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those of Antoninus and Marcus Aure- culcan task, is a desideratum; for lius; “ l'Antiquité expliquée," of Mont. it be only by copying with fauçon; the descriptions of the “ Museum scrupulous accuracy, and of a large Capitolinum;" that of the “ Museum Pio size, the figures of this symbolical lan. Clementinum;" the “ Monumenta Ma- guage, that we can attain the knowledge thæiana ;" the “Musée de Verone;" the of a mysterious composition, on which works of " Count Caylus, of Guattani;” depends that of the history of a country, and the "Cours Historiques du Musée once so highly celebrated. When that Napoleon."
language shall be understood, we may Specimens of these basso-rilievos and pernaps learn the original purpose of this terra cottas, of excellent workmanship, sarcophagus, and the history of the puisdecorate the walls of the first room; sant man whose spoils it contained. Till which, as a tout-ensemble, is certainly un. then it is but the vain and fitting field equalled in England, perhaps in Europe. of conjecture.
Having now gone so farthrough the Many men of science and learning, antiquities of this first room, I shall insert have examined this memento of Egyptian in my next a list of the chief objects, and skill and industry'; but no positive decisome account of them; but before I sion of its former application is yet left the rooms, I took another peram- found by the learned. Sonnini and Debulation through their maze of beau- non, who both closely and attentively ties; in doing which, my attention was examined it, have pronounced nothing most forcibly arrested, by the great decisive on the subject. Dr. Clark of sarcophagus, commonly called the tomb Cambridge, an indefatigable and learned of Alexander the Great, one of the antiquary, has asserted that the sarcocelebrated specimens of antiquity, that phagus of the muscum really was the was ceded to us at the inemorable capi- tomb of Alexander ; but it requires more tulation of Alexandria, in 1801. It was talents than I possess, to remove the brought from the mosque of St. Athana- obstacles that withstand the clear intellisius, at Alexandria, where it had been gibility of this invaluable antique. transformed by the Mahometans, in
Yours, &c. M. to a kind of reservoir, consecrated to contain the water for their pious ab- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, lutions. It is of considerable magnitude, SIR, and would form an oblong rectangle, por pre not one of the ends or shorter sides
. I last number, under the head
« Literary and Philosophical Intelliof the parallelogram, rounded somewhat gence,” I observed an article, taken from like a bathing tub. It is probable that the Philosophical Journal, mentioning the formerly it was covered with a lid, but circunstance of a person passing, without no trace of it is now visible; but is en- injury, a red hot poker over his tongue. tirely open like an immense laver, of To which is subjoined an account of two one single piece of beautiful marble, other facts equally extraordinary, viz spotted with green, yellow, reddish, &c. putting the finger into melted lead, and on a ground of a fine black, of the spe- skunming melted iron with the naked cies called Breccia, a sort of pudding hand. The first of these experiments I stone, composed of agglutinated frag- have oiten seen repeated, which has led ments of various sizes, which are deno- me to investigate the cause of so singular minated according to their component a phenomenon; and from the result of parts. This comes under the class of cal- several experiments, made for the purcareous breccias. But what renders this pose, I am convinced that injury is premagnificent fragment of antiquity pecu- vented only by the vaporization of the liarly interesting, is the prodigious quan- saliva on the tongue (as observed by the tity of small hieroglyphic characters, correspondent to the Pilosophical Jourwith which it is sculptured both within nale) the expansive force of which, during and without, as you may perceive by the the momentary operation, prevents the dirawing. It would employ me nearly a iron from coming in contact with the cumonth to make faithful copies of thein: ticle. This is the principle on which the their shape and general appearance safety of the experiment depends, but is preity fairly given in the annexed it is not to be attempted without sheich; but it can only serve to con- some precaution ; for if the iron be vey to you an idea of the inonument in heated to a white heat, that is, nearly in one view. A correct and faithful copy a fusible state, it will instantaneously of all the hieroglyphics, though an Lier carbonize the small quantity of saliva
which is detained on the tongue, and the With respect to skimming melted iron cuticle will be severely burned; and, on with the hand, I can only observe, that to the contrary, if it be too cold, it will not question the veracity of a positive asservaporize the saliva sufficiently to create tion, is always unpleasant; but whoever that repulsive force, which prevents the has had an opportunity of seeing this contact of the tongue and iron, and a metal in a state of fusion, must be conblister will be raised.
vinced of the impossibility (without a The proper heat, therefore, at which miracle) of attempting the experiment. the experiment may be safely performed, London,
Your's, &c. is a blood red, taking care to hold the Jan. 16, 1809.
E. LYDIATT. poker or iron in such a way as to insure the degree of expertness necessary.
P.S. I beg to return my sincere thanks to The other experiment, with 'melted your correspondent X. in the Magazine for
September last, for his excellent answer to lead, may be as easily performed as the my enquiries, in a former number, relative to one just stated; the finger not being so
“ Accidents by fire, and the best mode of powerful a conductor of caloric to feel any treatment in cases where medical aid cannot effect from passing it instantly through, be immediately procured.” The instant approvided none of the particles adhere to plications, as well as the subsequent treate it; which may be prevented by rubbing ment he recommends, are so simple and easy the finger with chalk or whiting previous to be remembered, that they cannot fail to be to the experiment.
of great utility.
MEMOIRS AND REMAINS OF EMINENT PERSONS.
SOME ACCOUNT of the late THOMAS BED- curious anecdotes, valuable speculations,
the details of an extensive course of me“ Nil actum reputans, si quid superesset dical study, and many admirable hints agendum "
Lucan. towards the perfection of the bealing art, T has long been the fashion to remark, and the consequent alleviation of the mulwade known by means of their works, first give an account of such facts as we
to." Without further preface, we shall and that they afford little or no portion of that amusement which is to be found have been able to collect of his life, and in the memoirs of those who have taken then endeavour to present a brief anaa more active part in the busy scenes of lysis of his works. actual life. We agree indeed with Ci
Thomas Beddoes was born at Shifcero *, that nothing is better calculated nal, in Shropshire, about the year 1754 for entertainment than “ variety” and
or 1755. His relations were respectable “ vicissitude;" but even these are to be and opulent people, nearly all of whom met with in the “ many-coloured lives”
were engaged in trade. The father was of a studious career; and if to these were
a tanner, but seems to have been deterbut added, a description of his pursuits, mined in early life that the son should his avocations, and above all, an account
receive an excellent education, so as to of the progress of his intellectual re
be fitted for a higher sphere in society. searches and attainments, we fear not to Accordingly, after obtaining that species assert, that the memoirs of such a man
of knowledge usually procured in the might be rendered to the full as enter provincial schools
, the distant prospect taining, and infinitely more instructive,
of Oxford terminated the visto of his than the flippant pages of a modern no
classical prospects. vel. In fine, to apply this train of rea
In consequence of the laudable ambie soning to the subject of the present ar
tion of his friends, he was sent thither; ticle, if the late Dr. Beddoes, like the late and there is still a report extant at this Bubb Doddington (Lord Melcombe) had university, that the settlement of the but kept a " diary” similar to what we young Tyro was wholly entrusted to the have now hinted at, there is little doubt
care of an uncle. On entering the grand' but that it would have abounded with its ini abitants,' he was utterly unac
mart of learning, with which, as well as “ Nihil est aptius ad delectationem lecto- quainted, he instantly presented himself, fia, quam temporum varietates, fortunæque along with Thomas, at the gate of St. vicissitudines."
John's, and ringing the bell, asked, “ If
there was any good education to be had may be for an advocate to avail bimuself there?” The porter, perceiving perhaps of the fact, I doubt exceedingly whether the actual situation of arturs with a single the public would, if called upon to act glance of his eve, like a prudent man, in- with deliberativn, yield its contidence to troduced them to the master, and the one of their three years' graduates. In usual fees being paid, the young stu- case, for instance, of an election to an dent's name was actually registered on hospital, would not the shortness of his the books!
standing, and the necessary immaturity But the adventure did not conclude of his experience, operate as a fatal obhere; for the master, struck with the nû- jection?' Well then! if he is not fit to velty of the circumstance, kept them have pauper-patients committed to bin, both to dinner, when, in the course of why should others be allowed to commit conversation, it came out that the two themselves? It may be said, that a five strangers were provided with letters of or six years' graduate would be thought recommendation to Dr. Surgrové, master cqually incapable of the charge. I beof Pembroke, and that the uncle had lieve quite ihe contrary; provided the imagined there was but one college in elector's should have both information the university On this, the money was and integrity enough to vote according returned with great politeness and libe- to the merits. ļality, and young Mr. Beddoes matricu
“ It always seems invidious, and in Jated in due form at Pembroke, accord- many cases is arrogant in an individual ing to bis original destination.
to adduce his opinion of a public body in Of the exact year when this occurred argument; but as the merits of the Edine we cannot speak with any degree of cer- burgh school are opposed in this manner tainty, but suppose it to bave been in to the projected improvement of medical 1778, or 1779. Certain it is, that on the education, those who take a part in the 19th of July, 1783, he proceeded master question, seem called upon to declare of arts, and on the 13th of December, themselves, if they have any probable 1786, obtained the degrees of B. and cause of knowledge. M.D.
“ Let me, therefore, briefly state that As it has generally been supposed, that I went to Edinburgh as an Oxford bạ. a modern medical education is incom- chelor of arts, passed there three winters plete without' a visit to Scotland, Dr., and one summer, was perpetually at the Beddoes accordingly repaired to Edina lectures of the professors, and in the soburgh, about the year 1781, or 1782, in cieties, of the students. You may think pursuit of those liberal attainments, by it probable that I have no humiliating which both himself and the public were associations connected with Edinburgli, afterwards to profit; for, as is liinted in if I add that I can never hope to be of so the motto, he was eminently replete with much consequence among my equals any zeal, and never wished to do or to learn where else, since the studentă heaped upany thing by halves. While there, he on me all those distinctions which you attended the lectures of the most famous know it is in their power to confer. Few professors of the day, was noticed as a individuals, certainly, have ever had a youth of great promise, and, if we are better opportunity of knowing any schoot. not greatly misinformed, lived in intima-. I have seen other schools of niedicine, cy with the celebrated Dr. Brown, whose' conversed and corresponded much, from Ncw system for a while seenied to bear that time to the present, with pupils and down every thing before it. Sir James professors, studied their methods and the Niacintosh, who was also intended to be productions as well of the youth as of a physician, and actually took a degree ihe seniors. So that I cannot accuse for that purpose, ivas one of his contem- myself of having omitted any thing by poraries and friends.
which I might be enabled to form an It does not appear, however, that the opinion concerning this grand question subject of this memoir, at a more mature of medical instruction. period of his life, considered the system After comparing, on the spot, the ilien prevalent in North-Britain as inca- means with the end, I certainly did conpable of being amended; for we find him, ceive that a more deliberate process but the year before his death, while treat- would be preferable, and that a method ing of the melioration of his favourite of instruction, in some other respects, science, expressing binseltas follows:- materially different, would form physi
“However the pupils of Edinburgh cians far more trustworthy. This opis may succeed in the world, and fair as it nion, various members of the medical
societies could, I dare say, testify that I · It may be necessary to state here, that expressed; and every thing that I have chemistry had always been a favourite since seen of practice and of literature study with the subject of this article; has tended to confirm it. After a lapse and that after having first viewed it, of vears, and without the smallest com- merely as a branch of medicine, he after munication, it is satisfactory to find the wards addicted himself to this pursuit, 3:sixiated faculty and their correspon- with a more than ordinary degree of dents concurring to make it the basis of avidiiy. His reputation, indeed, as well a legislative measure, and certainly with- as bis acquirements, in this very elegant, out being actuated by the least ill-will and very useful department of human towards any medical school in the uni- knowledge, must have been very exten
sive, for in 1786, we find him acting as " I know not whether any impartial reader of chemistry to his “Alma Mater:” person, after seriously reflecting upon the there was no professorship of this kind, surest way of advancing in-so ditficult a established at that period, or indeed study, ever surveved the medical classes until 1803, at Oxford, although one had at Edmburgh. Ile would see that per- been founded so early as 1706, at Campeiual bodily hurry which is generally at- bridge. tended with a good deal of confusion of In the course of 1787, he visited mind. No sooner does the college hour. France, and appears to have been for bell toll, than the audience rusli out in some time resident at Dijon. While at full stream, leaving the last word half Paris, he of course became acquainted finished in the mouth of one professor, with Lavoisier, whose reputation was, at hot a few fearing lest they should miss that period, at its height, and not only the first words of another. Will you call acquired bis esteem, but also carried on a this mere juvenile ardour? The young scientific correspondence with him after men there were generally, and doubtless his return. At the evening parties of the sill are, earnest in their pursuits; but it amiable and accomplished Madame Lawas a common feeling, that each at- voisier, bis wife, he also saw some of the tempted too much at once; and if it be first company in the French metropolis, frue, that figures and hues which are to among whom were many who have since last, must be laid again and again on the figured in the political stage, and been mind, with pauses between to allow them swept away by the volcano, that soon to fix, somewhat as in fresco painting, after burst forth. Here, too, he beneld this feeling would appear to be right. A the first symptoms of that Revolution, calculation had been made, and the re- which, after shakirg France to her centre, quired attendance distributed as well as was destined to convulse the whole possible through the three years.
Consi- world. dering the number of professors, and the That an ingenious young man, who necessity for those, who were to trust to with a liberal education had imbibed this school solely, to attend certain courses, generous notions of both science and as the anatomical, practical, and clin- government, should be disgusted with the ca!,) two or three times; considering, be- tyranny of the Bourbons, and the horrors sides, that the merit of out-lecturers will of an arbitrary government, even while have clains upon the inquisitive, and that administered under its mildest forms, by many had no other chance for acquiring a weak but amiable prince, is little to be a smattering of natural philosophy and wondered at. He certainly, like thounatural liisory, how could any student, sands, did experience great joy at the and especially the most ardent, avoid at- glorious prospect, which has since been lempting too much at once? The conse- so completely blasted; and who can quence was too apparent. Our acade- blame him for witnessing with satisfacmical architects, ju their hurry to finish tion, the first efforts of the French nathe structure, failed to lay a solid foun- tion; who, in 1788, and 1789, in imitadation."
tion of the English people in 1088, atIt appears evident, that Dr. Beddues' tempted a melioration of their political Tesidence in Scotland did not prevent system. km from keeping his terms, and parti- With ideas, such as, or at least similar corating in the honours of his own uni- to these, the mind of Dr. Beddoes be. veruty; for on his return, he again re- came deeply imbued, and it cannot be sried to Pembroke, and took his de- denied, that they had a considerable 2:47, in the manner, and at the tiines effect on his future fortunes, studies, and vady specified.
pursuits. In all guvernments whatsoever, the idea of a reform sounds terrible to
the whole inclined to consider those who profit by the corrupt practices the experiment as more curious than usethat decorate and disfigure the ancient ful. It was, however, attended with one system; and one abuse, as we know hy etiect, that has in the end proved highly experience, is well calculated to prop and favourable, as well as eminently beurosupport another. Many, therefore, who ficial to science; for it was the means of admired the talents of Dr. Beddoes, were introducing Mr. Davy to public notice, alarmed at his principles, and in the very that gentleman having assisted Dr. Bedbusom of that University, amidst those does, in construcțing the apparatus, and academic groves, where the noblest, performing the various experiments, the purest, and the most enlightened during the course of six months.* To principles, ought to be cherished; be the honour of both parties, although they was doomed at one critical period to ex- separated at the end of this period, yet perience all the rancour of malignity, and they preserved an unbroken friendencounter all the suspicion incident to ship, and an uninterrupted corresponlittle, and contracted ininds.
dence, with each other, until deatla Towards the latter end of 1792, he vo- snatched the pen out of the hands of one luntarily resigned his readership, of which of them, and put an end to a connexion, he had been in possession for about six founded on mutual regard. years, and was succeeded by Robert I shall now endeavour in this place, Bourn, M.D. It was now time for him
to take a survey of the literary life and to settle in life, but a considerable period labours of Dr. Beddoes, without any parelapsed before he could finally determine ticular attention, either to dates or subon so important an object. His eye was ject. naturally fixed at first on the metropolis, It is pretty evident, that for some time as presenting an ample field for a man at least, lie attempted, like the celebrated ambitious of fame, and addicted to the Di. J. Jebb, occasionally to unite polipursuit of science. But he soon per-' tics with medicine ; and while acting as a ceived, that all the important stations physician, resolved noi to omit those were already occupied; and that for duties which appertained to liim as a years, he could only aspire to a secon
man. We accordingly find him attending dary rank among the eminent practi- a committee, which had been convoked tiovers of the capital.
preparatory to a general meeting of the On this, he pitched on Bristol, where, inhabitants of Bristol, during the progress in consequence of the vicinity of the of Mr. Pite, and Lord Grenville's “rehot-wells, which still continue to attract strictive bills.” Soon after this, (1796) some of the first families in the kingdom, appeared an “ Essay on the Public Meand the swarın of rich citizens, settled rits of Mr. Pitt," by Thomas BeddOES, both in the town and its neighbourhood, M.D. prioted for Joseph Johnson, St. there appeared to be full scope for an Paul's Church-yard. It is dedicated as honourable and successful career.
follows: He had not been long resident there, " To the House of Commons, when the prevalent disease of consump
An Assembly tion, to palliate which the exercise of Whose Acts for the last Twenty Years,
No Man his professional talents was so often in
Who feels for yoked, engaged liis particular attention.
Asia, Africa, America, Calling in chemistry to the assistance of
Or Europe, inedicine, he formed a notion that it was
Can regard, possible to cure this cruel disorder, by
Without the profoundest emotians.” changing the medium, which the patients respired, and this gave birth to the Pneu- As an introductory motto to Chap. i. matic Institution, established by him. we find the following couplet: As the attempt was founded on general “ Penned ka each pig within his proper stye; benefit, and the fortune of a single indi- Nor into state concerns let Doctors pry." vidual could not be sacrificed with any
In the course of this pamphlet, the degree of prudence to such an under-author gives a sketch of the administrataking ; many noblemen, and gentlemen, ticu of Lord North, and M. Pitt. The we believe, and among others the late aitachment of the nation, to the latter of Marquis of Lansdowne, entered into a subscription to enable him to defray the
* An account of the life and scientific la. expence. Of the success, I cannot bours of Mr. Davy, will be found in the speak with any degree of certainty, and “ Public Characters for 1909.**