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rain, and often in great quantities. From the rapid thaw we alluded to in our last Report the accounts from the country have been truly diftrefling; the damage doue in low countries is almost încalculable; and there is reason to fear that the havock committed by the flouds among the theep, will be productive of serious effects upon the country in general.

The average temperature for the current month is equal to 44° 2 about 5 degrees higher than it was during the faine month last year, and 7 degrees liigher than it was in February 1807. The average height of the barometer is 29.297, which is rather lower than it was for the last month. The winds have blown chiefly from the westerly quarter, sometimes north, and sometimes south-west. We may reckon, not withianding the great nunber of Tainy days, nine in which the sun has fhone with great brilliancy.

Astronomical Anticipations. In the course of the present inonth the moon will be twice at the full; viz. on the morning of the 2d, at 57 minutes past three, and in the afternoon of the 31st, at 23 minutes past three. The conjunction or new moon will be on the norning of the 16th, at 19 minutes past four. On the evening of the 4th, will take place a notable occultation of the bright #ar, of the first inagnitude, in the constellation of the Virgin, commonly named the Virgin's pike, and hy Bayer marked d. The immerfion will take place at the bright edge of the moon, 1h. 23m. after her rifing, at 20 minutes past ten, apparent tine; and the emerfion 254 minutes afterwards. At the commencement of the plienomenon the star will be 13 minutes, and at the end 14 minutes, to the south of the moon's centre. It fhould be noticed, that the fun.dial is 11n. 57f. behind a well-regulated ctuck at the time of the occultation. Mercury and Jupiter will be too near the sun this month to be seen with the naked eye. Venus will make a rery splendid appearance, every clear evening, in the west, and towards the end of the month nay be seen with the naked eye about two hours after sun-set. On the 1st, her elongation from the sun will be 45° 42', and on the 31st, 44° 48'. Her greatest elongation happens on the 13th, when lier angular distance from the sun will be 46° 8'. Throughout the month the will increase in splendour, and will be up between four and five hours after fun-let. About the nuiddle of the month fhe will appear dichotomized, as seen through a telefcope, after which the will become horned. Alars will be a morning Star for the month. He will be up the greatest part of the night, and will make a fine appearante near the Virgin's spike, towards which bright star he will be constantly approaching by his retrograde motion. Saturn is still a morning-far. On the If he rises at one o'clock in the morning, and on the 31st, at 5 niinutes past eleven, night. In the beginning of the month he will be 3° 32' lets in longitude, and 6° 36' more north, than the Scorpion's heart, a far of the first magnitude; on the 13th, the day of Saturn's Aationary appearance, the planet will be seven minutes of a degree nearer to the far in Hongitude, and only one ininute further to the north, than at the beginning of the month; and on the 31st, the difference of longitude will be 3° 30', and of latitude 6° 39'. The Georgiumn Sidus will be above the horizon the greatest part of the night. On the evening of the 11t he rises at 49 minutes paft ten, on the evening of the 16th at 53 minutes pait nine, and on the evening of the 316 at 56 minutes past eight. He may be readily found with the telescope, by observing, that on the 1st the difference of longitude of this planet and the bright star of the second magnitude, in the south scale of the Balance, will be :20 50', and on the 31st, 3° 17', the star, in both cases, being further to the east in longitude, and about 7 minutes more to the south in latitude. That very fingular itar, the in tbe constellation of Perreus, sometimes called Medusa's head, and tometimes Algol, was muserved to be at its leaft brightness on February 18, at about 8 minutes past eleven, night, clock-time, at which time it was as faint as the g Persei, of the fourth magnitude. Frola this datum, compared with that of Mr. Goodricke of York, which was fixed on October 25, 1783, the following times of leaft brightnets visible to Great Britain are, with sufficient accuracy, determined to be: the 8th, at 3 minutes past four, morning ; the 11th, at 8 mimutes before one, norning; the 13th, at 41 minutes paft nine, night; and the 31st, al 35 nimutes past two, morning. Those who are curious to observe the whole phenomenon, muft begin to examine the star about four hours before the time of its least brightness, and continue their observations for the eight consecutive hours. The vernal equinox happens on the night of the 20th, at 14 minutes paft twelve, at which moinent the real centre of the {nn will be rising to all those places whofe longitude is 87 degrees to the east of the Royal Observatory at Greenwichs, precisely at their lix o'clock; and at the fame moment it will ke setting to all those places whose longitude is 93] degrees to the west of Greenwich. But, on account of the refractive nature of the atmosphere, efpecially in the horizon, the sun's centre will appear to rise three or four minutes before, and to let the fame space of time niter fix. On the equator the quantity of the acceleration of the rising, and retardation of the ketting, will be 2m. 146. in latitude 10 degrees north and fouth, 2m. 161. in latitude 20 degrees, 2m 23 . in latitude 30 degrees, 2m. 35 . in latitude 40 degrees, 2m. 558. in datitude 50 degrees, 3m. 281. in the latitude of London, 3m. 354 1. &c. &c. &c.

Erratum in the Astronomical Anticipations for February.-Line 3, for nine," read " eight."

MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

No. 183.]

APRIL 1, 1809.

13 of VOL. 27.

"As long as those who write are ambitious of making Converts, and of giving to their Opinions a Maximum of

" Infueoce and Celebrity, the moft extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greatest Effeet abs “Curiosity of those who read either for Amusement or Infruction." JOHNSON,

COUNT

DE

A

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. For the Monthly Magazine. vour of this match, England, in lieu of deACCOUNT of the EMBASSY Of LOUIS DE manding a dower, had yielded the proBOURBON,

VENDOSME, vince of Maine to Charles d'Anjou, uncle JACQUES JOUVENEL DES URSINS, ARCHI

of the Princess. Margaret never par.. BISHOP Of Rheims, and others, to Hen- doned the opposition of the Duke of RY VI. KING OF ENGLAND,, from u ms. in Gloucester to the marriage; and landed the NATIONAL LIBRARY UT PARIS, mark- in England, an enemy to that prince, ed 8448, by M. GALLIARD: now first and patroness of the party of the Cardipublished in ENGLAND.

nal. The young Suffolk, whom the CarT the epoch of the negociation, of dinal had used to negociate this marriage, VII. reigned in France, and Henry VI. in loaded bin with such acts of kindness, as England: the English, after a long time, to bring some stain upon her character. lost in France all tlie conquests which Hen- Henry was despotically governed by her: ry V. and the Duke of Bedford had made no other power was known than that of there. The two nations were fatigued. Margaret: she occupied Henry with a with war, and their minds were disposed pusillanimous devotion, while he gave up to accommodation. Henry VI. nephew the reins of government to her. Upon of Charles VII. had the same affection for the whole Henry was a prince of weak him and France, which Richard II. bis mind, and Margaret a woinan of strong great uncle, according to the British mode, character; her courage and her pride had had for Charles VI. maternal grandfa- destined her to great faults, great inis. ther of Henry. Conferences for peace fortunes, and great resources. The party were perpetually held ; sometimes at Ar- of the Queen and Sulfolk was called in ras, sometimes between Calais and Gra- England the French party. Margaret, velines, sometimes at Tours. The ascen- in truth, appeared to be always attached dancy, which the factions in France had to the interests of France, her country; hitherto given to the English, whether in and the Duke of Suffolk, in order to arms or council, declined every day. please her, went sometimes so far as to The same factions then reigned in the betray his own ; for which, in the end, English regency. The Duke of Glouces- he was ruined; but at the time of the ter, the king's uncle, and the Cardinal embassy he was in the zenith of favour. of Winchester, his great uncle, son of At the conferences of Tours, they the Duke of Lancaster, father of Henry could only agrec upon a truce: the object IV. were quarrelling for supremacy; and of the embassy was, if possible, to coneach accused the other several tiines of vert this truce into a lasting peace. treason in various parliaments. These

Four of the ambassadors arrived at civil discords had the most sensible in Calais, July 2, 1445, and went the next Huence upon continental affairs. The day to Dover. On the 3th they all united Cardinal and the Duke were divided in at Canterbury, and made their entry into opinion upon public business, as well as London upon the 14th. At about a upon the private views of ambition. The league from the metropolis, says the Duke of Gloucester desired only war, Ms. came the Earls of Suffolk, Dorset, and what he called the glory of the Eng- Salisbury, and many others, all of whom

The Cardinal was for France greeted the ambassadors personally and and peace. The Duke had wished to pleasantly, and escorted them by Louunite Henry with a daughter of the Comte don Bridge to their quarters. Upon the d'Arinagnac: the Cardinal had concluded bridge were the mayor and citizens, all in 1444, the year preceding, at the con rohed scarlet, furred with inartin-fur; ferences of Tours, the marriage with about 60 in number. Before the mayor Margaret of Anjou, daughter of René, a man held a gilt sword; afterwards Duc d'Anjou, and King of Sicily. In fa- along the streets,

were stationed thie MONTHLY Mag. No. 183,

trades

Jish name.

trades, each dressed alike, and niany lor Archbishop of Canterbury, both creapeople to see them enter.

tures of the Cardinal of Winchester and On the 15th, the ambassadors were ad- the Duke of Suffolk: these were on his mitted to an audience of the King, and right. At his left were the Duke of found him on a high sallette [a littie hall. Gloucester and some others. Cotgr.) without a bed, hung with blue The instructions and discourse of the tapestry, diapred with the livery of the French ambassadors breatived nothing but late King, i. e. to say, with broom plants, peace and amity; and on hearing these and his motto, Jamais, worked in gold; words, the King of England made a very and throne of tapestry, of ladies, who fine aspect of being exceedingly conwere presenting to a lord the arms of tented and rejoiced, and especially when France : it was all worked upon gold, they spoke of the King his uncle, and very rich, and a high chair stood under the love which he had for him, his heart the said throne, covered even to the seemed to leap for joy~il sembloit que

le ground with a vermillion cloth of gold.”. cueur lui rist. Athis window was Mons.

[Here M. Galliard, Frenchman like, de Glocestre, whom he looked at occá(for there cannot be a doubt, but Clarke's sionally, and then turning to his right, Naval Taetics, will one day be afiirined to the Chancellor, Duke of Suffolk, and to be a plagiarism from the French !) di- Cardinal of York, who were there, smiled gresses to shew, that the broom-plants upon them, and seemed to make a sign. were borrowed from the order of the He was observed even

to squeeze ihe geniste in France, and adopted by Henry hand of the Chancellor, and was overV. when he took the title of the King of heard saying in English, “I am extremeFrance; whereas every body knows, that ly glad that some people, who are prethis was the cognizance and Plantagenet sent, hear these words: they are not at (Plantageniste), the name of our Kings their ease.” from Henry 11. - Menestrier (ards Mr. The Chancellor of England replied G.) is right in making the word Jamais, also, in the name of his master, with some James, being a word in the order." - words of peace and amity; nevertheless So much for French criticism upon the King complained to hin, in English, English affairs. The order was not that he had not said enough. And the founded till long after the death of our King came to the ambassadors, and, Henry II. not till 1234! The throne putting his hand to his hood, and lifting and audience chamber of Henry VI. are it froin his head, cried two or three engraved by Strutt. Dresses, Pl. cxv. tiines, Suint Jehan, grand mercy! Saint Translator.1

Jehun, grand mercy!-i. e." Thank you, Henry, proceeds the MS. received the Saint John! Thank you, Saint John!"French Ambassador with every mark of and clapped them on the back, and inade distinction; and as soon as the Comte de many very joyful gestures, and bid the Vendosme and the Archbishop of Rheims, Comte de Suffolk tell them, that he did who were the first, entered into the not consider them as strangers; and that chamber, and the King saw them, he de- they should make the same use of his scended, and, standing upright before house as that of the King his uncle, and bis throne, there waited for the said am come and go at all hours, the same as bassadors, et toucha tous ceux du Roi bien in the house of that King. humblement,* in taking off his hood a lite On the 16th they returned to the King's tle to the Count and Archbishop. audience chambers, and, while waiting,

The Count presented the letters, and conversed with the Comte de Suffolck, as the Archbishop porta la parole,t took up the MS. frenchifies the English title. the word, and spoke in French, announ He said to them, purposely loud enough cing the rank of each of the ambassadors

. for every body to hear,--Et si aroit" la He observed, that the Comte de Laval plusieurs ; princes and seigneurs--that he was nephew' by affinity of the King of wished them all to know, that he was the France, and cousin german by affinity of servant of the King of France, and that, the King of England.

except the person of the King of England, , (Here Mr. Galliard adds the pedigree.] his master, he would serve him with per

The King had by him at this audience son and property against all the world ; the Cardinal of York, and the Chancel and added: 'I say, except my master, his

person : I do not speak of the Lords, and * The translator is not certain as to the

do not except neither the Dauphin nor sense of this passage.

Gloucester, nor any others, beyond his 4. It is contrary to modern etiquette to person; and he repeated these words speak first to the King, but ambassadors may e privileged. ,

Tres bel samblast:

three

three or four times over each time, in a acquired a right, before the quarrel of louder tone of voice, saying, that he Philip de Valois and Edward the Third knew well, that bis master wished the about the succession to the crown of same, and that the King of France was France the person whom his master loved best in The Archbishop of Rheins, who was the whole world, next to his wife. He the orator of the French embassy, readded, that he desired such great honour peated also the offers which had been and good to the King of France ; that he made at Tours on the part of France: it wished every one to know, that he would was to cede to England, in the southern serve hiin towards all and against all, ex- provinces, Guienne, le Quercy, and le cept the person of his said master." Perigord; in the part of the north, Ca

(From this silly speech, it appears that Jais and Guisnes; the whole under conSaitolk, was a very weak man; and with dition of homage. These offers, he said, such counsellors the misfortunes of Henry were full as great, or very nearly so, as are not surprising. ]

the pretensions of the English before the In this second audience they talked of quarrel for the crown; since then they business and peace, but in a manner laid no pretensions to Normandy, and superficial and fitted to the bounden ca were confined to the Duchy of Guienne, pacity of the King. They talked more and the county of Ponthieu. of peace in general, than of the methods The Cardinal d'Yorck pretended, that of making it. They said, that since the Poitou and Normandie were part of their two Kings were such friends! “ cursed just pretensions (en etoient MS.). The be be who should advise them to have ambassadors recalled to their recollection war together!” to wbich every one pre- the famous treaty of 1259, concluded sent replied Amen. It was also said, between S. Louis and Henry III. King that the two Kings could better than of England, by which Saint Louis ceded any person terminate their differences by to tbe English the Duchy of Guienne, an interview; and Mons. de Suffolck said, composed of the Bourdelois, the Landes, quite loud, that when he was in France, and the Bazardois, and some other adja. it was rumoured, that Mons. de Glo cent provinces, which were those offered cestre hindered the King, and that the at the conferences of Tours, and were King offered to come in person to aid the still offered. In consequence of this cesafair; but that the said Sieur de Suffolck sion, the English had formally renounced answered that he did not believe it (sic), the provinces of Normandy, Anjou, and that Mons. de Glocestre did not wish Maine, &c. In the end King Edward I. him to do it, and thus he had not the pow- liad Ponthieu du chef de sa femme, he er: and at another time said, quite loud, had done bomage for it, as well as for that the second person in the world whoin Grienne and its annexations, which had the king loved best, was the King his un not been ceded by St. Louis but under cle; and the King answered," Saint Jobu, the express condition of homage, which yes!” many times in English.

the English demanded that they should It was agreed, that the Cardinal rebounce, and to which the French and'Yorck, the Comte de Suffolck, and bassadors protesced that France would Raoul (Ralph), otherwise William, le nerer assent. Posterior treaties had only Bouteiller (Boteler), Grand Treasurer of confirmed the treaty of 1259 : thus Ed. England, should labour in concert with ward III. who himself bad rendered hothe French ambassadors to effect a peace. mage for Girienne and Ponthieu, did not When the ambassadors were preparing possess but these two provinces, and to leave the audience, because they had their dependences, in France, before the nuthing more to say at that time, the quarrel for the crown. They now of. king said “ Nenny,” (probably a French tered to the English, instead of Ponthieu, conversion of Nay, May], and withheld Calais and Guisnes, which were worth them, and seemed as if he was exceed- more, and the Duchy of Guienne, such ingly glad to see them; but he did not as they had possessed. “Let us leave speak any other word to them.

all these debates," said the Duke de Suta After the protestations, the progress folck;" let us notthus go from offer to offer, mas of course to the conferences and pro- disputing always the territory, and passa positions.

ing through all the usual lengths. These The Count de Suffolck began them by are two kings, relatives and friends, it is saying, that, at the conferences of Tours, an uncle and nephew, who are treating he bad it in charge to demand the cession together. They are treating by the ina of Goienne and Normandy, and other tervention of humble and faithful subFrench domains to which the English had jects, wlw share their sentiments, enter

at

other ;

into their views, and know their inten- have produced more; that assuredly the tions. Let us come to the point: tell powers of the ambassadors were much us frankly the last offers which you are further extended; that, in short, the time charged to make us. We will tell

you was come for developing the whole, and the same time, what are the last demands that peace was so great a good, that to which we confine ourselves.”

there ought not to be the least delay Never did plenipotentiaries answer in The ain bassadors, having gone a little earnest to a similar request, because aside to deliberate together, agreed to they could never reckon upon the add to Limousin the Saintonge and the good faith of those who made it, and both Pays d'Annis, since a hint of that kind sides are afraid of being too forward. had been dropped by M. de Precigny tò. The ambassadors then said, that the of M. de Suffolck. fers which they had made were the last The French plenipotentiaries, in their which they had to make, and that they turn, then pressed the English in the were reasonable and advantageous. If most urgent manner to imitate their you have no others,” replied Suffolk,“ we frankness, and say the last word. inust break up our conference; but hap “ If we have delayed till now to say it," pily I know that you have some others.' replied the Cardinal d’Yorck, “it was As to the rest, it is late, let us go to din for two reasons only; one, that your ofner, and afterwards proceed directly to fers are the smallest which have been hibusiness, and, without losing more time, therto made on the part of France, alhasten to say the last word.

though the situation of our affairs is much These debates had lasted till the 20th: better than it has ever been since we that day they began by insisting upon began to treat; the other, that being so the first offers, by wishing to keep to near the King, we can say and do nothem; and lastly, upon urgency to ad. thing without taking his orders.” “ Ah !" vance, and give the last word, the cried Precigny, “ would to God, that French said,“ Well! all that we can pro the two Kings were within reach of each mise you is, to read over our instructions, in the disposition in which they to study them to the bottom, and to see, both are peace would be soon concluded." jointly, it, in interpreting them the most Every one cried, Amen and after this favourably for peace, we can without pre unanimous voice, the French ambassavarication pretend to add any thing to dors begged the English plenipotentiaries these offers; but do you also, on your side, to propose this interview to Henry. Sufdeclare in good earnest what is the last folk was charged with the office limit which you put to your demands, On the 30th July, the Comte de Vene your hopes, and your projects.” dosme, the Archbishop of Rheims, and

The next day (21) the ambassadors the Seigneur de Precigny, had a private went to see the Cardinal of England, who audience of the King of England at Fohad just come to London: by this 'term lem (Fulham), a country house of the they denominated the Cardinal of Win Bishop of London. The Archbishop of chester, because he was of the royal Rheims, speaking in the name of all, family, and because he had the greatest said, that he believed that the King had interest in England. He was, as we have already been informed of the proposition said, entirely devoted to the Queen and which they had to make to him; that all the French party; the English plenipo- minds were disposed to peace, but that tentiaries were all his creatures : his dis- the objects upon which they treated with course was entirely conformable to theirs, the purpose of definitive settlement were and breathed nothing but peace. so delicate and important, that servants

In the conference of that day, the hesitated to meddle with and lay their French ambassadors added to their offers hands upon it. It had been avowed, the Limousin. The Cardinal de Yorck that if the 'two Kings could meet, and said, that in the evening he had con converse 'together, the matter would be ceived good hopes, from the last words better and sooner brought to an issue; which the French ambassadors had and that, in truth, they knew that the spoken, on quitting his hotel: that he saw King his uncle had a very great desire to in the steps, which they have just taken, the see him, and that it would be a very great pacific disposition of the King of France, satisfaction to him. They proposed then of which M. de Suffolck bad been the that he should come to France in the folwitness, and with which he had so enter lowing spring or later; but as the truce tained them in the transports of his sa- expired on April 1, 1446, they had powtisfaction and delight; but that it was 'ers to continue it till All-Saints (Nov. 30), not possible for such dispositions not to

of the same year.

These

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