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of the major. The fatal bullet had pas- milk of human kindness. His brother, who sed through the heart of the deceased, and parted from him at the commencement of so instantaneous must have been the death the action, and who almost saw bim fall, ef Major Stanhope, that a sense of pain had the affliction may be conceived but cannot not corn from bis countenauce that smile be described. Well might the unhappy which the bravery of his soldiers and the ap- : youth exclaim on the occasion.-" To lose plause of his commander had excited. in one hour the companion of my earliest any period, but particularly in times when years, and most affectionate friend of my we may have to contend for our liberties as heart; and the kindest protector and best of a nation on our own shores; the death of friends in the gallant Sir John Moore; is alsuch a man must be regarded as a public most more than philosophy or human nature loss : and every lover of his country will can withstand.” Those only can appreciate deeply lament that so many excellent lives the affectionate attachment of these brothers, should have been sacrificed to so little pur- who were witnesses to their growing years, pose. The loss of Major Stanhope to his im- and who can affirm that in their breasts, were mediate connections is irreparable: his man.' never perceived those emotions of envy, ners were remarkably nuild:-his atachments those risings of jealousy so frequently fatal to strong; and his heart overflowed with the the bappiness of the nearest relations,
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT. THE embargo, which has for so long a time been a favourite object of policy with the
government of the United States of America, fo far from having been fel a fide by a vote of the legislature, as many people in this country were led to believe, has been con. firmed by the American Congress, as a wile and necessary measure; and so far from any relaxation taking place with respect to this country, steps are to be taken for rendering it more tompetent to its intended purpose. Another measure of itill greater rigour, that of pafing a non-intercourse act, was in contemplation when the last vetřel came away. The principle of the non-intercourse restriction is to apply equally to France and Great Britain, and is understood to comprehend both private, armed, and unarmed vessels. It was generally supposed in America, that when this measure thould have been carried into effect, the embargo will be taken off, with respect to the few countries which are not immediately within the scope of French and British influence. The consequence of this decision has already caused a considerable advance in the prices of Tobacco, Cotton-wool, Flasseed, Ahes, Staves, Timber, &c. &c.
A new tariff has been agreed on at Rio de Janerio, which considerably reduces the valuation on which British manufactured goods paid duty in the ports of Brazil, and which it is understood will be retrotpective. A warehoufing, on a principle similar to our own, is also in contemplation, as well as several other matters of great importance, calculated in every respect for placing the future comercial intercourse with that country on the most liberal and respectable footing. The whole of the regulations, it is fully underitood, are embraced hy Lord Strangford, in the treaty which he was negociating with the Prince Regent. The Baltic Mercbant has arrived from Rio de Janeiro, and by her our merchants have received considerable orders for our manufactures, particularly for coarte woollens of every description. The communication between that port and the thores of the Rio de la Plata is noir open, and a large portion of the merchandize ordered by the aforetaid conveyance is intended for that market.
Little business is doing for some days past in the Cotton-market, chiefly owing to the large quantity of that article lately arrived at Liverpool from America, by veslels that escaped the embargo. Sugars have a dull sale in the market, owing to the dutillation from corn, and the great quantity on hand. Coffee a dull fale, except for home-contumption, but not lowered in price. Old Jamaica Rum scarce and dear. ' Leeward Illand Rum advanced fuel od. per gallon.
COURSE OF EXCHANGE.
Prices of Hops.
Bags.--Kent, 31, 10s tv 41. 14s. per cwt. Altona .. 31 131
Sussex, 31. Ss. to 31. 15s. per cwt. Amsterdam 33 2 133 2
Essex, 31. 10s. to 41. 14s. per cwt. Paris ......22
3 Pockets.-Kent, 41. 6s. to il. 12s. per cwt. Leghorn.... 57
-Sussex, 31. 55. to 41 6s. per cwt.
Farn. 71. Os to 8l. Os. per cwt.
The average price of Raw Sugar, ending Oporto
16 10th of February, 1809, is 535. 24d. per cwt. Dublin
8£ exclutive of duties. Cork (10
31 31 3 21
50 167 66
50 107 166
The following are the average Prices of Navigable Canal Shares, Dock Stock, Fire Office Shares, &c. in February, 1809, at the Office of Mr. Scott, No. 28, New BridgeAtreet, Blackfriars, London :- I be Erewash Canal, at 6031. 15s per fare, dividing 371. 10s. oett per fare per annum.-The Melton Mowbray, 1311. dividend, 71. 10s. nett - The Leiceiter, 1661. dividend, 10!. nett. - The Grantham, 641. dividend, 41. nett ---The Leeds and Liverpool, 1821. dividend, 8. nett. -The Monmouththire, 1061. to 1071. 10s. dividend, 51. nett --Grand Junction, 1321. to 1331. dividend, 41.-Wilts and Berks, 281.Kennet and Avon, 231. to 231. 105.--Alby.de-la-Zouch, 211.-Lancaster, 171. with a dividend of 11. per fare.--West India Dock Stock, 1641. to 175l. per cent. -Londen Dock, 1181. to 118l. 10s.--East India Dock, 125). 10s.-Rock Allurance, 5s. per share premium.—East London Water Works, 461. to 471. premium.-Covent Garden New Theatre Subscription, 311. 10s. per Mare premium.
NATURALIST'S MONTHLY REPORT,
The horizontal fun
And, ineffectual, strikes the gelid cliff.
my last Report I stated that a thaw commenced in the evening of the 27th of December, and continued till the 4th of January. In the morning of the 2d we had fome Inow, but, (although the wind was north east,) no froft. It was on the night of the 4th that the froft re-commenced, and with great severity. On the 14th we had fome snow, and in the ensuing night a much heavier fall than is usual in the maritime counties of the south coast of England. On the 19th the wind changed from north-east to fouth-eait, and the thaw was fo rapid as to flood a great portion of the low ground in the neighbourhood of the rivers. The 28th was a remarkably fine and warm day; but the 30th was one of the most tremendous days I can recolleet. For many hours we had a perfect hurricane: the rain was incessant: persons were scarcely able to walk abroad; and bricks and tiles were blown from many of the houses. Considerable damage has been done in various places.
January 6. I am informed that, in fonie parts of Wiltshire, the flocks of different fpecies of wild geele, in consequence of the hard weather, are immensely numerous. They have devoured no small quantity of the blades of wheat which were springing up. Some of the fields, till they were driven away by the sportsmen and farmers attacking them with their guns, are said to have been almost covered with them.
Bitterns have been more numerous in the neighbourhood of the place from which I write, than they have for many years been remembered. Several of them have been shot. They are doubtless induced to approach the coast in consequence of the marshes in the inland counties having been frozen.
Woodcoeks have, this year, been unusually scarce ; but snipes have been found in great numbers. During the open weather they were upon the heaths; and fince the commence. ment of the frost they are found about ditches and springs in the marshes.
January 17. Several gooseanders (mergus merganser of Linnæus) have been shot. A male and female were this day brought to me for examination.
January 19. Some of the early flowers have appeared ; amongst these I obferve, in sheltered situations in gardens, the winter aconite (belleborus hyemalis), Christmas rose (belleborus niger), and Inow.drops. The only flower which now adorns the hedges is that of the furze.
January 28. This being an unusually mild and pleasant day, I walked for two or three miles along the sea fhore, and found on the sands several species of coleopterous infects which had been thrown back by the tide. Amongst there I particularly remarked chrysomela stapbylea, leveral kinds of bydrophilus, and two or three fpecies of dermestes, all of them alive. There were also several boat-flies, rotoneEta glauca, which perhaps had mistaken the falt water for fresh.
January 31. I went again to the hore, expecting that the tempest of yesterday might have caft up some Mells, and other marine productions that I wanted. I found mya truncata, maetra subtruncata, and ma&tra ftultorum, in great quantities, but particularly the former, which is in general a fomewhat scarce fell on our coaits. There were likewise leveral kinds of sertularia, apbrodita aculeata, aphrodita squamaia, asterias lacertosa, cancer tetraodong and cancer latipes. A beau goose, brent goose, and smew, were this day brought to mo.
The first leaves of wall-pennywort (coryledon umbilicus), cnckoo-pint (arum moculatum), virgin's thistle (carduus marianus), and liemiock (conium maculutam), appear.Hepaticas, mueuereon, and crocus's, are in flower.
MONTHLY BOTANICAL REPORT. IN onr present report we mean to give an account of the botanical part of the ninth vo
Jume of the Tranfactions of the Linnean Society, lately published. The first botanical pa. pe we meet with in this voluive is the fourth in order, and from the pen of the prefident. It is what the author calls a sketch of the geuas Conchium. This genus having been characterised by Dr. Schrader of Göttingen, and published under the name of Hakea, in his Sertum Hannoverianum, before the reading ot' Dr. Smith's paper in the fourth volume of the Transactions, the latter name has the right of priority, and was accordingly adopted by Cavanilles; and the doctor allows that he might have accoded to this decision, however sorry to part with an apt and characteristic nanie, were he certain that Hakea were liable to “no botanical exception.” We do not exactly know what is meant by this expression , but the fact is evident, that the author very naturally feels reluctant to part with so appropriate a name in favour of one applied atter a botanist perhaps unknown to him, as
But for this attachnient to his own offspring, we do not suppose that Dr. Smith would have made any exception to the name Hakea, having been himself perhaps a little too lavish in bestowing on his friends this unicum botanicorum premium. We do not however feel at all inclined to blame this attempt at establishing bis excellent name of Conchium, taken from the form of the seed vessel, which aptly enough resembles a bivalved shell; especially as the genus is not yet recorded, under any name, in Willdenow's or other systematic work; on which account no inconvenience can arise from preferring the test name to the one having only a claim of priority, and we sincerely hope that Conchiun will be adopted in the next edition of the Hortus Kewensis, as whichever name may be taken up there will probably be established, as long as our present systems and nomenclature shall remain. Twelve species of this genus are here characterised with the author's usual precision.
The next paper, from the same hand, is an inquiry into the genus Abelicea cretica of Pona, the Pseudosantalum creticum of Caspar Bauhin, which the author considers to be undoubtedly a congener of Ulmus nemoralis; but whether either belong to the genus Ulmus, can. not, for wanit uf complete fructification, be positively decided. It is here said that Rhamnus carpinifolius uf the Flora Rossica is the same tree with Uimus hemoralis, and that, fruna the very imperfect state of the fruit, as possessed both by Pallas and Linnæus, it does uot appear very like that of an Ulinus, but it bears still less resemblance to that of a Rhamnus. We wish every botanist would follow the example of Dr. Smith, whu says that he always prefers leaving things as they are, to any hasty or tash alteration.
The sixth paper is still from the same pen, and entitled an inquiry into the real Daucus gingidium, a plant which Linuæus himself, it seems, did not well understand. It is here remarked that the synonyms of Magnol and Boccone puoted hy Linnæus, are very doubtful; that the Staphylinus folio latiqre of Rivinus, Pent. irr. t. 30, unquestionabiy belongs to Daucus gingidium, as dues probably D. bispanicus of Gouan, who does not seem to have been acquainted with the true gingidium, by name at least. In the Supplementum Piantarum the gingidium is again taken up under the name of D. lucidus, from a specnnen of it which Linnæus had cultivated in the garden at Uysal in his declining years, and liad preserved in kis herbarium_without applying any specific name to it, though it agrees perfectly with his own character of D. girgidium, and with the ngure of Matihiolus first quoted by Van Royen. In tlie Linnean herbarium there is a specimen of Daucus (or rather Aimui) visnuga, marked D. gingidium; and Dr. Smith rernurks, that he had never seen an authentic speciiuen of the latter plant in any collection
The seventh paper contains Descriptions of eight new British Lichens by Duwsod Turner, Esq.
The next is an illustration of the species of Lycium, which grow wild at the Cape of Good Hope, by Professor 'i hunberg. Eight species are described, and fout, vix. afruin, retrandrum, cincereum, and burridum, are figured.
The next botanical paper is the fourteenti, and contains an account of some new species of Piper, by Mr. John Vaughan Thompson. The author has given some very sensi le rewarks on this very dutural genus, in which the attempt of the authors of the Flúra Peruviana to separate the berbaceous species, under the name of Peperomia, appears to us tu be very judiciously condemned. Representations are given of (wo new species, the quadrangulure and bracteatum.
The fifteenth paper is an inquiry into the structore of seeds, and especially into the trut nature of that part called, by Wærtner, the Vitellus. The principal intent or this essay appears to be to show that the orgen called, by Gertper, the Vitellus, does nut differ in its MONTHLY MAG, No. 182.
nature or office from the subterraneous cotyledons, or such as do not rise out of the earth; and the aythor observes, that cotyledons and vitellus never occur in the same seed. Gærtner had himself remarked that there is so little difference between the subterraneous cotyledons and vitellus, that they are, in fact, united by the closest affinity, nature seeming to proceed in the formation of these organs by gradual advances from the simple texture of the albuinen, to the more organised structure of the vitellus, and thence to the still more perfect cotyledons : so that, in this respect, at least, the opinion of the president does not appear to be very different from that of Gærtner. The latter, however, supposed the vitellus to be destined to afforri nutriment to the young plant, at its first germination, which Dr. Smith does not allow, thinking it more reasonable to suppose that the albumen alone is destined for this purpose, whilst the vitellus and cotyledons, like the lungs of animals, appear intended for the absorption of oxygen. This is illustrated by a reference to the experiments of Dr. Priestley, showing how oxygen is absorbed in the dark by the under surface of the leaves : so the under side of the cotyledons and vitellus is always turned outwards; and those that do not ascend out of the earth may be favoured, in this operation, by exclusion from light; for which purpose the author further observes that the testa of the seeds is frequently of a black colour. But as it is allowed that the albuminous or nutritious matter, instead of being lodged in a distinct organ, is so frequently united with the cotyledons, in which cases these organs perform the double office of supplying nutriment and absorbing oxygen; so, if we consider the ritellus in the saine latitude as Gærtner has dones, it may be concluded, that, in those cases, in which it fills a considerable portion of the testa, the albuminous matter is mixed with the vitelline organization, and the double office performed as in the more perfect colyledons. If the name of vitellus be confined to the small scale-like organ, as it occurs in grasses, where the albumen forms so large and distinct a viscus, it may salely be concluded 'thar it does not afford nutriment to the germinating embryo, but is destined for the sole pure pose of absorbing or being acted upon by oxygen. Dr. Smith's idea of a Cotyledon is that it is a vital organ, capable, as fucks, of being stimulated by oxygen, heat, or both, for the propulsion of its contents ; while such an albumen is merely a repository of nutritious ve. getable matter, subject to the laws of chemistry alone, and only passively resigning those contents to the absorbing powers of the embryo, to which it is attached.” It may, bowever, be very well niade a question, whether the first gerinination of the seed is occasioned by the propulsion of the fiuids towards the embryo, as Dr. Smith imagines, or that the embryo by its vital principle first absorbs and propels the fluids into the cotyledon, to be there oxygenated, or to undergo the necessary changes, and thence returned to the embryo fitted for all the purposes of nutrition and the increase of the youg plant. The latter opinion may appear the most probable, if a comparison be made with what takes place in the animal sys. tem, in which the blood is propelled by the vascular system of the fætus into the placenta or cotyledons, for the purpose of being furnished with oxygen and nutritious particles, whence it returns to the facius. It must be allowed, however, that this analogy is very defective, from the want of any organ similar to a heart, in the vegetable embryo. Upon the whole, while we allow the merit of an ingenious and plausible hypothesis to this essay, it is very evident that anatomical facts, many experiments, and much patient investigation, are still necessary to explain satisfactorily the physiology of germination.
The sixteenth paper, by William Hunter, esq. secretary to the Asiatic Society, determines that the little cakes or lozenges known by the name of Gutia gambir, are not prepared from the Mimosa catechus as had been suspected, but from the leaves of a species of Nauclea here described, figured and named Nauclea gambir. Two other species of Nauclea, viz,' N. acida, and N. scleropbylla, are lere characterized and described.
The seventeenth paper contains observations on several British species of Hieracium, hy the president. It is here observed too, that Hieracium dubium, and H. auricula, were admitted into the Flora Britannica, solely on the authority of Mr. Hudson. Il having been sugyested to the author of that work by a learned friend tliat he had taken the one tor the other, he has in this paper defended himself from the supposed error; and for this purpose he lyas critically and chronologically examined all the Linnan synonyms of both species. It appears, by this detail, that the Linnwan names have been misapplied in the Flora Danica, the H. dubium of which work, tab. 1014, is the H. auricula of Linnæus and Dr. Smith; and H. auricuła, tab. 1011, is the true H. dubiu.-2. It had been suggested to the author of the Flora Britannica, that his Hieracium murorum B. was the a. of Linnæus; the vistake is here handsomely acknowledged and accounted for.-3. Under Hieracium sylvaticum, the synonyms of Ray, and Gerard emac. as well as Petiver's t. 13. f. 5. a copy of the latter, are to be removed from this place to designate a variety of Cineraria integrifolia: the tale of this decision is unfolded in an agreeable and interesting manner.-4. Hieraciun cerinthoides is added to the British Flora, on the authority of a specimen gathered in the Highlands of Scotland hy Mr. George Don; from whoin we learn, that it is a plant of coinnion occurrence on the rocks of that country.
The eighteenth paper, by the same, contains specific characters of the decandrous papilionaceous plants of New Holland, the genera of which Dn Smith had before determined in the first volume of the Annals of Botany. From this paper may be added to the list of
New Holland plants by Dryan'er, in the second volume of Annals of Botany: Pultnæa elliptica; Gompholobium scabrum; Chorozema sericeum; C. coraceum; Daviesia incrassata; D, reticulata; D. cordata; D. ala:2; D. juncea; Dillwynia myrtifolia; D. glycinifulia; Callistachys lanceolata; C. elliptico; C cuneifolia.
The Gómpbolobium macularum, only mentioned here from Bot. Repository, we are pretty certain is not a Gompholubium, nor a native of New Holland, but of the Cape. Chorozema Dr. Smith derives from xogos, a dance, and Genea, a drink; supposing that Ļa Billardiere gave his name to the plant, in allusion to the joyful finding of water at the place where it was found after the party had suffered much from thirst. For this reason Dr. Smith bas changed the name of Chorezema, and altered the gender, which La Billardiere had made the feminine. This latter author has not himself given the etymology; and Dr. Sims supe posiug its derivation to be from xogos, a dance, und Sausa, a mischief, or punishment, from the inconvenience its spinous leaves must occasion io the naked-footed dancers of that country, had maintaiued the propriety of making it of the feminine gender. We shall not here undertake to determine whose etvinology is the most probable; but Dr. Smith justifies the change he has taken the liberty to make.
The nineteenth paper is on the subject of the variegation of plants, by Thomas Andrew Knight, esq. The design is to prove, that the variegation is not always to be considered as a mark of disease or debility, although in certain instances it appears to be so; this debility appears more certain in plants variegated with white; and when they become altogether white, Mr. Kniglit thinks they very seldom live long. Having impregnated the flowers of the white Chasselas with the farina of the variegated or Aleppo vine, he raised many young plants from the product, every one of which was more or less variegated both in the leaves and fruit, yet all the plants were strong and vigorous. But the most important fact is, that some of these varieties of the Aleppo vine possess a more than ordinary degree of hardiness and vigour, ana iwo of them appear much more capable of affording mature fruit, in the climate of England, than any now cultivated.
The twentieth paper contains characters of Hookeria, a new genus of Mosses, with de. scriptions of ten species, by the president. This genus is dedicated to the author's young friend, Mr. William Jackson Hooker, of Norwich.
The twenty-second paper, by R. A. Salisbury, esq. contains remarks on the plants non referred to Sophora, withi characters of the genus Edwardsia. It is here very justly obe served, that the last edition of the Systema Vegetabilium.contains, at least, eight genera; very few, if any, of which will follow each other in a natural series. Lamarck detached two of these heterogeneous parcels, joining with them nevertheless some that are quite dissimilar in habit. Willdenow, strange to tell, not only re-united the two genera o; La narck, but added to them a third, still more discordant, and nearly allied to Halodendron. One of the parcels of these plants, containing Sophora tetraptera, microphylla, and chrysophylla, a new species, is here raised into a distinct genus, and named in honour of Mr. Edwards, draftsman to the Botanical Magazine.
The twenty-third paper contains characters of Platylobiun, Bossiæa, and a new genus named Poisetia, by the presideặt. These three genera have a very great affinity with each other, but are distinguished by a marked difference in the structure of the legumen.
The twenty-fourth paper contains descriptions of several new Mosses from Nepal; by William Jackson Hooker, esq.
This volume bears aniple testimony to the ability with which Natural History is cultivated by the incmbers of the Linnæan Society, and to the zealous induitry of its learned president.
METEOROLOGICAL REPORT. (Ibservulions on the State of the Weather, from the 24th of Junuary, to the 24th of
February, 1809, inclusive, Four Miles N.N.W, of St. Puul's.
Lowest, 299. Feb. 22. Wind N.W.
On the 25th ult. 51 honGreatest
the glass was no higher
13°. varjution in 14ch, at the same variation in
than 34°, and on the of an inch 24 hours hour, it stood at 24 hours.
26th it was as high 29.18.
The quantity of rain fallen fince our laft Report is equal to 5.54 inches in depth. We bave had another very rainy nonth; on eighteen days out of thirty-one there has been