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houses should be licenced at the general Turks have a drink called coffee, made quarter-sessions of the peace for the with boiling water, of a berry reduced county within which they are to be kept. into powder, which makes the water as
In 1675, King Charles issued a procla- black as soot, and is of a pungent and mation to shut up the coffee-houses, but aromatic smell, and is drank warm. in a few days suspended that proclama The celebrated John Ray, in his Histotion by a second. They were charged ry of Plants, published in 1690, speaking with being seminaries of sedition.
of it a drink very much in use, says, The first European author who has that this tree grows only within the nade any mention of coffee, is Rauwol- tropics, and supposes that the Arabs defas, who was in the Levant in 1578 ; but stroy the vegetable quality of the seeds, the first who has particularly described in order to confine among themselves is , is Prosper Alpinus, in his History of the great share of wealth, which is the Egyptian Plants, published at Venice brought thither from the whole world for in 1591, whose description we have in this commodity; from whence he oboParkinson's History of Plants, p. 1622, serves, that this part of Arabia might be chap. 79, as follows: Arbor Bon cum truly styled the most happy, and that it fruclu suo buna, the Turks berry drink. was almost incredible how many millions Alpiuus in his first book of Egyptian of bushels were exported from thence Plants, gives us the description of this into Turkey, Barbary, and Europe. He tree, which he says he saw in the garden says, he was astonished that one particular of a captain of the Janissaries, which nation should possess so great a treasure, was brought out of Arabia-Felix, and and that within the narrow limits of one there planted as a rarity never seen grow. prosince; and that he wondered the ing in those places before. The tree, saith neighbouring wations did not contrive to Alpinus is somewhat like Euonymus, or bring away some of the sound seeds or Spindle-tree, but the leaves of it were living plants, in order to share in the whicker, harder, and greener, and always advantages of so lucrative a trade. abiding on the tree. The fruit is called We now come to shew by what means Buna, and is somewhat bigger than an this valuable tree was first introduced hazelnut, and longer, round also and into Europe, and thence into Ame. printed at one end; furrowed like. rica. wise, on both sides, yet, on one side, The first account of this tree being more conspicuous than the other, that brought into Europe, we have from Boerit might be parted into two: in each side haave, in his Index to the Leyden Garwhereof licth a small oblong white kernel, den, part 2, p. 217, which is as follows: fat on the side they join together, cover “ Nicholas Witsen, Burgomaster of Amed with a yellowish skin of an acid taste sterdam, and governor of the East India and somewhat bitter, and contained in a Company, by his letters often advised thin shell, of a darkish ash colour. With and desired Van Hoorn, governor of these berries in Arabia and Egypt, and Batavia, to procure from Mocha in Aiaother parts of the Turkish dominions, bia-Felix some berries of the coffee-tree they generally make a decoction or to be sown at Batavia, which he having drink, which is in the stead of wine to accordingly done, and by that means them, and commonly sold in their tap- about the year 1690, raised many plants bruses or taverns, called by the name of from seeds, he sent one over to Governor trova; Paludamus says chouva, and Rau- Witsen, who immediately presented it to toifas chauke. This drink has many the garden at Ainsterdam, of which he mod physical properties; it strengthens was the founder and supporter ; it there a weak stomach, helping digestiou, and bore fruit, which in a short tiine produthe tumours and obstructions of the liver ced many young plants from the seeds, and spleen, being drank fasting for some Boerhaave then concludes that the meric use together. It is held in great esti- of introducing this rare tree into Europe, zation among the Egyptian and Arabian is due to the care and liberality of Witsamen in common feminine cases, in sen alone. luch they find it does them eminent In the year 1714, the magistrates of
Amsterdamn in order to pay a particular Lord Chancellor Bacon likewise makes compliment to Louis XIV. King of France setting of it in 1624 : he says, that the presented to him an elegant plaut of this
rare tree, carefully packed up to a boy This description is evidently taken from water, and defended from the weather by lessed berry, and not from the ripe fruit. a curious machine, covered with glass.
The plant was about five feet high, and evanescent; resembling that of fine green an inch in diameter in the stem, and was tea dried. in full foliage, with both green and ripe
There seems little doubt that this fruit. It was viewed in the river with charming plant would bear a warın and great attention and curiosity, by se sheltered exposure in the south-west of veral members of the academy of sci our island, like the broad-leaved inyrtle. ences, and was afterwards conducted to Its affinity to the myrtle is indeed very the royal garden at Marly under the care striking : so much, that many species of Monsieur de Jussieu, the king's pro- having been lately transferred from the fessor of botany, who had the year be- genus Myrtus to other genera, so that it fore written a memoir, printed in the is now very thin. I doubt whether this History of the Academy of Sciences of might not be annexed to it under the deParis, in the year 1713, describing the nomination of Myrtus Thea, changing its characters of this genus, together with elegant generic naine, which it ought not an elegant figure of it, taken froin a wholly to lose, into its specific. Fond as smaller plant, which he had received I am of plants, I have never till pcy that year from Monsieur Pancrass, bur seen it in bloom. go-master of Amsterdam, and director It is long in coming into blossom. The of the botanical garden there.
buds appeared early in September. The In 1718, the Dutch colony at Surinam season of its flowering renders it pecubegan first to plant coffee, and in 1722, liarly valuable. And had the weather Monsieur de la Motte Aigrou, governor. been mild, I have no doubt that in some of Cayenne, having business at Surinam, few days it would have been covered with contrived by an artisice, to bring away bloom. a plant from thence, which in the year The flowers proceed from near the ex1725, had produced many thousands. tremities of the branches, on solitary foot
In 1727 the French, perceiving that this stalks, some opposite, others alternate, acquisition might be of great advantage My plant is near three feet high, and in their other colonies, conveyed to Mar came from Mr. Mackie, nurseryman, tiyico some of the plants; from whence Norwich, the year before this. In close it most probably spread to the neighbour- moist weather it requires air, and some ing islands, for in the year 1732, it was heat, to absorb the damp: otherwise its cultivated in Jamaica, and an act passed blossoms fall without opening. This I to encourage its growth in that island.- experienced last year. Thus was laid the foundation of a most I cannot imagine that its beauty in a extensive and beneficial trade to the Eu- good greenhouse would be at all inferior ropean settlements in the West Indies, even to the myrtle itself. It seems to form
the interinediate link in the botanical To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. chasm between the myrtle and the SIR,
orange. ITcom o informed that the tea-ere is sive use as the coliee and tea trees tene now in blossom here, in our parlour, and coffee perhaps one of the greatest bleshas been ever since the 18th (inclusive) sings, among those that are not really of this month, notwithstanding the ex necessaries of life, that Providence has treme severity of the weather, and that indulged to mankind, considering its bethe thermometer within doors at half- neficial qualities in use as well as its past nine this morning, in a southern agreeable) should be among the inost aspect, was at 28. Another bud has even elegant of plants in foliage and blossom; opened since the frost.
and the coffee in fruit also. It is imposPetals 6, (one smaller and shorter than sible not to rejoice that the present the rest); concave, obtusely heart-shaped. cheapness of coffee, though it is to be Stamens very numerous (probably above feared a short-lived cheapness, has made 200), with golden summits. The whole it, to a considerable degree, the beverage appearance of the flower like the single of the poor. It is strengthening, where broad-leaved myrtle; but longer, and tea is not; it is even nutritive, while tea more brilliant, from the multiplicity of certainly is not. Tca, however, itseif, the stainens, texture of the petals, strong should not be without much commendaer colour, not quite so white. Calyx: tion. Moderately taken, and not too stellate, quinquefid, about one-fourth the hot, it may be regarded as not only inlength of the petals.
nocent, but salutary. It is favourable The scent of the fower delicate and to temperance and tp tranquillity of
ANALYSIS OF CURIOUS BOOKS.
mind. And perhaps, of all 'our daily My forhed is but banlde and bare,
And not so type as pleatifull. where conversation can be most itself.
And though my garden plot so grecne,
Of dogges receaue the crampling fecte, I fud, by Professor. Martyn's valuable
Yet is it swept and kept ful cleene, edition of Miller, that Linnæus received
So that it yeeldes a sauvur sweete. dhe true tea-tree from Earl Gustavus Ekeberg, October 3, 1763, the captain of a Swedish East-Indiaman, who raised Followed by a Latin deilication, in Hiemit from seed during the voyage. Into ing's name, to Dr. Perne, ciean of Fly. England it was introduced by Ms. Ellis
, written at the express request of Conrad
The book itself appears to have been about 1768. It was first treated as a sove-plant: and its first flowering in Gesner, whose name has been so long this country was in the stove of the and so well known to readers of natural Duke of Northumberland. Perhaps even
history. the coffee-tree may in time be brought
“ All Englisle dogges," says Caius, to endure the green-house, instead of be
“ be eyther of a gentle kinde, seruing ing confined to the stove.
the gaine; a honiclj kinti, apt for sundry Troston-hall, near Bury. Your's, &c. necessary uses ; or, a currishe kinde, Dec. 21, 1808.
meețe for many toyes.” The treatise,
however, is divided into five sections, in P.S. An oil thermometer, which serves which the different sorts of dogs, accorcas a kind of register of great degrees of cold, ing to their employments, are enumeby so slowly recovering its temperature, is now
rated. only at 17, in the same aspect and upon the
The first section contains the Cunes same scale.
Venatici, 66 which serve the game and For the Monthly Magazine.
disport of hunting, comprising, the bar THE ANTIQUARY.-No. XVI.
rier, the terrar, the bloudhoundc, the
gasehounde, the grehounde, the leuiner, TIME has veiled so large a portion of
or lyemmer, the tumbler, and the stealer."
The second section comprises the Ca. the recovery of its more valuable frag
nes Aucuratorii, or gentle dogs, whicha ments may be deemed a work of almost serve the disport of fowling, including equal importance with the prosecution the land-spaniell, or setter; the waterof new inquiries.
spaniell, or finder; and the fisher.” In this view the attention of the An
The third section treats only “ of the tiquary has been more than once turned delicate, neate, and preity kind of dogges to the analysis of curious books, in which called the Spanish gentle, or comforter;" the bistory or the manners of former pe- of the time.
which appear to have beca the lap-dogs nods are illastrated.
The fourth includes thc Eanes Rustici, Among those which relate to rural sports, scarcely any will be found more
or coarser doys“ the shepherd's dogue, interesting than the work
and the mastive, or bandrigge; which "Of Euglish Dogges, the Diversities, last,” says the author, “ bath sundry the Names, the Natures, and the Pro
names deriued from sundry circumstanperties. A short Treatise, written in ces, as, the keeper, or watchinan, the Latine, by Johannes Caius, of lace me
butcher's dogge, the messinger or carrier, morie, Doctor of Phissické in the Uni- the mooner, he watcr-drawer, the tin Fersitie of Cambridge, and newly drawne ker's curr, and the fencer." into Englishe by Abraham Fleming, Stu
And the fifth section contains the dent. Imprinted at London by Rycharde
curies of the mimyrell and rascall sort, Jones," 1576. 4to.
the wappe, or warner; the turnespete, At the back of the title-page is,
and the daunser;" foilowed by a short
conclusion, in which the cross breeds of "A Prosopopoicall Speache of the Booke. “ Sume tell of starres th' influence straunge,
the time are chumnerated, viz. Some tell of byrdes which flie in th’ayre,
The first bred of a 7 in Latine, Some tell of beastes on land which raunge,
“Three i bytch and a wolfe, $ Lyciscus. Some tell of fishe in riuers fayre.
sortes of The second of a 7 in Litine, Some tell of serpentes sundry sortes,
them. butche and a foxe, J Liicana. Some tell of plantes the full effect,
The third of a bear 7 in Latine, Of Englishe dogges I sound reporces,
(and a bandoque, $ I'rtur 21s." Their names and natures I detect,
The most curious of Cailis's descrip.
tions are probably those of the blood- is no trumpery tale, no trifling toye (as I hound, the setter, and the mastive, or nagine) and therefore not unworthy to bandogge, the second, with a portion be *ported; for I reckon it a requittall of the last of which we shall extract. ot' my trauaile, not to drowne in the seas “ The Dogge called the Setler, in Luline, of silence any speciall thing, wherein the Inder.
prouidence and effectual working of na“ Another sort of dogges be there, ture is to be pondered.”
In the account " of the mastive or serviceable for fuwling, making no noise either with foote or with tounge, whiles bandogge, called in Latine, Villaticus, or they followe the game. These attend Cathenarius, we have one or two anecdiligently upon theyr master, and frame dotes of Henry the Seventh, which are their conditions to such beckes, motions, certainly not related by the generality of
historians who have written on his and gestures, as it shall please hiin tó exbibite and make, either going forward,
reign. drawing backward, inclining to the right ib'intent that theyr douges miglit be the
Our Englishmen," says Caius, “ (to hand, or yealding toward the lett. (In inakiny mencion of fowles, my meaning
more tell and fearce) assist nature with is of the partridge and the quaile ) When arte, vse, and custome, for they teach he hath founde the byrde, he keepeth the bull, and other such like cruell and
theyr dogues to baite the beare, to bait steppes and wil proceede no further; and bloudy beastes, (appointing an overseer with a close, couert, watching eye, layeth theyr tirotes; and oftentimes they traine
to his belly to the grounde and so creepeth them up in fighting and wrestling with a forward like a worme. When be approacheth veere to the place where the eyther a pikestaffe, a clubbe, or a swoorde,
man, liaving for the safegarde of his lyfe, birde is, he layes him downe, and with a marcke of his pawes betrayeth the place
and by vsing them to such exercises as of the byrde's last abode; whereby it is these, theyr dogges become more sturdy supposed that this kind of dogge is called and strong. The force which is in thèin
surmounteth all beleefe, the fast holde inder, setter, being in deede a name most consonant and agreable to his qua- eth all credit: three of them against a
which they take with their teeth exceed. lity. The place being knowne by the beare, fowre against a lyon, are sufficient, meanes of the dogge, the fowler imme. diately openeth and spreadeth his rct,vtterly to overmatch them. Which thing
both to trye masteryes with them, and intending to take them ; which being Henry, the seventh of that name, king of done, the dogge at the accustomed becke or usual signe of his master, ryseth up by warlike), perceiving on a certaine time
England, (a prince both politique and that by his presence they might be thé (as report runneth) commnaunded all such authors of their own ensnaring, and be dogges (how many soever they were in ready intangled in the prepared net; number) to be hanged, beying deepely which conning and artificial Indeuour in displeased, and conceauing greate dis a dogge (being a creature domesticall or should with such violent villainy assault
daine, that an yll fauoured rascall curre housholde servaunt, brought up at hoine with offalls of the trencher and fragments the valiaunt lyon, king of all beastes. An of victualls,) is not much to be maruailed example for all subjectes worthy of reat, seeing that a bare (being a wilde and membrance, to adınonishe then that it is skippislię beast) was seene in England, the regiment of their ruler, but to keepe
he advantage to them to rebell against to the astonishinent of the beholders, in them within the limits of loyaltie.' I the yeere of our Lorde God 1564, not onely dauncing in measure, but playing the selt same Henry, who having a nota
rcede an history aunswerable to this of with his forner teete uppon a tahberet, ble and an excellent fayre falcon, it forand observing just number of strokes (as tuned that the king's falconers
, 'in the a practitioner in that arte,) besides that nipping and pinching a dogge with his presence and hearing of his grace, highly teeth and clawes, and cruelly thumping that it feared not to interineddle with an
commended bis majesty's falcon, saying, him with the force of his feete*. This
eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so * The coincidence between this anecdote mighty; which when the kinge harde, he and that relating to one of the hares which. charged that the falcon should be killed Cowper the poet endeavoured to domesticate, without delay, for the selfe same reason is remarkable.
(as it may seeme) which was relersed in
conclusion of the former history concern- perhaps one of the best specimens that ing the same kinge.”
can be selected from it. Mr. Pennant conjectures that the tum “ Your huntsman early in the morning bler of Dr. Caius answered to the modern before he bring foorth your houndes, lurcher; but has no conjecture for the must goe to the water, and seeke for the gazelsound. The leviner, or lyeinmer, new swaging of an otter, and in the mud he supposes, was the same with what is
or grauell finde out the sealing of his now called the Irish greyhound. foste, so shall he perceiue perfectly whe
Our author Caius, Kaye or Keye (for ther hee gne vp the water or downe:
but if it be a small water you must for-
their moutbes verie lustely: thus may The service which he rendered to the you have good sport at an otter two or College of Physicians, in which he suc three houres if ceeded Linacre as president, his general “ An Otter sometimes wil be trayled a patronage of learning, and the munificent mile or two before he come to the holt protection which he afforded in particu- where he lyeth, and the earnestnes of lar to the house of his education at Com- the sporte beginneth not till he bee bridge, are all subjects of appropriate found, at which time some must runne up panegyric. Fuller says, he bequcathed the water, soine downe, to see where he a medicinal genius to his college. His vents, and to pursue bin with great earworks are extremely numerous: among
nestnes till be be kild. But the best hunte, which the most interesting to his coun- ing of him is in a great water when the trymen, besides the treatise De Cunibus, banke is full, for then he cannot hauc so (which first appeared in 1570,) are pm- great succour in his holes, as when it is bably his “ Councell against the Disease at an ebbe: and he maketh the best called the Sweat,” 8vo. 1550. and the sporte in a moon-shine night, for then he two editions of his “ Historia Cantabrio will runne much over the land, and not giensis Academia,” 4to. 1568 and 1574. kecpe the water as he will in the day." He died July 29, 1573; and has only this The work concludes with Sir Trismscription, io Caius-College Chapel, on tram's Measures of Blowyng:" the music bis tomb_" FUI CAIUS."
of the horn being deerned at that period Another work deserving the atten- an indispensible qualification for a comtion of the antiquary who may turn pleat gentleman. bis thoughts to rural sports, will be found in
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. “ A Sport Treatise of Hunting : com SIR, pyled for the Delight of Noblemen and
A able co form a racional theory which Gentlemen, by Sir Thomas Cockaine, knight. Lond. 1591." 4to.
shail account for all or the greater part A treatise, more the work of a hunter of the meteorological phenomena to which than of a professed writer. It is short, we are witnesses, yet, I shall, according and has little variety for the general to your usual plan, give a summary of Icarer.
facts which occurred to observation dur• Howe to hunt the otter," as prac. ing the last year: hoping that from this tised in the reign of queen Elizabeth, is and other accounts on the subject, som :