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tense dry frost, hardly any snow on the the last fortnight, however, we had a ground; 14th to 26th, cloudy, and often great deal of rain, frequently accompahazy and foggy, air coldish, but little nied with thick mnist, wind rather easterly, frost; 26th, lo evd, fine mild weather, often calın. The rain proved favourable wind westerly almost the whole of the to the grass fields, which by the end of month; barometer, on the 24th, higher the month recovered their verdure, also than for several years before.
to the late corn as yet light in the ear, March. During the first five days we but rather retarded the ripening of the had fine mild spring weather, wind west; forward and heavy crops in the low all the rest of the month the wind being country. uniformly easterly, the wcather proved dugust. We had a great deal of rain cold and dry, with the exception of the the first ten days, but the weather after24th, and part of the 25th, when we had wards gradually improved, and the last a fall of snow, though it dissolved imme. fortnight was favourable, both for ridiately after. The hilla, however, con- pening and cutting down the corn. This tinued very white, vegetation made hardly month has been uniformly warm, with any progress this month, but the ground the exception of the 26th, 27th, and was dry, and in good condition for agri- 28th, which felt rather cool. Till the cultural labours.
13th, we had either easterly winds or April proved an unc
ncommonly severe calms, but after that the west wind premonth. First three days rather clear vailed till near the end of the month, and sharp. On the 4th we had a violent when it veered rather to the south. Harstorm of wind and rain from the south- vest commenced in this neighbourhood west, which was followed by ten days of about the 15th, and got by degrees more fair moderate weather, wind west and general to the end of the month, when north-west. The next ten days resem- the greater part of the crop of the counbled the middle of winter, having heavy try adjacent, was actually cut down. falls of snow on the 17th, 18th, and 21st, Crop in general good, except wheat, air feeling very cold, with northerly which has suffered by the blight. winds: 26th to 29th, cold racher abated, September.-- First fortnight, weather shifting from north to east, and shifting rather unsettled, frequently rain; but to the west on the 29th, the air turned from the 15th to the end, in general fair, sensibly milder. Vegetation as yet very and favourable for the conclusion of hara backward, and grass made little appeare vest, which even in late and remote parts
of the country, was pretty well advanced May.-During the whole of this by the 30th : 1st to 8th, wind was wesmonth, the weather was mild and favour, terly, thence to the 15th, east and northable to vegetation, and in a great mea- east, and often misty; 15th to 22d, winds sure compensated for the backwardness rather variable, hitherto the weather had of the fojmer part of spring. We had continued mild, some days quite warm, not many, either very cold or warm days, but after the 22d (autumnal equinox), but always moderate and agreeable wea we had a sudden change from heat to ther, with frequent refreshing showers. cold; from that time, to the end of the On the 7th and 9th, we had thunder- month, west and north-west winds prestorms, accompanied with hail of an un- vailed, and felt very sbarp. Potatoes, by usually large size. Winds this month this time, ascertained 10 be an abundant rather variable, mostly incliving to the and excellent crop. south of east and west.
October - First six days sereve and peared the first week.
pleasant, wind westerly: 7th and 8th June. ----First three days agreeable were very stormy, wind shifting from enough, brisk wind from south-west, south to north. Next four days were 4th to 10th, coldish weather, often cloudy tolerably agreeable, but weather getting and misty, witi a good deal of rain; colder, wind north-west. 12th to 20th, wind rather easterly, 10th to 30th. In air exceedingly cold, with north and general, serene, agreeable, and mo- north-west winds; snow lying on the derately warm; sometimes clear, but of- ground on the 14th. A storin of wind tener cloudy and hazy; no rain except on and rai he 20th, brought about a the 14th and 22d, when we had soine milder temperature; wind changing to heavy showers, wind rather westerly, south-west ; but till the 29th, we bad a
Jüly proved very warm throughout. great deal of windy, showery weather, First half was quite dry, so that the pas. barometer keeping very low. The last ture was looking rather brown; during three days were serene and pleasant,
barometer rising very quick. This month quently, the mean heat of each month has been distinguished by frequent high is the result of nearly a hundred different winds and showery weather. On the observations, yet it is astonishing how 7th, 8th, 14th, 20th, and 25th, we had nearly the monthly and annual mean of heavy gates which did a good deal of the thermometer, at Edinburgh, agrees mischief at sea.
with that at Carlisle, though the latter November.-To the 5th, mild weather, lies about ninety miles due south from often quite clear; thence to the 15th, the former, and in a different situation. dark and gloomy, sometimes inclining to Edinburgh being contiguous to the east wet, but upon the whole, very little either coast of Scotland, and Carlisle to the of rain or evaporation; hitherto wind west coast of England. was easterly, often calm, cold, though but The barometer is higher at Carlisle little frost, and barometer kept up. On than at Edinburgh, but this may be acthe 15th, wind shifting to south-west, we counted for by the different elevation of had three days of windy showery weather, the two; the place of observation, at quite mild. On the 18th, we had a galé Carlisle, being only seventeen yards and from the north-east, but on the 19th, fifty feet higher than the sea, while the wind shifted to due west, and continued greater part of Edinburgh, though less so till the 27th; weather sometimes clear, than two miles distant from the sea, is and sometimes cloudy, with slight shows more than three hundred feet elevated ers, coldish, but not frosty. On the 27th above its level. The variations of the a frost set in, wind north, but only con- barometer, however, at the two places, tinued to the 29th, when a storm of bear a pretty exact proportion to each wind and rain from the south brought us
other. soft weather again. Upon the whole,
G. W. this month has been tolerably agreeable; Feb. 24, 1809. no severe cold, and only two or three days of high wind.
To the Ediłor of the Monthly Magazine. December.-First fortnight, in general SIR, showers on the ist, 2d, 6th, and earn IT bis I think, much to be regretted barometer rising. On the 15th, wind veries and improvements, no method has shifting to north, weather grew sensibly yet been put in practice for communicolder. On the 17th, we had a heavy cating the exact degree of time in which gale from north, accompanied with a a composer of music would have his little snow, and a most intense frost set works performed. Dr. Croteh, indeed, in which continued till the 24th. On and perhaps one or two others, have sugthe 23d snow began to fall, and con- gested a method by which thuis ditficulty tinued without intermission till the mid- may be surmounted, but I fear the plan dle of the next day, when it lay about is not likely to be generally adopted. nine inches deep; that afternoon a thaw Nevertheless, for want of some such commenced, which dissolved the snow in expedient, it is no uncoinmon thing to the low country in four or five days, bear composers complaining of the in- ' though the hills were still spotted. On justice done to their inusic, even at the the 28d, wind shifted from north to east, principal concerts in London, by its being and south-east, in which quarter it re- performed either too fast, or too slow, mained all the rest of the month, weather although in other respects it may have very gloomy and disagreeable, with a every possible advantaye. great deal of rain and sleet. Barometer, And not only new music, but the last half of the month very steady. more ancient is also affected by this
Remarks.--The above Abstract and want of a criterion for judging of the Register, is for the sake of a comparison exact time in which it ought to be perarranged, as nearly as possible, in the forned, to give it proper effect. same manner as a similar communication This must be obvious to any person from a correspondent at Carlisle, inserted who occasionally frequents different cain the Magazine for February.
thedrals, and pays the least attention to By the highest and lowest of thermo- this subject, as he will find a considermeter, is to be understood the meun heat able variation in the time of performing of the warmest and coldest days of each the same services and anthems; and menth.
The mean beat of each day is ascer * See the Monthly Magazine for January, fained by three observations, conse- 1800, p. 9.11.
eren in the same choir, he will hear them by the terms adagio, allegro, and others, played faster or slower, by different per- insomuch that although in the Time sons at the organ.
Table, one minim is said to consist of And although most of these times must, four quavers, yet these are played in an of course, be wrong (as there can be but adagio movement, much slower than one proper time strictly belonging to any even minims in allu-breve time. Were composition, or movement), yet every indeed these vague terms abolished, and one will justify his own measure. The a standard framed and adhered to for the advocate for slow time, for instance, will semibreve, minim or crotchet, then sluwsay he disapproves of hurrying the solemn music might be written in breves, and compositions for the church; whilst an. semibreves; andantes in iniminis and other will be no less offended by the crotchets; allegros and prestos in quadragging, languid style, in which they are vers, semiquavers and deinisemiquavers; sometimes perforıned, as though dulness and the analogy would be preserved were a necessary characteristic of church throughout, so that the degrees of mumusic.
sical time might be regulated by ihe geIn concerts too, one leader will play all neral divisions of minutes and seconds, quick movements with such rapidity, with as much certainty and precision as that half the orchestra are puzzled to the measures of length or weight are by keep up with him, and nothing is dis- the foot or the pound. But as matters tinctly ‘articulated; whilst another, by stand, ali that can well be done is, to fix falling into the opposite extreme, will separate standards for the different mea. mar the eflect of the performance, and sures of adagio, largo, andante, allegro. communicate to it a languor and want of and presto, which are all that I think energy, which does not belong to it.
necessary to be particularly defined and And although it is by no means to be ascertained; the terms, larghetto, aile.' supposed, that leaders will always be in gretto, prestissimo, and the rest being extremes, yet the precise medium is diffic either diminutions, or accelerations of cult to bit; and as where matters are left their principals. And this order, or arto the opinions of individuals, such opi- rangement of them, appears to me to nions will always vary; leaders and con be the most generally acknowledged; it ductors will in general be inclined, in being the general rule to reckon the time some degree, to lean towards one extreme in adagio movements by quavers (that or the other.
is, 3 in a bar in common time, or 6 in It is true that nothing can be more triple) and in largo movements by clearly laid down, than the proportion of crotchets (or 4 in a bar in common the ditterent notes to each other, in the time, or S in triple). As for the others, Time Table. But yet, if neither of these presto is universally allowed to denoté be fixed as any standard, the only end the greatest degree of quickness, and that can be answered by this accuracy, andante forms the medium between is to enable the performers to keep to largo and allegro. There is one more such time as the leader happens to set term sometimes used as a mark of time, out with.
namely, vivace, which however seems In the general divisions of time, into more properly to relate to the manner years, months, or days, the greater die of touching the instrument, or of bowing; visions being fixed, and exactly ascer: as music may be played, spirituoso, (or tained by the motions of the sun and with spirit) without accelerating the earth, the smaller ones are accurately time. subdivided from them.
Although I am far from presuming to Also in all measures of length, weight fix this point myself, or absolutely to deor quantity, there are fixed standards for termine any standard for the 5 degrees of the pound, or gallon, or yard; so that it time before-mentioned, yet by way of is not left to opinion to decide how much doing something towards it, and exciting ought exactly to constitute any particu- others better qualified to set about it, lar weight, or measure, that may be re I venture to suggest the following scale, quired.
which may be observed by means of the It will, however, probably be observed, pendulum proposed by Dr. Crotch, in that the analogy between the tables just the paper of the Monthly Magazine bealluded to, and the Musical Time Table fore alluded to. will not hold good; because, while the Let there be, for adugio time, a penforiner are subject to no variation what- dulum of 30 inches, to vibrate the quaver; ever, the latter is so essentially altered or should one of that length be found ..
inconvenient, it may be shortened to ý tion was insensibly drawn to the many inches and a half, and every other vibra. coincidences, in the account given by tion reckoned.
him, concerning the creation and primiIn largo movements, one of 24 inches tive ayes of the world, and that of Nioses, to vibrate the quaver.
in the Book of Genesis. It may not, Andante ditto 16 2 inches, to vibrate perhaps, be entirely without interest to Allegro ditto 45 the crotchets. some of your readers, if I present you Presto ditto, 10 inches to vibrate the with some sentences of the greatest
sinni. minim: from the strictness of which rule, larity, and by juxta-position make the however, some deviations may be made, coincidences appear the more conclusive. according to the respective meaning of They will be strongly demonstrative, that the words larghetto, allegretto, allegro, the ideas, imbibed by the Roman poet assai, and prestissimo.
respecting these primitive times, sprang In the cathedral full-services, and in originally from the Hebrew source; and anthems, consisting chiefly of semibreves hence they will tend to evince, without and ininins, perhaps about 100 minims, adducing any other proof, that a know50 semibreves, or 25 bars in alla-breve ledye of the Hebrew Scriptures extended, time in a minute, may be considered as
and that their contents were, in somne a good standard. In triple time, how- degree at least, accredited beyond the ever, the miniins, &c. should be played limits of the Jewish nation. rather slower, or not so many in a mi " In the beginning, God created the
heaven and the eartlı; and the earth was With regard to the manner of using without form and void; and darkness was this pendulum, it certainly may be ma upon the face of the deep. And the naged by the person at the piano-forte, spirit of God moved upon the face of the immediately previous to the performance waters. And God said, let there be light of any new glee, or piece, without being and there was light." Gen. i. 1. 2. 3. observed by any of the audience. AC “ Ante mare et tellus, et, quod tegit omnia, least, at rehearsals, it may be used for cælum, every different movement in new music, Unus erat toro naturæ vultus in orbe, according to the general rules proposed, Quem dixere chaos; rudis indigestaque
Ov. Met. 1, 5, 6, 7.. or according to any particular one that
“ Hanc Deus, et melior litem natura dire. may be appointed by the author, as is the
Ov. Met. 1, 21.. ease in Dr. Crotch's publications. In cathedrals too, a pendulum may be
In this last sentence too, it is worthy suspended upon a hook in the organ loft, of remark, that the word “Deus," does at the side of the keys, so as to be set in
not seem, as if intended to be applied to · motion whenever required, immediately any heathen deity, but rather as alluding before beginning a service or anthem, by to the one supreme God; although the which means the length of the pendulum poet, in a subsequent verse, appears at a being marked in the organ book, at the loss to what deity he ought to ascribe. beginning of each composition, different the great work of creation; since he organ players may be able to accompany speaks of him thus, the same pieces, without varying the Quisquis fuit ille deorum." time.
Ov. Met. 1, 32. After all, however, the remarks here
This circumstance brings to my recoloffered are only, as I said before, sugges- lection, the inscription on the altar, at tions; and should they excite che attention of any of the more eminent pro- St. Paul; and they both together clearly
Athens, “ Aguwolw@sw," as mentioned by fessors of music, my end will be fully demonstrate, to what a pitch of ignoanswered, whether they agree with me in
rance, with regard to the precise number of vibra- latry had reduced tivo of the most refined.
respect to the divinity, idations, or not; all I wish being, that some
and learned nations at that time, on the thing may be determined upon the sube face of the carth. But to proceed: ject, and that what ought to be inatter of
“ So God created man in his own fact, or certainty, may no longer be mere matter of opinion.
image; in the image of God created be Your's, &c. M.
him." Gen. i. 27. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
“ Finxit in effiziemn modierantum cuncta de
Ov, Mai, 1, 83. V a late perusal of the first part of The golden age of the poet depicts
happiness in which the scriptures repre " Moas ibi verticibus petit arduus astra
duobus, sent our first progenitors to have lived in
Nomine Parnassus, Paradise :
nubes : Aurca prima sata est ætas, quæ, vindice Hic ubi Deucalion (nam cætera texerat nullo,
æquor) Sponte sua, sine lege, fidem rectumque Cum consorte tori parva rate vectus adhæsit.” colebat,
Ov. Met. 1, 316, et seq. Pæna metusque aberant, &c. Ov. Met. 1, 88, et seq.
" And Noah builded an altar Again;
unto the Lord, and took of every clean The fall of man, and the consequent beast, and of every clean fowi, and wickedness of the human race, are like- offered burnt offerings on the altar." wise designated with great perspicuity Gen. viii. 20. in the poet's iron age:
" Flectunt vestigia sanctæ
Ad delubra Deæ." Ov. Met. 1, 372, et seq. « De duro est ultima ferro. Protinus irrupit venæ pejoris in ævum
“ Procumbit uterque Omne nefas : fugere pudor, verumque fides. Pronus humi."
Ovi Met, 1, 375, et seq. Ov. Met. 1127, et seq. Atque ita, si precibus, dixerunt, numina u There were giants in the earth in Victa remollescunt, si flectitur ira deorum."
justis chose days." Gen. vi.
Ov. Met. 1, 377, et seq. “ And they said; go to,
let us build a city and a tower , whose top may reach above extracts, I shall just request pera
Without adding any comments on the unto heaven." Gen. xi. 4.
mission to close this coinmunication with « Affectâsse ferunt regnum cæleste gigantas,
a sentence of Ovid, concerning the final Altaque congestos struxisse ad sidera mon
destruction of the world, which is closely Ov. Met. 1, 152, 153.
connected with some already quoted, and Again ; “ And God saw that the wick which is in strict consonance with the edness of man was great in the earth, and belief of Christians, both as to the certain that every imagination of the thoughts of future occurrence of that event, and also his heart was only evil continually." as to the element which is destined to 'aeGen, vi. 5.
complish it: "Quà terra patet, fera regnat Erinnys: “ Esse quoque in fatis reminiscitur, affose In facinus jurâsse putes."
tempus, Ov. Met. 1, 241, 242. Quo mare, quo tellus, correptaque regia Again; « And behold I, even I, do
Ardeat. bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to
Ov. Met, 1, 256, et seq. destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath
Your's, &c. of life from under heaven; and every Hanslope,
W. SINGLETON , thing that is in the earth shall die.” Feb. 14, 1809. Gen. vi. 7. "i Pæna placet diversa, genus mortale sub To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. undis
Correspondent, who signs himself
a Native of Totnes," has lately Again; « And the Lord said unto amused us all here (Totnes), by his obNoah, come thou and all thy house into servations, in your valuable Magazine of the ark; for thee have I seen righteous January last, on Mr. Windeate's ingenie before me in this generation." Gen. vii. 1.
ous conmunication respecting the hisThus the poet, speaking of Deucalion, tory and present state of our place. Our and his wife Pyrrha, says,
town, it is true, is but a little one, and "Non illo melior quisquam, nec amantior our numbers but few, and though we may æqui
resemble the smallness, as welt as (par. Vir fuit, aut illa metuentior ulla deorum.” don a little local vanity) the beauty of Ov. Met. 1, 322, 323,
poor Anna Bullen's neck, yet we do not Again ; « And Noah went in, and his possess a sufficient quantity of her philosons, and his wife, and his son's wives sophy, calınly to submit to the unmerited with him, into the ark, because of the stroke of your anonymous Correspondent.. waters of the flood." Gen. vii. 7.
These papers have afforded us much mat« And the ark rested in the seventh ter for harmless discussion, and there are month, on the seventeenth day of the some who have no doubt reason to bless month, upon the mountains of Ararat." the writers, even were it only that they Ger. viii, 4.
have postponed the fate of many a cha