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1st. Sublime, as the noise of torrents, have been a sufficient test of the fitness, the hollow rushing of stormy winds, the or impropriety of the tones employed, rolling of thunder, the roar of wild By this they would know what succession beasts, &c.
of sounds would best rouse or appease, Ind. Pathetic, as the whine of young appal or inspirit, enliven or soothe. aninyals, the notes of the nightingale, the For the affections are moved not so much distant sound of bells, &c.
by introducing learned analogies or dis3d. Hursh and discordunt, as the gra- cordances, as by perspicuous, and natating of wheels, the notes of the pea- ral combination. In the infancy of mu. cock and guinea fowl, the sharpening sic, therefore, when it is probable the of instruments, braying of an ass, &c. height of the art amounted only to the &c.
einployment of unisons, and when the 4ih. Pretty and melodious, as the notes practice of it was extremely rare, its of singing-birds, the soft tones produced effects on the bearers must have been by the wind through an aperture, &c. very extensive. Of its influence, indeed,
But let me not dismiss the subject of on those who had never before experinatural sounds, without adverting to the enced it, we can at this day have no adegreat variety so remarkable in the human quate idea. Their souls, if I may so exvoice under the many circuinstances of press myself, must have been wholly at anger reproof, tenderness, exhortation, the disposal of the performer. His pow&c. Nay, we find that in some persons, ers must have appeared miraculous, and and in some countries (as for instance in sent by heaven for the purposes to which Wales, Languedoc, &c.) the common he chose to apply them. In this view of course of conversation runs in a kind of the subject we may read with patience, continued melody, more or less pleasing, the strange stories of antiquity, of Asaccording to the affectation predominant clepiades, Empedocles, &c for the feats of in the mind of the speaker. Nor does Linus, Orpheus, Timotheus, and Amit seem improbable that the same effect phion. Nor shall we be surprised at the would be observable in all human beings, address of Pindar to his Lyre. but for the restraint of habit and re
τ' αιχματάν κεραυνον σβεννύεις üned intercourse. At the birth of music, this may have been universal. Un
And again, civilized nations are still notorious for
Könade કે it; in their expression, though there is Δαιμόνων θέλγει φρενας. . said to be little of what is pleasing, yet Musical Genius then, in the early stages there is a perpetual change of tone, of the-art, was the power of selecting, now high and accented, at other times and a facility in arranging, the several low and plaintive; loud and accelerated sounds of nature, for the purpose of exwhen they are angry, yet seldom dis- citing in the hearer correspondent sentinguished by a slow and dignified into- timents or affections, whether immedination under any inpression. There is ately, or by association. And to this, sufficient in all ibis to prove, that nature if I am not mistaken, must we look, even has connected peculiar conformations of at the present day, for all that is truly sound with certain habits of mind; and desirable in music. As a proof of the that these, whether simple or compound, assertion, we always find men of real can be readily referred by all reasonablé science delighted and still dwelling with creatures to the feelings in which they pleasure on simple melodies, and those originated.
old national airs which were dictated by Having thus briefly dispatched the a taste, as yet not depraved by luxury, subject of what may be called primitive nor pampered with false embellishments. sounds, let us observe how they may They breathe indeed a spirit of genuine have contributed to the formation of simplicity and feeling. Their excellence music, and inusical genius. When the is likewise proved by the universality of effects of particular sounds were ascer
their effects. No man whose organs are tained; and the means of producing arti- perfect, can hear with indifference the ficial imitations of them had been inven- tunes of many old Scotch ballads. Or, to ted, the only difficulty to the first per- be particular, who will ever listen to the formers must have been the collecting a
old air of Gilderoy, or to the sad Welch sufficient number of musical expressions air, which records their defeat in Rhudda of the same character, and of increasing lan Marsh, without a degree of melartheir effect by a proper. contrast. The choly? It is of no avail to urge, that it mere appeal to his own bosom, would owes its effects tu a minor modulation ;
since this modulation is not the inven- sical genius is distinguished by a close tion of art, but the pure, unsophisticated attention to the effects of primary natuvoice of nature, the voice of agony, ral sounds, I cannot help adverting to wretcheduess, and supplication. Let the music of the present day. The moany person, a complete stranger to music, dern taste in this art has, it is to be fearhear the Kupue thenoor, or Lord have eu, prevented many composers of consimercy upon us,' as chanted in our cathe- derable talents from perceiving, that they dral-choirs, and presume to say, that it fly from the great object of music, when is not the expression of nature.
It they tire and distract the ear with long would be as absurd to deny it, as to pre- and rapid passages without meaning, tend to seel cheerful at the pathetic songs cumbrous or irregular bannony, and of Handel, “ Ye sons of Israel, row la- frequent chromatic cadences. This is ment,” “ Total eclipse," &c. &c. Το
perhaps no where to be lamented more, produce these effects, is to feel the full than in the treatment of litue pathetic force of every note; for they are in fact airs, which are often introduced into the best evidence, that,
concertos, ouly to be crushed under a “ Art is Nature to advantage dress’d.” beap of chaotic rubbish, or to be weigh
When any imitative art, however, has ed down by a superfluity of ornainent. attained to a great degree of perfection,
This is to dress a venerable matron in it is usual for its votaries to lose sight of the foppery and tinsel of a courtezan; the original prototype in the contempla.
and all forsooth, that we may admire tion of illustrious copies. Nature, the
the science and execution of some popu great, best source, at length appears poor
lar performer. But why this sacrifice and exhausted, and her magazines all of taste and judgment to the idol of plundered. Under these seeming dis- fashion; and why this advance to a advantages, the only resource for the more than Egyptian darkness? It is high candidate for fame, is thought to be in
time to bid adieu to such frivolities. It the study of former excellence; and to this is high time to look back to the works must be attributed the degeneracy of all of composers, which are still the admiraarts, and particularly the extinction of tion of men not callous to the beauties all genius in music.
of a simple and nervous style; and if Should it be asked, in what way can it be too irksome to contemplate the nao the sounds of nature be rendered service- tural dignity of many old pieces, the able to the musical composer ? I an. works of such men as Byrd, as Peter swer, by a careful attention to his own Philips, or Luca Marenzio; let us at feelings, upon which no melody or har- least not altogether lose sight of such mony will have a just effect, unless they authors as Handel and Corelli. are such as vature herself suggests. Of If it should be objected, that the above these simplicity is the striking feature ; and observations are confined to the earliest wherever adopted, they will be sure to history of music, let it be remembered, please. To these, then, let him pay that the same natural principles exist, particular attention, neither anxious to bowever obscured by subsequent refineastonish by a display of the mysteries of ments. It is only a more improved mehis art, nor intentonly upon rapidity and chanism, which distinguishes the carriage difficulty of execution, both of which, of the moderns from the car of our anhowever useful in contr ast, must, if contié cestors. The same laws of construction nued excite suspicions of mere technic affect both; and to these inust recourse cal artifice. No man scems to have be had for future improvements. Music, made nature his principal study more which in its infancy was nothing more than Haydn, in whom, perhaps, are uni- than a pleasing succession of melodies, to all the excellencies of the art, and musc have acquired almost imperceptiwhose works are unpleasant, or at least, bly the conjunctive passages, and idioms indifferent to us, only where he is cons of the art, which it still possesses. It tented with quaintness, obscurity or con. was gradually discovered, that the simceit, instead of hiş usual unlaboured, plicity of the ancients would admit of a simplicity. Indeed, if we take a survey modern character by variation and periof the respective merits of old, and mo- phrasis, and that there were scarcely dern composers, we shall observe them any four successive notes, which could popular, and in request, only in propor
not receive come embellishment that tion to the stock of nature to be found might heighten the beauty, while it prein them.
served the character of the expression, Having then insisted thus far, that mu- Besides these were inserted sentences of
an expletive nature, that tended in a wild beasts on the defenceless villagers. great degree to remove the abruptness of A strong corps of native infantry was ancient composition, and to reconcile stationed at Baugilpore, lo repeltheir the ear to any requisite changes in the incursions, and to protect the *ryots: but modulation.
In this manner, the art notwithstanding the vigilance of the Seaadvanced, receiving in its progress the poys, stimulated by offers of reward from additions and improvements of number- government, they were but seldom able less composers. These are now, how
to apprehend any of these desperate ever, so closely amalgamated with its marauders; and to follow them through very existence, that it would be impos- the trackless wilds of the jungle, would sible, completely to separate and decom- have been certain destruction. At length
Were it feasible to affix Mr. Cleveland was appointed Chief of dates and authors to the first use of Baugilpore, about the year 1778. This every one of these, and to reduce the gentleman was by nature humane, mild, body of music (if I may use the expres- and conciliating; the manners and cus. sion,) to its primary skeleton, we might toms of the natives had been his partiascertain, with the greatest precision, cular study; and experience in his dealthe progress and history of musical in- ings with them, had taught him that a vention. But this would be rather cu- free and unreserved confidence, tended rions, than useful. One advantage, how- more to establish a friendly intercourse, ever, it would carry with it, that we than any other method; his benevolent should be enabled to strip of their attrac- and capacious mind embraced the idea tions a number of authors, whose works of converting this lawless race of people would then appear more glaringly than into useful citizens, and establishing them ever, a string of dried sentences, or a as barriers against the attacks of the remass of well-concealed plagiarisin, moter and more ferocious tribes. With Great Marlow.
Your's &c. this philanthropic intention, he issued March 15 1807.
A. R. E. orders to the Seapoys, when next they
took any of them prisoners, to use them
kindly, and bring them to him; this with For the Monthly Magazine.
some difficulty was done, when Mr. NARRATIVE of a tour through BENGAL, Cleveland, instead of ordering them to be
BAHAR, und OUDE, to AGRA, DELHI, hung up, as had been the general custom, and other PLACES in the INTERIOR of treated them with the greatest mildness HINDUSTAN,
undertaken in the years, and humanity, expressed his desire to be 1794, 1795, 1796, and 1797.
on ternis of friendship with all their peo (Continued from p. 123.)
ple, and finally dismissed them with hand
some presents, and a message to their F ROM Raaje Mahul to Baugilpore, chief, signifying his wish to have an in
the scene is enlivened, and the eye terview with him, to treat about affairs relieved, by the appearance of a range of that would tend to their mutual advanlofty hills, on the south side of the river ; tage; and to remove all cause of apprebut they lose much of their beauty by hension on their part, he proposed going being thickly covered with jungle to the amongst them into the remote and invery summit, which in sonie measure
tricate recesses of their native hills, athides the undulations that render moun
tended only by an interpreter. The astotain landscapes so peculiarly picturesque. nished mountaineers, who expected noThese hills are inhabited by a singular thing but death, regarded him as a being race of people, totally different in per- of a superior race, and departed with a son, inanner, and language, from the ina promise of returning with the answer of habitants of the plains below; they are their Rajah, which they did in a few days, short in statue, seldom exceeding five feet bringing his assent to the proposed in four inches, and of a very dark colour, terview. Mr. Cleveland accordingly but muscular, lively, and active; they proceeded, notwithstanding the earnest have no distinction of casts like the Hin- advice and remonstrances of his friends, dus, hut resemble in that respect the a large party of whom accompanied him Pariahs of Coromandel; their civilization to the foot of the hills: he ascended with is of a late date; for several years after confidence, and was conducted by bis the English became sovereigns of the guides through various turnings and windcountry, these mountaineers lived like ings, to the presence of the Rajah. After savages in ihe recesses of their hills and jungles, whence they used to sally like
the usual introductory compliments, he with trophies, will sink into oblivion, opened the cause of his visit, and expa- ainids: the civilized world, save in the tiated in a forcible manner on the add- unemory of the buinane philanthropist, vantages the mountaineers would derive
who can duly appreciate the value of his from the friendship and protection of the labours in converting a lawless race of English. The Rajah listened to him savages into useful and peacçable citi. with attention, the language and manners zens, without the effusion of blood, hy of Mr. Cleveland: the confidence he re. the inild but certain method of reciprocal posed in trusting himself alone and un- benefit. armed amongst them, and above all, an Raaje Mahul is in Bengal, hut Bauancient tradition which had been handed gilpore is in the province of Bahar; the down froin father to son, that they were distance of one from the other, is about to derive some great benefit from the filty miles by land, and seventy miles by visit and consequent friendship of a water. About sixteen miles from the forstranger, carried conviction to the mind
iner place, is the celebrated pass of of the Rajah, and induced him to enter Sickry Gully, which, with Tiria Gully, into Mr. Cleveland's views, without fur- twelve miles further, form the western ther hesitation. That gentleman, taking boundary of Bengal. The road from the advantage of the superstitious ideas the upper provinces to Calcutta, leads through tradition had inspired them with, pro- these passes, which were forinerly strongly posed immediately to cement their friend- fortified, and deemed by the natives to ship by the solemn ties of religion. The be impregnable ; but since the British Rajah, with all the ardour and joy semi- government has been so firmly established barbarism feels in the expectation of pos- in India, they have been dismantled and sessing some new, and as yet unappre- suffered lo decay; some of the arches of ciated gift, summoned the priests to his the gateways are yet standing, and an presence, and without further delay ra- old cannon, formed of irop bars, hooped tified the treaty with all the solemnity round, still remains, but buried under a and awe the most sacred rites of religion heap of rubbish. The situation of these are capable of inspiring. Mr. Cleveland passes, in the sequestered bosom of a returned to Baugilpore, attended by se- range of bills, covered with forest trees veral of the mountaineers, who became and underwood, which extends to the so attached to his person, that he formed edge of the river, is extremely romantic; them into a corps, which was soon aug- the ancient and dilapidated state of the mented by fresh recruits from the hills. building, the solemn stillness that preTheir fidelity and activity in protecting the vails, and the rude and rugged appearyillagers from the depredations of their ance of the scene, inspire an awe not countrymen, became so conspicuous, untinctured with fear and apprehension. that it was thought prudent by govern- Murders were formerly very frequent ment to entrust them with firelocks, and here; and it became proverbial in the discipline them in the European manner. neighbouring districts, that the life of a
The experiment succeeded admirably; man who was obliged to travel through applications for admittance into the corps the Sickry Golly pass, was not worth á became so numerous, that a battalion of day's purchase. There certainly never one thousand men was soon forined, in- was a situation better calculated for der the appellation of Hill Rangers; the scenes of villainy, than the road between constant intercourse between these peo- the two passes; for the space of ten or ple and their b-ethren in the hills, twelve miles, not a vestige of a human brought about general habits of civiliza- being was to be seen; the voice of distion and friendly intercourse; and at this tress would have been lost in the hollow day, scarcely thirty years from the first murmurs of the forest, and the sanguinary formation of the corps, the British go. Thug* might have destroyed and plunvernment in India does not possess more dered his victim, without any apprehenpeaceable and loyal subjects than the sion of being interrupted. But the danmountaineers of Baugilpore.
ger is now comparatively trifling; the Statesmen and warriors, who study active benevolence of Mr. Cleveland, how to enslave and slaughter mankind, caused a village to be erected in the very have their names handed down to poste bosom of the pass, which he peopled rity by the pens of historians, while the with an industrious set of Bunneals and modest virtues and more essential serrices of such a man as Cleveland, un- * A rubber who first assassinates and then emblazoned with titles, and undecorated plunders his victim.
Givalcalis; Gwaleahs ; it has since been considerably nations are confined to their priests, and increased, and tends greatly to the sem to those holy impostors who, under the curity of travellers.
appellations of Sunassies, Burraghees, I cannot pass the boundaries of Ben- and Joyees, impose on iheir credulity gal, without making a few observations through the terrors of superstition. When on the inhabitants. I may perhaps be the European inhabitants of Calcutta set accused of prejudice by those who have on foot a subscription towards erecting formed their opinions of them from books, and endowing an hospital for the relief written by the fire-side' in England, or of the sick and indigent natives, the from the warm eulogiums on their virtue Hindus, among whom are some of the and innocence, so repeatedly made wealthiest individuals in the world, were during Mr. Hastings's trial; but such as very backward indeed in their contrifrom observation, local knowledge, and butions; and the few who did subscribe extensive dealings with the innocent from motives of shaine, on being urged natives of Bengal, are the most com- and ridiculed by their European conpetent judges of the justness of my ob- nections, did it in so pitiful a manner, servations, will, I think, generally allow that it was a matter of surprize their doa that the picture is not over-charged. nations were accepted. Their conduct on
The Hivdus, if not the aborigines of this, as well as on many other occasions, the country, have certainly inhabited it placed the humanity of the British in from a very remote period of antiquity, habitants in a more conspicuous point of and compose at this day full nine-tenths view: this they themselves acknowledge, of its population, which the lowest calcu- and profess the highest veneration and lation estimates at sixteen millions. respect for the nobler feelings by which They are in general weak and effeminate; we are actuated; but the example is too the rice and vegetables on which they bright for them to follow, and meek-eyed principally subsist, give a delicacy and charity too liberal an inmate to find room suppleness to their frames, which admire in their sordid bosoms; they are fonder ably adapts them for the easy labours of of imitating the follies of Europeans, than the loom, but render them very unfit for their virtues. Near the seat of government the purposes of war. Nature and edu- they affect the same freedom of behacation seem to have joined in making viour; but it descends into rudeness and them effeininate, timid, and patient; licentiousness, without the generosity and polite, crafty, and deceitful. A Hindu, independence of spirit. They are mora when transported with passion, vents eager in the pursuit of wealth than an his rage in a truly feminine manner; the European, but in the acquirement, they tropes and figures of a Billingsgate neither possess his activity nor his honymph, would appear courtly language, nesty. Their ideas of men and tuuin are when compared with the foul and ob- very lax, consequently they are not very scene reprvaches that issue froin his lips; delicate in the means they make use of to but he is quickly silenced if a disposition increase their riches; they seem to have appears of resenting his insolence by no sense of the moral turpitude of the force. He is totally devoid of all senti- action, and if they avoid detection, they ments of active hunanity to his fellow. avoid disgrace. Previous to my arrival creatures, but remarkable for his ten
in India, I had beard and read so much derness to animals of every description of the innocent and oppressed natives, This however does not proceed frog any that I was prepared to behold a virtuous principle of compassion, but from supera race of people, sinking under the crustitious motives arising from his belief in elties of foreign invaders, and appealing the Pythagorean system of transmigra- in vain to British justice, and Britisha tion : their want of humanity to their laws; but a residence of sixteen years own fellow-creatores, frequently amounts amongst them, enabled me to develope to passive cruelty; for they will pass by a the fallacy of such reports, and to observe man with the greatest indifference who the case, comfort, and security, which has just fallen into a tit before iheir they derive from the protecting influence faces, or is perishing through the exiren of the British government, when commity of want, without the least attempt pared with those who reside under the to assist his distress. They affect to be dominion of their own princes. very charitable, but real charity occupies
(To be continued.) nu part of their cold bosoms; their do.