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an expletive nature, that tended in a wild beasts on the defenceless villagers. great degree to remove the abruptness of A strong corps of native infantry was ancient composition, and to reconcile stationed at Baugilpore, to repeltheir the ear to any requisite changes in the incursions, and to protect the *ryots: but modulation. In this manner, the art notwithstanding the vigilance of the Seaadvanced, receiving in its progress the poys, stimulated by offers of reward from additions and improvements of number- government, they were but seldom able less composers,

These are now, how- to apprehend any of these desperate ever, so closely amalgamated with its marauders ; and to follow them through very existence, that it would be impos- the trackless wilds of the jungle, would sible, completely to separate and decom- have been certain destruction. At length

Were it feasible to affix Mr. Cleveland was appointed Chief of dates and authors to the first use of Baugilpore, about the year 1778. This every one of these, and to reduce the gentleman was by nature humane, mild, body of music (if I may use the expres- and conciliating; the manners and cus. sion,) to its primary skeleton, we might toms of the natives had been his partiascertain, with the greatest precision, cular study; and experience in his dealthe progress and history of musical in- ings with them, had taught him that a vention. But this would be rather cu- free and unreserved confidence, tended rions, than useful. One advantage, how- more to establish a friendly intercourse, ever, it would carry with it, that we than any other method; his benevolent should be enabled to strip of their attrac- and capacious mind embraced the idea tions a number of authors, whose works of converting this lawless race of people would then appear more glaringly than into useful citizens, and establishing them ever, a string of dried sentences, or a as barriers against the attacks of the remass of well-concealed plagiarism, moter and more ferocious tribes. With Great Marlow.

Your's &c. this philanthropic intention, he issued March 15 1807.

A. R. E. orders to the Seapoys, when next they

took of them prisoners, to use them For the Monthly Magazine.

kindly, and bring them to him; this with

some difficulty was done, wher Mr. NARRATIVE of a Tour through BENGAL, Cleveland, instead of ordering them to be

BAHAR, und OUDE, to AGRA, DELHI, hung up, as had been the general custom, and other PLACES in the INTERIOR of treated them with the greatest mildness HINDUSTAN, undertaken in the years, and humanity, expressed his desire to be 1794, 1795, 1796, and 1797.

on ternis of friendship with all their peo (Continued from p. 123.)

ple, and finally dismissed them with hand

some presents, and a message to their the scene is enlivened, and the eye terview with him, to treat about affairs relieved, by the appearance of a range of that would tend to their mutual advanlofty hills, on the south side of the river; tage; and to remove all cause of apprebut they lose much of their beauty by hension on their part, he proposed going being thickly covered with jungle to the amongst them into the remote and invery summit, which in sonie measure tricate recesses of their native hills, athides the undulations that render moun

tended only by an interpreter. The astotain landscapes so peculiarly picturesque. nished mountaineers, who expected noThese hills are inhabited by a singular thing but death, regarded him as a being race of people, totally different in per- of a superior race, and departed with a son, inanner, and language, from the in- promise of returning with the answer of habitants of the plains below; they are their Rajah, which they did in a few days, short in statue, seldom exceeding five feet bringing his assent to the proposed in four inches, and of a very dark colour, terview. Mr. Cleveland accordingly but muscular, lively, and active; they proceeded, notwithstanding the earnest have no distinction of casts like the Hin- advice and remonstrances of his friends, dus, but resemble in that respect the a large party of whom accompanied him Parials of Coromandel; their civilization to the foot of the hills: he ascended with is of a late date; for several years after confidence, and was conducted by bis the English became sovereigns of the guides through various turnings and vind. country, these mountaineers lived like ings, to the presence of the Rajah. Matter savages in ihe recesses of their hills and jungles, whence they used to sally like

* Peasants.


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the usual introductory compliments, he with trophies, will sink into oblivion, opened the cause of his visit, and expa- ainids: the civilized world, save in the tiated in a forcible maoner on the ad memory of the buinane philanthropist, vantages the mountaineers would derive

who can duly appreciate the value of his from the friendship and protection of the labours in converting a lawless race of English. The Rajah listened to him savages into useful and peacçable citiwith attention, the language and manners zens, without the effusion of blood, by of Mr. Cleveland: the confidence he re- the inild but certain method of reciprocal posed in trusting himself alone and un- benefit. armed amongst them, and above all, an Raaje Mahul is in Bengal, hut Bauancient tradition which had been handed gilpore is in the province of Bahar ; the down froin father to son, that they were distance of one from the other, is about to derive some great benefit from the fifty miles by land, and seventy miles by visit and consequent friendship of a water. About sixteen miles from the forstranger, carried conviction to the mind

mer place, is the celebrated pass of of the Rajah, and induced him to enter Sickry Guily, which, with liria Gully, into Mr. Cleveland's views, without fur- twelve miles further, form the western ther hesitation. That gemtleman, taking boundary of Bengal. The road from the advantage of the superstitious ideas the upper provinces to Calcutta,leads through tradition had inspired them with, pro- these passes, which were forinerly strongly posed immediately to cement their friend- fortified, and deemed by the natives to ship by the solemn ties of religion. The be impregnable ; but since the British Rajah, with all the ardour and joy semi- government has been so firmly established barbarism feels in the expectation of pos- in India, they have been dismantled and sessing, some new, and as yet unappre. suffered to decay; some of the arches of ciated gift, summoned the priests to his the gateways are yet standing, and an presence, and without further delay ra- old cannon, formed of irop bars, hooped tified the treaty with all the solemnity round, still remains, but buried under a and awe the most sacred rites of religion heap of rubbish. The situation of these are capable of inspiring. Mr. Cleveland passes, in the sequestered bosom of a returned to Baugilpore, attended by se- range of bills, covered with forest trees veral of the mountaineers, who became and underwood, which extends to the so attached to his person, that he formed edge of the river, is extremely romantic; them into a corps, wbich was soon aug, the ancient and dilapidated state of the mented by fresh recruits from the hills. building, the solemn stillness that preTheir fidelity and activity in protecting the vails, and the rude and rugged appearvillagers from the depredations of their ance of the scene, inspire an awe not countrymen, became so conspicuous, untinctured with fear and apprehension. that it was thought prudent by govern- Murders were formerly very frequent ment to entrust them with firelocks, and here; and it became proverbial in the discipline them in the European manner. neighbouring districts, that the life of a The experiment succeeded admirably; man who was obliged to travel through applications for admittance into the corps the Sickry Golly pass, was not worth á became so numerous, that a battalion of day's purchase. There certainly never one thousand inen was soon forined, un- was a situation better calculated for der the appellation of Hill Rangers; the scenes of villainy, than the road between constant intercourse between these peo- the two passes; for the space of ten or ple and their brethren in the hills, twelve niles, not a vestige of a human brought about general habits of civiliza- being was to be seen; the voice of dis. tion and friendly intercourse; and at this tress would have been lost in the hollow day, scarcely thirty years from the first

murmurs of the forest, and the sanguinary formation of the corps, the British go- Thug* might have destroyed and plunvernment in India does not possess more dered his victim, without any apprehenpeaceable and loyal subjects than the sion of being interrupted. But the danmountaineers of Baugilpore.

ger is now comparatively trifling; the Statesmen and warriors, who study active benevolence of Mr. Cleveland, how to enslave and slaughter mankind, caused a villaye to be erected in the very have their names handed down to poste: bosom of the pass, which he peopled rily by the pens of historians, while the with an industrious set of Bunneals and inodest virtues and more essential serrices of such a man as Cleveland, un- * A rubber who first assassinates and then Emblazoned with titles, and undecorated plunders his victim.




Gwaleahs ; it has since been considerably nations are confined to their priests, and increased, and tends greatly to the se- to those holy impostors who, under the curity of travellers.

appellations of Sunassies, Burraghees, I cannot pass the boundaries of Ben- and Jogees, impose on iheir credulity gal, without making a few observations through the terrors of superstition. When on the inhabitants. I may perhaps be the European inhabitants of Calcutta set accused of prejudice by those who have on foot a subscription towards erecting formed their opinions of them from books, and endowing an hospital for the relief written by the fire-side' in England, or of the sick and indigent natives, the from the warm eulogiums on their virtue Hindus, among whom are some of the and innocence, so repeatedly made wealthiest individuals in the world, were during Mr. Hastings's trial; but such as very backward indeed in their contrifrom observation, local knowledge, and butions; and the few who did subscribe extensive dealings with the innocent from motives of shame, on being urged natives of Bengal, are the most com- and ridiculed by their European con petent judges of the justness of my ob- nections, did it in so pitiful a manner, servations, will, I think, generally allow that it was a matter of surprize their dos that the picture is not over-charged. nations were accepted. Their conduct on

The Hindus, if not the aborigines of this, as well as on many other occasions, the country, have certainly inhabited it placed the humanity of the British intfrom a very remote period of antiquity, habitants in a more conspicuous point of and compose at this day full nine-tenthis view: this they themselves acknowledge, of its population, which the lowest calcu- and profess the highest veneration and Jation estimates at sixteen millions. respect for the nobler feelings by which They are in general weak and effeminate; we are actuated; but the example is too the rice and vegetables on which they bright for them to follow, and meek-eyed principally subsist, give a delicacy and charity too liberal an inmate to find room suppleness to their fraines, which admire in their sordid bosoms; they are fonder ably adapts them for the easy labours of of imitating the follies of Europeans, than the loom, but render them very unfit for their virtues. Near the seat of government the purposes of war. Nature and edu- they affect the same freedom of behacation seem to have joined in making viour; but it descends into rudeness and them etieininate, timid, and patient; licentiousness, without the generosity and polite, crafty, and deceitful. A Hindu, independence of spirit. They are mora when transported with passion, vents eager in the pursuit of wealth than an his rage in a truly feminine manner; the European, but in the acquirement, they tropes and figures of a Billingsgate neither possess his activity nor his honymph, would appear courtly language, nesty. Their ideas of meuiu and tuuin are when coinpared with the foul and ob- very lax, consequently they are not very scene reprvaches that issue from his lips; delicate in the means they make use of to but he is quickly silenced if a disposition increase their riches; they seem to have appears of resenting his insolence by no sense of the moral turpitude of the force. He is totally devoid of all senti- action, and if they avoid detection, they ments of active huinanity to his fellow. avoid disgrace. Previous to my arrival creatures, but remarkable for his ten- in India, I had beard and read so much derness to animals of every description of the innocent and oppressed natives, This however does not proceed from any that I was prepared to behold a virtuous principle of compassion, but from supera race of people, sinking under the crustitious motives arising from his belief in elties of foreign invaders, and appealing the Pythagorean system of transmigra. in vain to British justice, and British tion : their want of humanity to their laws; but a residence of sixteen years own fellow-creatores, frequently amounts amongst them, enabled me to develope to passive cruelty; for they will pass by a the fallacy of such reports, and to observe man with the greatest indifference who the ease, comfort, and security, which has just fallen into a tit before their they derive from the protecting influence faces, or is perishing through the extre- of the British government, when commity of want, without the least attempt pared with those who reside under the to assist his distress. Tliey affect to be dominion of their own princes. very charitable, but real charity occupies

(To be continued.) nu part of their cold bosoms; their do


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MEMOIR OF RICHARD GOUGH, The gift was so acceptable to the king, Esq. OF ENFIELD.

that an offer of knighthood was made to [To the account of his Family, which Mr. Mr. Gough; but this loyal subject, having

Gough himself communicated to Mr. no other view than to serve his sovercign, StebbingShaw, for the History of Stafford- declined this honour, which was afterwards shire, we are in part indebted for the ma- conferred on his grandson, llenry of Perterials of this little Menoir.

ryhall, when he was introduced at the court mainder has been communicated by a of Charles II: and had mention made of literary friend.)

the loyalty of his ancestors. VHE family from which Mr. Gough sumed these services were not forgotten

descended, the Gouglis of Wales, in the reign of Queen Anne, as Sir extend their line no further back than the Henry obtained for two of his sons, time of Henry IV. though others of the while very young, the places of page to name, and connected with the family, oc- the Queen and Duke of Gloucester. cur as early as the reign of Henry I. Mr. Gough's father was Harry Gough,

Sir Matthew Gough, with whose father, Esq. fifth son of Sir Harry Gough, of Per. Innerth or John, the pedigree begins, ha- ry-hall, and was born April 2, 1681. ving passed the prime of his life in the When only eleven years


he went French wars of Henry V. and VI. finished with Sir Richard Gough, his uncle, to it in Cade's rebellion, fighting on the part China, kept all his accounts, and was of the citizens, in July 1450, at the battle called by the Chinese Ami whang, or the of London-bridge. Nor is this the only in- white-haired boy. In 1707 he commanded stance where Mr. Gough's ancestors were the ship Streatham, in which he contihighly distinguished for their loyalty. nued eight years, and with equal ability

The unfortunate Charles I. during his and integrity acquired a decent competroubles, stopt at Wolverhampton, where tency, the result of many hardships and he was entertained by Madam St. Andrew, voyages in the service of the East India who was either sister or aunt to Mr. Company, to which his whole life was deHenryGough, and that gentleman ventur- voted while he presided among their died to accommodate their Royal Highnes- rectors, being elected one in 1731, if not ses Charles Prince of Wales and James

From 1734 to his death, which Duke of York. An antient tenement still happened July 13, 1751, he represented remains at Wolverhampton, where these in parliament the borough of Bramber, in princely guests resided. A subscription Sussex, and enjoyed the confidence of Sir being set on foot to aid the exigencies of Robert Walpole : whose measures he so the royal cause, the inhabitants cheerfully firmly supported, as not only to hurt his contributed accordiug to their ability; but health by attendance on the long and late the most ample supply was expected from debates during the opposition to that miMr. Gough, whose loyalty was as eminent nister, but was often known to attend the as his fortune was superior, when, to the house with a fit of the gout coming on. great surprise and disappointinent of every His son Richard, the subject of our meone, he refused any assistance, though moir, was born October 21, 1735, in a strongly urged by the king's commission- large house in Winchester-street, London, ers, who retired in disgust and chagrin. on a site peculiarly calculated for the birth When night approached, putting on his of an antiquary, that of the monastery of hat and cloak, Mr. Gough went secretly Augustine-friars, founded by Humphrey de and solicited a private audience of his ma- Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, in jesty. This appearing an extraordinary 1253. At the time of the dissolution, the request, the dangerous circumstances of house, cloister and garden of the Augusthe times considered, the lord in waiting tines were granted by the crown to Wil. wished to know the object of the request, liam Lord St. John, afterwards Marquis of with an offer to cominunicate it to the Winchester, who built a magnificent house king. Mr. Gough persisted in rejecting upon the very spot, part of which remains, this offer, and much interogation obtained the rest is occupied by later dwellings, and admission to the royal presence. He then among them stands the house alluded to. drew from his cloak a purse, containing a Mr. Gough's parents were dissenters, large sum of money, and presenting it with and their son received the first rudiments due respect, said, “ May it please your of Latin at home, under the tuition of a majesty to accept this; it is all the cash ! Mr. Barnewitz, a Courlander, who taught have by me, or I would have brought more.” at the same time the sons of several emi


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nent merchants in the city; on his death whether in print or manuscript. This work Mr. Gongh was committed to theiristruc- was improved in two volumes of the same tion of the Rev. Roger Pickering, one of size, 1780, and has been since augınented the most learned, most imprudent, and to a third, the progress of which through most illtreated of the dissenting ministers the press was interrupted by the fire at of his time. On his death, May 18, 1755, Mr. Nichols's. Mr. Gongh finished his Greek studies un- The year before, February 26, 1767, he der Mr. Samuel Dyer, the friend and li- was elected a fellow of the Society of Anterary contemporary of Johnson. tiquaries, and drew up their History pre

After his father's death, in July 1952, fixed to the first volume of the Archæolohe was admitted tellow-coinmoner of Be- gia, in 1770. In 1771, by the partiality net College, Cambridge, where his rela- of the president, Dr. Milles, Dean of Extions, Sir Henry Gough and his brother eter, he was, on the death of Dr. GreJolin, had before studied under Dr. Martin gory Sharpe, master of the Temple, nomia son, afterwards Bishop of Chichester and natea Director, which oflice he held till Ely. Benet bad peculiar attractions for December 12, 1797, when, for reasons a mind like Mr. Geugh's; it had not only which the society can best explain, he trained the great Parker to revive bestudy quitted it altogether, He was chosen of antiquity, and received from him a rich i RS. 1775, but quitted that society ire donation of curious and ancient manu- 1795. The publication of the Archæoscripts; but had educated Stukeley, to logia he superintended for many years; trace our antiquities to their remotest oric and in the different volumes, till 1796, are gin. The college tutor in 1752 was Dr. various articles drawn up or communicaJohn Barnardiston, afterwards master, ter by him; his last paper we believe was His private tutor was Mr. Jolm Coit, fel- rcail at the Society of Antiquaries, Janulow of the house, who died at liis Rectory ary 26, 1792, “On the Analogy between of Broxted, Essex, in 1781. Under the certain ancient Monuments,” and pubprivate tuition of the three excellent scho- lished in the eleventh volume of the Are lars beforementioned, he early imbibert a chæologia, 1794. Besides which, the diftaste for classical literature; and it is not ferent communications in the two latter to be wondered that his connexion with a volumes of the society's Vetusta Monica, college, eminent for producing a succes- menta," to which his signatures are annexe, sion of British antiquaries, inspired him oui, prove him to have been for years the with a strong propensity to the study of our most useful and laborious member it could national antiquities. Ilere was first plar. boast. One of the principal articles ned the British. Topography, and hence, in in the last volume, 1796, is Mr. Gough's 1756, he made liis first visit to Croyland Account of the great loss our national hisAbbey, whence his carcer of antiquarian tory sustained by the destruction of Lord pursuitsliterally began. From Cambridge Alontague's house at Cowiray, in Sussex. he made his first excursions, and continued In 1767 he openeit a correspondence, these pursuits every year to various parts mostly under the signature of D. II. in of the kingdom, taking notes, which on bis the Gentleman's Magazine; though not return were digested into form.

without assuming some others: and on the In 1768 Mr. Gough published the "An- death of his fellow collegian, Mr. Dunecdotes of British Topography” in a sino combe, in 1780, he occasionally commil. gle quarto volume. Ai this time the love nicated reviews of literary publications, of topograpliical research was daily in- to that valuable miscellany, in which, to creasing; and the vetline it contained, of use his own expressions, if he criticised a history of the progress of topographical with warınth a'i severity certain innovae enquires in Great Britain and Ireland, tions in church and state, he wrote his gave new life to the pursuit. The first con- sentiments with sincerity and impartiality, piler of a work like this was Johu Bagtorr, in the fulness of a heart deeply impressed why furnished Bishop Gibson with the list with a sense of the excellence and happie prefixed to his edition oj the Britannia. ness of the English constitution both in Bishop Nicholson's Historical Libraries, church and state. and Dr. Rawlinson's English Topogra- In 1772, Mr. Gough edited Perlin's pher, had of course became greatly in- "Description des Royaulmes d'Angleterre perfect, and Mr. Govyl's work not only ct d'Escusse," with De la Serres “ Histoire informed the curious what lights had from de l'Entrée de la Reine Mere du Roy time to time been thrown on our topogra- treschrestien dens la Grande Bretagne,"in phical antiquities, but enimerated most of a thin volume, quarto. ihę inaterials which had been cullected, 211 1778 he formed the design of a new MUNTILY MAG. No. 183.

M m


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