Stadholdersluip should be hereditary in which seems in a manner enclosed by his family, and even pass in the female these specics of ramparts.

The exlive.

pences of keeping the dykes in order, is William the Fifth, the grandson of paid by the whole

nation, and every disWilliam the Third, enjoyed the dignity trict is taxed according to the utility it till 1795; the epoch of the occupation of derives from them, and the proportion of Holland by the French armies.

the extent of country it shelters from the Placed between a power which, for a

Under the denomination of long time had been its irreconcileable Dam, the Dutch comprehend every sort enemy, and France, which was its natural of dyke raised to confine the waters of a ally, Holland could not hesitate to make river, or a lake; for which reason it is, her choice. By calling a French prince that most of the names they have given to to-take the reins of their government, the their cities and towns, end in Dam. Dutch consulted their real interests, and Rotterdam owes its name to the dyke from that moment we inay venture to raised upon the Rotte, a river near predict, that this nation, which has more

the town.

Amsterdam receives her's than once established the independence from the dyke on the Amstel. It is the of the ocean, and given peace to Europe, same with Saardam, Schiedam, Monni. will, under a monarch, whose views are kendani, and many others. solely directed towards the prosperity of Cold and humidity, in general characthe empire which is confided to him, re terize the climate of Holland. Many sume that rank which she occupied at naturalists have asserted, that the exthe most brilliant periods of her history. treme moisture of Holland contributes

In 1806, a treaty was concluded be- materially to shorten human life. The tween France and Holland, by which a celebrated Baron Haller advances boldly, new constitution was formed, and Louis that “Holland is an unhealthy country, Napoleon, hrother to the emperor of the and life is short.” This assertion is reFrench, was placed on the throne of futed however by facts; in Holland, as in Holland.*

other countries, we have seen individuals Batavia is traversed by two consider who have lived to a very advanced age; able rivers, the Rhine and the Meuse, and a judicious writer of our day, M. which give rise to almost all the running Walcknaer, observes, that the sobriety waters in the country, except the Ems, and regular uniform life of the inhabiwhich has its source in the department tants give them a longer duration of of Utrecht. In the construction of their years, than in many other countries canals, the Dutch have shewn of what where the air is more salubrious. human industry is capable, and what is The agriculture of Holland consists its recompense; but their dykes are still almost exclusively in the cultivation of a more extraordinary monument in the meadows and gardens; its low, damp, eyes of strangers. These artificial banks spongy soil, joined to an atmosphere are generally raised about thirty feet loaded with vapours, often rainy, and for above the level of the adjoining land, a long time cold; leaves scarcely any

By the treaty concluded at the Hague in 1806, the kingdom of Holland was divided. as follows: Departments. Consisting of

Chief Towns. 1. Groninguen

} Wied, and West. Woldingerland.

Groninguen. 2. Friesland

The Province of Friesland and Ameland. Leewarden. 3. Over Issel

Over-Issel and the Country of Drenthe. Zwol. 4. Guelderland Guelderland, Kuilemberg, and Buren. Arnheim. 5. Utrecht Utrecht and Veanen.

Utrecht. 6. Holland Holland, Isselstein,

The Hague. 7. Brabant Dutch Brabant.

Bois Le Duc. 8. Zealand Zealand.

Middleburg. It is also divided into four military divisions. The first comprises the departments of Hoiland, Brabant, and Utrecht,

Head Quarters at the Hague.
The second, the Province of Zealand.

Head Quarters at Middleburg.
The third, the Departments of Friesland and Groninguen.

Head Quarters at Groninguen.
'The fourth, the Departments of Guelderland and Over-Issel.
Head Quarters a: Deventer.


other resource; it is carried to a very coats, with several rows of very small high perfection, and gives considerable silver buttons, thickly put on; a blue profits. Gardening is in great esteem in cloth coat, and the waistband of their Holland, for the Dutch are fond of both breeches is ornamented with four very fruit and flowers. Their gardeners excel large silver buttons. in the art of producing a great deal from The manufacture of linens in the a little ground. Without the help of arti- provinces of Groninguen, Over-Issel, ficial heat, they would be deprived of and Friesland, occupies the first rank in many things which give the soil of France this principal branch of industry. Those so great a superiority over that of other linens, which receive the name of Holcountries. By this help, Holland sup- land, are distinguished by their fineness, plies what she otherwise could not; and whiteness, and evenness. It is not how. in the midst of winter affords every thing ever the case, that all the linens which which can contribute to the sensuality of the Dutch export, are made amongst the rich. In the month of January, themselves. A very principal part is grapes are sold as high as forty florins the manufactured in the Duchy of Berg, pound. In a country so little favoured Westphalia, Osnabruck, and that neighby nature, it is easy to judge how neces- bourhood, particularly Monster; but as sary industry must be to the support of all these linens go to the bleach-fields the inhabitants. Notwithstanding its at Harlem, where they receive their sterility, Holland is, perhaps, with respect finishing dressings, the Dutch profit by to its extent, (only nineteen hundred and this circumstance, to sell them as their twenty-eight square leagues, of which own. These bleach-fields extend from three hundred and three are overflown, Harlem to Alkmaar, and the extreme or covered with water,) the country most whiteness which they give their linens, thickly peopled. Its population is esti- is attributed to the quality of the waters mated at two millions; the province of of the downs, and of the earth on which Holland alone contains nearly one half they are exposed. of that number. Mons. Walcknaer, Paper was a very considerable article from whom we take our calculation of trade in Holland; the Dutch were in makes thirteen hundred and eighty in- the habit of supplying France, Spain, habitants to every square acre.

A third and Portugal, with considerable quanof this population subsists by coinmerce tities; but at present, owing to several and navigation. The two other thirds causes, they scarcely use any other than are composed of people employed in French paper, for books of a small size, cultivation, and in rearing cattle, and and frequently for those of a larger. in trades and manufactures.

The services rendered to printing by the you enter the habitation of a Dutch are well known. The editions of Dutch

peasant, you are as much surprised Virgil and Terence, from the press of at the cleanliness, as at the comfort the Elzevier's, are a chef d'euvre in this which reigns in it; it is chiefly in Hol- art; but since that, printing has been on land, properly so called, in that part of the decline. Amsterdam, however, and the north of Holland' known by the some few other towns, still have some name of the Beemster, and in West- distinguished presses. Bookselling was, Friesland, that you are the more struck for more than a century, a very chief with this spectacle, which forms such a branch of trade in Holland. It was encontrast with the state of poverty and riched by the productions of France, in humiliation, to which this interesting granting an asylum to men of letters, class of society is even now reduced in persecuted by intolerance; but this ad most countries of Europe. In order that vantage which she derived from circumthe reader may judge of the truth of this stances, has disappeared with the liberty observation, it will not be extraneous to of the press, which has occasioned the give an idea of a peasant, in easy cir. French booksellers to engross this branch cumstances, of Rhynland, or Delland, of commerce. in his holiday dress.

llolland derived considerable revenues The men in general, with scarce any from several branches of commerce, exception, wear a small cocked hat; they which now, owing to the state of Europe, usually have a silk handkerchief, or mus are alınost, if not wholly, on the decline. lin cravat, round their neck, which they Her fisheries were carried on to a great put on in such a manner as to give a view extent. That of the whale affords but of two gold buttons which fasten their the poor remains of what it forineriy was ; sturt collar ; they mostly wear two waist- in 1971, from the different ports in Hol



land, one hundred and ten vessels were tuous, and of a good colour. It has the fitted out for Greenland, and forty for rare advantage of communicating its Davis's Streights : in 1785 there were no favour to tobaccos of an inferior quamore than sixty-eight: and the fishery lity; there is a great deal of this latter continued on the decline till 1799, when sort in Holland, but that which grows in the English intercepted the convoy on its the department of Guelderland passes return from Greenland, and completed for the worst. its destruction. Amsterdam and Rot The Dutch are not, however, confined terdam enjoyed the greatest share of the to the tobacco which their own soil prowhale-fisheries. The wealth of this duces; they consume a great quantity cominerce is now chiefly enjoyed by the beside, which they get from North AmeEnglish and Americans: some few other rica, principally from Maryland; and powers have a small part; of this number some from the Carraccas. The tobacco, are the Danes, and the Portuguese and both in leaf and manufactured, is exSpaniards in their colonies in the New ported in considerable quantities to GerWorld.

many, and the north of Europe. The The produce of the fisheries was im- manufactory of it was for a long time an portant to Holland; it is ascertained, that object of great importance to Holland; it supported at least twenty thousand the city of Amsterdam alone, at one pefamilies; the number of vessels which riod, employed no less than three thousailed annually from the several ports sand hands; but this branch of trade has employed in the fisheries, was estiinated also much decayed from what it origiat five or 'six hundred.

nally was. The East and West India trade, was Pipes, pens, tiles, bricks, and earthenalso a mine of wealth to Holland; they had ware, are the chief articles now manua considerable share of it. The East and factured in Holland; the pottery of BerWest India Companies still exist; but gen op Zoom, is in great estimation; deprived of her colonies by the English, and that of Delft likewise, which gives its Holland derives no benefit from the New name to the yellow ware. World.

If we attentively examine what were The principal interior trade of Hol- the sources from which Holland derived land, is certainly that with Germany. her riches, it is easy to observe, that, beThe navigation of the Rhine, luckily, sides the principal causes which have gives the Dutch an opportunity of en- contributed to paralyse the commerce of grossing the trade with the different the country, there are others which are countries that river passes, and also of independant even of these circumstances. the other rivers in Germany, which The great increase of money, augmenting empty their waters into the Rhine. It the price of labour, could not fail to affect opens to them an easy communication those manufactories which were already with the departments of the Saarre, the lessened by the erection of similar ones Rhine and Moselle, Mount Tonnerre, in the neighbouring states, during the and Francfort, which, before the war, last century. It is well known, that in they supplied with the productions of the Denmark, Sweden, and Russia, certain north and south. At that period, Cologne branches of industry were unknown, even engrossed the principal traffic of the at the conclusion of the 17th century. Rhine from that river, the Dutch re- The East India Company chiefly felt the ceived their timber for building; which effects of this decrease. come down in immense floats every which the English made in India, and year from Andernach, to Dort. The that of the French, Danish, and Swedish consumption of this article in Holland, Companies, lessened its traffic, and conmay easily be guessed at, by giving a sequently the returns and profits. glance at its shipping, at the buildings That which supported the trade of which stand upon piles, at the dykes, Holland, down to the period of the and the multitude of mills which serve French revolution, was the immense for so many different purposes.

capital to be found in that country. AmTobaccu is an article of some conse sterdam became the general bank, and quence, even now; that of Amersfort, prescribed the course of exchange to and its vicinity, in the department of Europe ; the facility with which the Utrecht, is of a superior quality, and merchants could draw upon their correholds the first place in trade after that spondents in that city, for the amount of of Virginia. The leaf is large, soft, unc- the goods they sold, has preserved in


The progress

Holland certain branches of commerce, carried on in that language, which daily which otherwise would not have tloun becomes more in use. The French will, rished.

most probably, be the principal language Religion.-By the new constitution, of communication with all polished naevery religious sect is equal in the eye tions, as for a long time was the Latin. of the law; and their respective ministers The spirit of philosophy which distin. are all equally excluded from any of guished the eighteenth century, con. the functions dependant on the govern- tributed not a little to this. Strangers ment. The provincial synods are nine learned French to read Racine; they will in number; forming a total of fifty-three study it to read the Encyclopédie. classes, to which are attached fifteen While our unhappy emigrants spread hundred and seventy preachers. The our language every where, the French Roman Catholics liave three hundred armies penetrated into Italy, Holland, churches, wbich are attended by four and Germany. They continued there hundred priests, without including the for a long tiine; they mixed with the conquered countries. The Arminians people they had conquered; and as the are spread through the provinces of Guel- French are not fond of learning strange derland, Holland, Utrecht, and Fries- languages, strangers are obliged to learn land; this society consists of thirty-four theirs. Many neighbouring states, owing communities, at the head of which are to the success of our arms, have become forty-three preachers. The other sects French, and our language has therefore chiefly tolerated in Holland, are the Lu- become to them a national one. French, therans, the Anabaptists, the Moravian English, and German, are most combrethren, distinguished by the name of monly spoken over Holland. the Evangelical Fraternity; the Greeks, Justice.—Justice is administered in Armenian Christians, Quakers, and the Holland as to the civil law, like most other Jews.

countries; but the criminal jurisprudence Of all the states of Europe, Holland is does honour to human nature, without the one where the Jews have, for a long encouraging disorders. The Dutch tine back, been admitted to a civil ex- judges never forget that the criminal is a istence; they are divided as elsewhere, man: as incorruptible as the law, they into German and Portuguese Jews. The pronounce with severity, but always with latter are the richest; their inanners are Tegret. There is no country in Europe more polished, and they are farther re- where fewer crimes are committed; and moved than the Germans, from the vices justice has rarely occasion to make use and customs with which this nation is of extreme rigour. Continual employreproached in certain parts of Europe. ment, no doubt, contributes to this preBy a decree passed in 1796, the Jews, servation of good order, as well as the like the Catholics, have acquired certain vigilance of the magistrates. The mapolitical rights. Amsterdam owes a great nagement of their prisous leaves nothing part of its flourishing situation to the to wish for: in this instance, Holland Portuguese Jews; they are looked upon offers a most perfect model. There are as the most enlightened among the Is- houses of confinement for every sort of raelites, and at this day we could enu- crime. That known by the naine of the merate many men of science and learning Werkhuis, at Amsterdam, is a pattern in among then. We shall conclude this its way; it is a large building divided article with a reflection, which Sir Wil. into two parts, one of which is called the liam Temple made on Holland. “There Rasphuis, for the prisoners are employed may be countries where religion does in rasping dying woods; it serves to emniore good; but I am pretty certain there ploy those who have been guilty of petty are none, where it does so little harm." crimes; the other, known by the name

Language.—The Dutch language is a of the Spinhuis, is appropriated to females dialect of the German. Though it may ap- of a dissolute and vicious life. pear faulty to strangers; yet it is inti. The town of Bergen-op-Zoom connitely more rich in substantives than any tains a prison exclusively reserved for other language, ancient or modern; the the military, who have been guilty of Greek alone excepted. The whole of crimes; they are employed on public the sciences can be expressed in Dutch, works. without borrowing a single word from the Charities. The establishments of this Greek or Latin. The French is, how- nature are very numerous throughout ever, so much in use, that all negociations Batavia. There is not a town which has' between tlolland and other states are not its Werkhuis, or its orphan-house;


6. The

and many villages have them likewise. It is to this economy, the Dutch must Several dispensaries have been establish- attribute the beauty and utility of their ed,wbere niedicines are distributed gratis public works; the multiplicity of bridges, to the poor; and there is a central hos- of high roads. This economy enables the pital for the vaccine inoculation. Speedy community at large to pay the taxes, assistance is given to persons found which by this ineans are less sensibly felt, drowned, which in a country so inter- than elsewhere. In no country are comsected by water, too frequently happens. mercial engagements more religiously obIn fact, every day gives rise to some in- served, and no where are domestic virstitution of public utility. An establish- tues held in higher estimation. Far froia ment, destined to the support of disabled blaming in the Dutch those qualities seamen, was much wanting in Holland. which they have maintained, even to the Ilis Majesty, King Louis Napoleon, bas very day we write, we should on the conlately commanded that a large building, trary applaud thena for having preserved at Delfshaven, on the banks of the Meuse, that spirit of order, which is inseparable which formerly belonged to the East from real economy, and render them the India Coinpany, should be appropriated justice which is their due. to this most essential purpose.

The French abandon the smiling banks Character of the Dutch.-- Fidelity and of the Loire and of the Seine, to inhabit good faith form the distinguishing cha- those of the Spree and of the Neva; racteristic of a Hollander. He is natu- that is not the case with the Dutchman. rally phleginatic,laborious and persevering He is only happy amidst his shipping and in his resolutions. It is sufficient to look canals; and it, through interested motives, over the annals of the revolution of the he is induced to leave his native soil, he United Provinces, in order to form a delights to find in his new country, a judgment of what a nation is capable of similar local situation, and its accustomed undertaking, which wishes to shake off the habits; it is for this reason that Batavia, yoke of tyranny; and in our own time we from its low, fat, marshy position, makes have seen the Dutch, united with the him forget the immensity of space which French, vying in courage with the latter, divides him from the Texel. to drive froin their territory the enemny, Dutch, (says Monsieur Garrat, in his who sought to be masters of it. We have Memoir relative to Ilolland,) bave, I may beheld the Dutch worthy the descendants say, built Holland; they almost appear to of those Batavians, who for a long series of say to themselves, What we have done is years were the admiration of all Europe, well.” We do not now describe them as a peo Bread is not, as in France, the principal ple, in whom avarice has stifled every food of the people; it constitutes but noble and generous sentiment. We a small part of their daily wants; a must not, however, confound that eco whole Dutch family will not consume in nony on which public as well as private a day, as much as a native of the former fortune depends, with that sordid ava province of Linousin would scarcely rice 'which destroys every liberal idea. think enough for his subsistence.

It is true, however, that the manners Besides the grain of which bread is of the Dutch are much changed within a usually made, the people make use of century. We do not see them toiling buck-wheat and barley, whether ground, incessantly, with the loss of ease and com or whole; of this there is a very great fort, to heap up wealth, in order to leave consumption. Potatoes are much culit to their heirs; but it is no less true, tivated also. that Holland is still the country where The English custom of eating meat luxury has made the least progress. It half raw, is not adopted in Holland; and is but very rare, that their expences can they follow the general custom of most equal their revenue; and when that is the nations of Europe, to give it that degree case, the Dutch think the year very of cookery, necessary to facilitate both badly employed : this mode of living mastication and digestion. The Dutch takes away from a man's credit and re consume a vast quantity of salted meat, putation, as much as a wanion and pro- ,which is held in higher estimation, than fuse extravagance does in other parts of perhaps any where; their mode of curing Europe. A Dutchman, therefore, is it being so excellent. The hams of this lost in the opinion of the public, when it country, but particularly those of Guelis kuown that he has dissipated his for- derland, are in high repute among fotune, either through unforeseen circum- reigners. They consume large quantities stances, or liis own misconduct.

and wild-ducks. Whatever



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