The inferences drawn from these in With regard to the exhibition of the teresting and important facts are as fol. acids, particularly the muriatic acid, in low:

order to dissolve the phosphates, Mr. B. That calculi formed in the kineys, and admits, that, during the use of this acid, immediately voided, are alınost always the phosphates are either diminisherl, or composed of uric acid, and that the disappear altogether; and even the urive phosphates are very frequent ingredients acquires sometiines an additional acidity, in calculi of the bladder. They are unic and therefore a solution of that part of formly deposited upon extraneous sub- the calculus, which consists of the phosstances introduced into the bladder, but phates, may be expected; but even then Dever form small kidney calculi. In the nucleus of uric acid would remain, what is commonly called a fit of the gra- and thus a great deal of time would be vel, a small uric calculus is formed in lost without any perunanent advantage. the kidney, and passes along the ureter Ile is also decidedly against the injection into the bladder. For, some time after of these solvents into the bladder, at a stone has passed from the kidney, the once, by means of instruments; because urine is generally unusually loaded with in every case that has come uvder his uric acid, and deposits that substance observation, it has always aggravated the upon the nucleus now in the bladder. suficrings of the patient. lle concludes, After this, the subsequent additions to the that as the nuclei of calculi originate in calculus consist principally of the phos- the kidnies, and that of these the greater. plates.

number consist of uric acid; the good Where the disposition to form uric effects so frequently observed during the acid in the kidneys is very great and per use of au alkali, arise not froin any acmanent, the calculus found in the blad- tual solution of calculous matter, but der is principally composed of uric acid; from the power which it possesses of die but where this disposition is weak, the minishing the secretion of urine acid, nucleus only is uric acid, and the bulk of and thus preventing the enlargement of the stone is composed of the phosphates. the calculus ; so that, while of a very small When the increaseol secretion of uric form, it may be voided by the urethra. acid returns at intervals, the calculus is In a following number we shall give an composed of alternate layers of uric acid account of Mr. Home's observations 'ox and the phosphates. There are besides the same subject. these many variations in the forniation of the calculi.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE. In speaking of the solvents, Mr. Messrs. Gay Lusac and Thenard have Brande admits, that the internal exhibi- given an account of the method which they tion of the alkalies often prevents the adopted in decomposing the boracic acid. formation of the uric acid, and of course They put equal parts of potassium,and pure an increase of a calculus in the bladder, vitreous búracic acid, into a copper tube, as far as the uric acid is concerned; but to which a bent glass tube was fitted. that its action will not proceeti any far. The copper tube was placed in a small ther; because from his experiments he furnace, and the extremity of the glass finds there is at all times a quantity of tube plunged into a bason of quicksilver. uncombined acid in the urine; and hence As soon as the temperature was raised it follows, that, althougl the alkali may to 150C (Reaumur, we presume), the may arrive at the kidneys in its pure misture became suddenly red, much heat state, it will there unite wiih the un was produced, the glass broken, and alcombined acid, and be rendered incapa- most the whole of the air in the appable of exerting any action upou the cal ratus was driven out with great force. culus in the bladder. Mr. B. also ob- Only atmospheric air was disengaged, serves, that whenever the urine is de- and a few bubbles of hydrogen. All the prived of a portion of the acid which is potassium disappeared, although it only natural to it, the deposition of the triple decomposed a part of the aciil. These phosphate and phosphate of lime more substances were changed by their rereadily takes place, which is effected ciprocal actim into an olive grey subby the exhibition of the alkalies; and, stance, which is a compound of potash, therefore, though alkalive medicines and of the basis of boracic acid. The often tend to diminish the quantity of horacic radical was separated from it uric acid, and thus prevent the addition by washing it with hot or cold water. of that substance in its pure state to a That which does not dissolve, is the ra calculus in the bladder, they favour the dical itself, which possesses the following de position of the plusphates.

properties; this radical is greenish


brown; fixed, and insoluble in water. oxygen, and the whole placed over quickIt has no taste, nor any action on tinc- silver, a most rapid combustion took ture of litmus, or on syrup of violets. place, and the quicksilver rose to about Being mixed with oxymuriate of potash, the middle of the jar. The boracic raor nitrate of potash, and projected into dical exhibits the same phenomena with a red-hot crucible, it entered into vivid air as with oxygen, only that the comcombustion, of which the boracic acid bustion is less rapid. Ilence it follows, was one of the products. The most that the boracic acid is composed of oxycurious and most important of all the gen, and a combustible body: and that phenomena produced by the boracic ra this substance is of a peculiar nature, and dical when placed in contact with other ought to be classed with phosphorus, bodies, are those that it presents with carbon, and sulphur. It requires a great oxygen. When four grains and a half of quantity of oxygen to change it into boracic radical, were projected into a boracic acid, and it previously passes into silver crucible covered with a jar, con the state of a black oxyde. taining a little more than a quart of


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MONTHLY RETROSPECT OF THE FINE ARTS. The Use of all New Prints, und Communications of Articles of Intelligence, are requested

under cover to the Care of the Publisher. THE EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL business of the present allotment of this ACADEMY OF LONDON 1809, TILE

department of the Monthly Magazine, FORTY-FIRST.

shall be to point out what is most worthy

of attention in the present academical • Οστις μη ασπάζεται την Ζωγραφιαν αδικει exhibition ;-to select the beauties of την 'Αληθειαν, αδικει δε και Σοφιαν oπoσε ές established naines of well earned repuΠοιητας η κει, φορα γας ίση αμφοιν ες τα των Ηρωων ειδη και έργα.

tation; to call forth youthful merit; and Φλ. Φιλοστρατου Εικ, προοιμ.

to give a correct summary of the increas

ed and increasing reputation of the HE opening of the exhibition of the British School Of The Fine Arts;

Royal Academy, forms an epoch whose power and energy" has increased, in the annals of British Art. It af- is encreasing, and ought not “ to be difords the critic a scale, whereby to estic minished.mate the progress of the Fine Arts, and This year's exhibition is superior to any to measure the improvement or retrogra- that has been seen for many years; the dation of our native artists.

great room, in particular, beams with The Fine Arts of a nation are certainly more talent, and shews much improvethe grand criterion by which a philoso- ment of the British school, in tone of pher can judge of the progress of inental colouring. So much perfection and justrefinement; and as perfectibility of that ness of colouring perhaps, was never species of refinement assuages the horrors scen coalesced together in the walls of of barbarism and anarchy, and makes the Royal Academy, man more resemble what his great ar Academical drawing, or knowledge of chietype and creator intended him to be; the human figure, seems to be more at: so a' watchful eye towards the progress tended to than formerly; though not yet of the Fine Arts, is not the least useful quite to the requisite degree. Certainly care of a philosophical observer. The the junior artists, from whom expectation


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