.

has made, of a new property of the tangents of three angles of a plane triangle,

which may be thus expressed: “ In every To the Editor of the Monthly Maguzine. plane triangle, the sum of the three tanSIR,

gents of the three angles multiplied by V page 104, of vol. xvi. your cor the square of radius, is equal to the concalls the vulgar custom of applying oil, Now, Sir, the discovery of this theorem honey, &c. in cases of burns and scalds. does not belong to Mr. Garrard; for you But he must either have had no expe- will find it in the mathematical part of tience, or reasoned very superficially on the Ladies' Diary, for 1797, p. 38, in an the subject, if he supposes that the appli- answer to a very trifling question. It is cation of cold water can have any effece therefore, somewhat extraordinary that in relieving the pain. It is impossible it should be admitted into the last that the heat or fire should remain in the volume of the Philosophical Transactions desh any considerable time afier the ac as a new discovery. Your's, &c. cident bias happened; the heat therefore February 4, 1809.

MATHEMATICUS.

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