« 前へ次へ »
imagines that, to compose an ode, he tem of ode making, will be found also to must set at defiance every rule-he may extend to the versification. The extreme pass from one abrupt transition to ano- length to which the periods are suffered ther, and indulge in every species of ir-, to run--the rapidity and abruptness with regularity--provided his language be which one ineasure is exchanged for anolofty and his sentiments uncommon, be ther--the variety of long and short lines may be as obscure and as umstelligible which are made to correspond with each as he pleases. Abrupt expressions of other in rhyme, at so enormous a dissurprize, admiration or rapture--excla- tance---increase the disorder, by the dis
ions of love, joy or despair-violent regard to all sense of melody. Why, in distortions of sense, and the most forced lyric compositions, less attention should construction of words and metre, are be paid to beauty of sound, than in any what more particularly distinguish the other, it is difficult to imagine. The modern ode. They are often used to truth is, that no species of poetry decover the most harren and common-place mands it more than the ode; and the sentiments, and rarely convey any distinct versification of those odes, as is remarked idea to the reader, The quotation from by Blair, may be justly accounted the Boileau, founded on the supposed extra- best, which renders the harmony of the vagance of Pindar, has produced the most measure most sensible to every common ridiculous effects, and the most absurd misapprehensions. We are not requiring Another custom among the ancients, here that the ode should be as regular in which has also been too much followed its structure as a didactic or epic poem. in the modern ode, is that of not comBut it demands, as well as every other pleting the sense in one section, but purspecies of poetry, that a subject should suing it into another. Thus amung many be proposed as its ground-work—and other instances in Pindar, the three last that the subject, whether it be an address lines of the third strophe in the first lo some personage, or descriptive of any Olymp. are theseparticular passion of the mind, instead of
Προς ευάνθεμον δ' ότε φυαν being forgotten or laid aside after the first
Λαχναι νιν μελαν γένειου ερεφον,
%, lines, should be continued and illustrated Ετυίμον ανεφρόν τισεν γαμου, through every stanza of the ode. The and he completes the sentence in the transitions from thought to thought are, antistrophe, of course, permitted; but they should be light and delicate, and sufficiently con
Πισάτα παρα παίροςnected with the subject to enable the And in Horace, poet to fall, with ease and propriety, into
Districtus ensis cui super impia the same train of ideas with which he
Cervice pendet, non siculæ dapes For this incoherence and dis- Dulcem elaborabunt saporem ; order of lyric poetry, the authority and Non avium citharæque cantus example of Pindar have always been
Somnum reducent. quoted, but, as we think, not always with truth or justice. We shall have These singular intersections of a sentence occasion hereafter to examine this point are, at best, injudicious, and
may surely more attentively; at present we shall
be easily avoided *.
Το only observe, that whoever considers the poems of the Theban bard with regard to
* It may not be amiss to afford the reader the manners and customs of the age in an idea of the three stanzas used by the Greeks, which they were written, the occasions from the following passage in the last paragraph which gave them birth, and the places in in the Scholia on Hephæstion." You must which they were intended to be recited, know that the ancients (in their odes, framed will find little reason to censure Pindar two larger stanzas, and one less; the first of the for the want of order and regularity in large stanzas they called Strophemsinging it on the plans of his compositions. On the their festivals at the altars of the gods, and contrary, perhaps, he will be inclined to dancing at the same time. The second they admire him for raising so many beauties
called Antistrophe, in which they inverted the
dance. The lesser stanza was named the from such trivial hints, and for kindling, Epode, which they sang standing still.. The as he sometimes does, so great a flame Strophe, as they say, denoted the motion of from a single sparki, with so little matter the higher sphere, the Antistrophe, that of to preserve it.
the planets, the Epode the fixed starjon and This extravagance and disorder of ideas repose of the earth.” From this passage it is of which we complain in the modern sys- evident that the odes were accompanied with
the information which I have solicited, I T'he is like a from an Arabian Ma
To the Editor of the Monthly Muguzine. ing the muslin always strained upon a
rectangular frame, and prepared with the insertion of this letter in your however is not always convenient, and it widely circulated and highly respectable cannot be rolled without cracking and Magazine. I was lately in a literary becoming in a short tiine useless. Some party, in which the following lines were years ago I tried various inethods of prethe subject of conversation, and the paring the inuslin, but I cannot recollect question was agitated, From whom are any ihing better for the purpose than they taken?
what I hare here mentioned. He that fights and runs away
Your's, &c. May live to fight another day;
Jan. 2, 1809.
For the Monthly Magazine.
The history of Coffee, by the late Dr. tion of some of your numerons readers,
JOHN FOTILERGILL, edited by Dr.
TRIIE earliest account we have of Cof
No. 944, and is as follows:
Schehabeddin Ben, an Arabian au13, Castle-street,
JAMES Rudge. thor of the ninth century of the llegira, Jun. 6, 1809.
or fifteenth of the Christians, attributes to Gemaleildin, Mufti of Aden, a city of
Arabia Fe'ıx, who was nearly bis cotem1o the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. porary, the first introduction into that
CO'try of Forning cottee. Tie tells us whatever may produce innocent vel into Persia, during his aburle there, saw amusemert, it is with pleasure I inform
some of his countrymen drinking coffee, your correspondent F.!). L. (p. 444) that which at that time he did not much'ata very good transparent screen for the tend to, but on his return to Aden, finding exhibition of the Phantasmagoria, may himself indisposed, and remembering be prepared by spreading white wax, that he had seeni his countrymen drink(dissolved in spirit of wine, or oil of tur- ing coffee in Persia, in hopes of receiving pentine,) over thin muslin. A screen so
some benefit froin it, he determined to prepared will roll up, without injury, A try it on himself; and, after making the clearer screen may be produced by have experiment, 210t only recovered his health
but perceived other useful qualities in dancing; and that they danced one way wbile that liquor; such as relieving the headthe strophe was singing, and then danced back again while the actistrophe was sung,
ache, enlivening the spirits, and, without
prejudice to the constitution, preventing and remained inactive while the epode was performing. Thus, the strophe and anti
drowsiness. This last quality he resolved strophe may be compared to our recitatives,
to turn to the advantage of his professiva; and the epode to the air.
There is a passage
he took it himself, and recoinmended it in the ancient grammarian, Marius Victori- the dervises or religious Mahometans, to nos, which is much to the saine purpose,
enable them to pass the night in prayer, though he does not distinctly speak of dan. and other exercises of their religion with cing. The passage is this : " Pleraq. lyrico. greuer zeal and attention. The example tum carminum, quæ versu colisq. et comma. and authority of the mufti gave retibus componuntur, ex siropbe, antistrophe, putation to coffee. Soon men of letters, et epodo, ut Græci appellant, ordinata suü. and persons belonging to the law, adopsistust. Antiqui deorum laudes carminibusted the use of it; these were followed by comprehensas, circum aras corum euntes ca
the tradesmen and artisans, that were unDebant; cujus primum ambitum, quem ingrediebantur ex parte dextrâ, strophen voca
der a necessity of working in the night, bant; reversionem autem sinistrorsuna factan,
and such as were obliged tu travel after completo priore orbe, antistrophen appella
At length the custom became bant. Deinde in conspec!u deorum soliti general in Ader, and it was not only consistere cantici, reliqua consequebantur, drank by those who were desirous of appellantes id epodon." Consult' also the being kept awake, but in the day for the Scholia on Pindai,
sake of its other agrecable qualities.
The Arabian author adds, that they
“Coffee continued its progress through found themselves so well by drinking cof Syria, and was received at Damascus fee, that they entirely left off the use of and Aleppo without opposition; and in an infusion of a herb, called in their lan- the year 1554, under the reign of the guage cut, which possibly might be tea, great Soliman, one hundred years after though the Arabian author gives us no its introduction by the mufti of Aden, particular reasou to think so.
it became known to the inhabitants of Before this time coffee was scarcely Constantinople; when two private perknown in Persia, and very little used in sons, whose names were Schems and HeArabia, where the tree grew; but, accor- kin, the one coming froin Damascus, ding to Schehabeddin, it had been drank and the other from Aleppo, each opened in Ethiopia from time immemorial, a coffee-house in Constantinople, and
Coffee being thus received at Aden, sold coffee publicly in rooms fitted up in where it has continued in use ever since an elegant manner, which were presently without interruption, passed by degrees frequented by men of learning, and par. to many neighbouring towns, and not long ticularly poets, and other persons who after reached Mecca, where it was intro- came to amuse themselves with a game of duced as at Aden by the dervises, and chess or draughts, to make acquaintance, for the same purposes of religion. or to pass away their time agreeably,
The inhabitants of Mecca were at at a smali expence. last so fond of this liquor, that without These houses and assemblies insenregarding the intention of the religious, sibly became so much in vogue, that they and other studious persons, they at length were frequented by people of all prodrank it publicly in coffee-houses, where fessions, and even the officers of the they asseinbled in crowds to pass the scraglio, the pachas, and persons of the time agreeably, making that the pre- first rank about the court. tence: here they played at chess, and wben they seemed to be the most firmly such other kinds of games, and that even established, the imans, or officers of the for money. In these houses they ainused mosques, complained loudly of their bethemselves likewise with singing, dan- ing deserted, while the coffee-houses cing, and music, contrary to the man. were full of company, the dervises and ners of the rigid Mahometans, which the religious orders murmured, and the afterwards was the occasion of some dis- preachers declaimed against them, assertturbances. From hence the custom ex- ing it was less sin to go to a tavern than tended itself to inany other towns of to a coffee-house, Arabia, and particularly to Medina, and After much wrangling, the devotees then to Grand Cairo in Egypt, where united their interests to obtain an authena the dervises of Yemen, who lived in a tic condemnation of coffee, and deterdistrict by themselves, drank coffee the mined to present to the mufti a petition nights they intended to spend in devo- for that purposé; in which they advantion. They kept it in a large red earthen ced that roasted coffee was a kind of vessel, and received it respectfully from coal, and that what had any relation to the hand of their superior, who poured coal was forbidden by law. They deit out into cups for them himself. He sired him to determine on this matter was soon imitated by many devout people according to the duty of his office, of Cairo, and their example followed by The chief of the law, without entering the studious, and afterwards by so many much into the question, gave such a depeople that coffee became as common cision as they wished for, and pronoun. a drink in that great city, as at Aden, ced that the drinking of coffee was conMecca, and Medina, and other cities of trary to the law of Mahomet. Arabia.
So respectable is the authority of the But, at length, the rigid Mahometans mufti, that nobody dared to find fault began to disapprove the use of coffee, with his sentence. Immediately all the as occasioning frequent disorders, and coffee-houses were shut, and the officers too nearly resembling wine in its effects; of the police were commanded to prevent the drinking of which is contrary to the any one from drinking coffee. However, tenets of their religion. Government the habit was become so strong, and the was obliged to interfere, and at times re- use of it so generally agreeable, that the strain the use of it. However, it had bc- people continued, notwithstanding all procome so universally liked, that it was hibition, to drink it in their own houses. afterwards found necessary to take off all The officers of the police seeing they could restraint for the future.
not suppress the use of it, allowed of the
selling it on paying a tax, and of the served sensible grave persons, discoursing drinking it, provided it was not done seriously of the affairs of the empire, openly; so that it was drunk in particular blaming administration, and deciding places with the doors shut, or in the back with confidence on the cost important room of some of the shopkeepers' concerns. He bad before been in the houses. Under colour of this, coffee- taverns, where he only met with gay houses by little and little were re-esta- young fellows, mostly soldiers, who were blished, and a new mufti, less scrupulous diverting themselves with singing, or talkand more enlightened than his predeces- ing of nothing but gallantry and feats sor, having declared publicly, that coffee of war.
These he took no further notice had no relation to coal, and that the infu- of. sion of it was not contrary to the law of After the shutting up of the coffeeMahomet, the number of coffee-houses houses, no less coffee was drunk; for it became greater
than before. After this was carried about in large copper vessels, declaration, the religious orders, the with fire under them, through all the preachers, the lawyers, and even the great streets and markets. This was only mufti himself, drank coffee ; and their done at Constantinople; for in all the example was followed universally by the other towns of the empire, and even in court and city.
the smallest villages, the coffee-houses The grand viziers, having possessed continued open as before. themselves of a special authority over
Notwithstanding this precaution of the houses in which it was permitted to
suppressing the public meetings at coffeebe drunk publicly, took advantage of this houses, the consumption of coffee inopportunity of raising a considerable tax creased; for there was no house or famion the licences they granted for that pur- ly, rich or poor, Turk or Jew, Greek or pose, obliging each master of a coffee- Armenian, who are very numerous in house to pay a sequin per day, limiting that city, where it was not drank at least the price however, at an asper per twice a day, and many people drank it dish.
oftener, and it became a custom in every Thus far the Arabian manuscript in house to offer it to all visitors; and it the King of France's library, as transla- was reckoned an incivility to refuse it, so ted by Mr. Gallanıl, who proceeds to in- that many people drank twenty dishes a form us of the occasion of the total sup- day, and that without any inconvenience, pression of public coffee-houses, during which is supposed by this author an exthe war in Candia, when the Ottoman traordinary advantage ; and another great affairs were in a critical situation. use of coffee, according to him, is its
The liberty which the politicians who uniting men in society, in stricter ties of frequented those houses took, in speak- amity than any other liquor; and he obing too freely of public affairs was car- serves, that such protestations of friendnied to that length, that the Grand Vi- ship as are made at such times are far zier Kupruli, father of the two famous more to be depended upon, than when brothers of the same naine, who afterwards the mind is intoxicated with inebriating succeeded him, suppressed them all during liquors. He computes, that as much is the minority of Mahomet the Fourth, with spent in private families, in the article a disinteredness hereditary in his family, of coffee, at Constantinople, as in wine without regarding the loss of so consider. at Paris; and relates, that it is as cusable a revenue, of which he reaped the tomary there to ask for money to drink adrantage linself. Before he came to coffee, as in Europe for money to drink that deiermination, he visited incognito your health in wine or beer. the several coffee-houses, where he ob- Another curious particular we find
mentioned here, is, that the refusing to * The Turkish sequin (according to Cham- supply a wife with coffee, is reckoned bers) is of the value of about nine shillings amongst the legal causes of a divorce, sterling; and the asper is a very small silver The Turks drink their coffee very hot tin, of the value of something more than an Laglish halfpenny. The present value is
and strong, and without sugar. Now and
then they put in when it is boiling, a thly seven shillings; that is, two shillings
clove or two bruised, according to the au turee-pence three-farthings for a dollar, quantity, or a little of the semen ladun, et eignty aspers ; consequently three at worth something more than a penny ster
called starry aniseed, or some of the ang, but they are generally reckoned at a
lesser cardamuns, or a drop of essence de penny each Two hundred and forty- of amber. iste aspers go to a seguin.
It is not easy to determine at what MONTHLY MAG, No. 181.
time, or upon what occasion, the use of Thevenot's, and some of his friends; nor coffee passed from Constantinople to the scarce beard of, but from the account of western parts of Europe. It is however travellers. That year was distinguished likely, that the Venetians, upon account by the arrival of Soliman Aga, ainbassa. of the proximity of their dominions, and dor from Sultan Mahomet the Fourth. their
great trade to the Levant, were the This inust be looked upon as the true first acquainted with it; which appears period of the introduction of coffee into from part of a letter, wrote by Peter Paris; for thai minister and his retinue Della Valle, a Venetian, in 1615, from brought a considerable quantity with Constantinople, in which he tells his thein, which they presented to so many friend, that, on his return, 'he should persons of the court and city, that many bring with him some coffee, which he became accustomed to drink it, with the believed was a thing unknown in his addition of a little sugar; and sone who country.
had found benefit by it, did not chuse to Mr Galland tells us, he was informed be without it. The ambassador staid by Mr. De la Croix, the king's interpre- at Paris from July, 1669, to May, 1670, ter, that Mr, Thevenot, who had travel- which was a sufficient time to establish led through the East, at his return in the custom he had introduced. 1657, brought with him to Paris some Two years afterwards an Armenian, of coffee for his own use, and often treated the name of Pascal, set up a coffee-house, his friends with it, amongst which nun- but meeting with little encouragement ber Mons. De la Croix was one; and that left Paris and came to London; he was from that time he had continued to drink succeeded by other Armenians and Perit, being supplied by some Armenians sians, but not with much success, for who settled at Paris, and by degrees want of address, and proper places to brought it into reputation in that city. dispose of it; genteel people not caring
It was known some years sooner at to be seen in those places where it was Marseilles; for in 1644, some gentlemen to be sold. However, not long after, who accompanied Monsieur de la Haye when some Frenchmen had fitted up
for to Constantinople, brought back with the purpose spacious apartments in an them, on their return, not only some cof- elegant manner, ornamented with tapesfee, but the proper vessels and apparatus try, large looking-glasses, pictures, and for making and drinking it, which were magnificent lustres, and began to sell cofparticularly magnificent, and very differ- fee, with tea, chocolate, and other reent from what are now used amongst us. freshments, they soon becaine frequented However, until the year 1660, coffee by people of fashion and men of letters, was drank only by such as had been ac- so that in a short time the number in Pa. customed to it in the Levant and their ris increased to three hundred. friends; but that year some bales were For this account of the introduction of imported from Egypt, which gave a great the use of coffee into Paris we are indebted number of persons an opportunity of try- to La Roque's Voyage into Arabia-Felix, ing it, and contributed very much to We now come to trace its first appearbringing it into general use; and in 1671, ance in London. certain private persons at Marseill de appears from Anderson's Chronolotermined for the first time to open a cuf. gical History of Commerce, that the fee-house in the neighbourhood of the use of coffee was first introduced into exchange, which succeeded extremely London some years earlier than into Pawell; people went there to sinoke, talk ris, for in 1652, one Mr. Edwards, a of business, and divert themselves with Turkey Merchant brought home with play: it was soon crowded, particularly a Greek serrant, whose name was Pasqua, by Turkey merchants, and traders to the who understood the roasting and making Levant. These places were found very of coffee, till then unknown in England. convenient for discoursing on, and set- This servant was the first who sold coffee, tling matters relating to cominerce, and and kept a house for that purpose in shortly after the number of coffee-houses George-yard, Lombard-street. increased amazingly; notwithstanding The first mention of coffee in our stas which there was not less drank in private tute books, is anno 1660 (12 Car ii. cap. houses, but a much greater quantity; so 24.) when a duty of four-pence was laid that it became universally in use at Mar- upon every gallou of coffee inade and seilles, and the neigi.bluring cities. sold, to be paid by the maker.
Before the year 1669, coffee tad not The statute of the 15 Car. ii, cap. xi. been seen in Paris, except at Mr. § 15, anno 1663 directs that all coffee