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use the Troy weight in compounding There are four different legal bushels, medicines; and it might be of dan. containing respectively 2124, 2150, gerous consequence to disturb this 2168, and 220 cubic inches; all of practice. The Goldsmiths also regu- which we have the authority of the Late their traffic by the Troy weight; Committee of the House of Commons, and, considering the connection of in 1758, for believing to be equally this branch of trade with the stand- lawful; and five gallons, containing ard of the coin, it may be prudent to 231, 271, 277, 280, and 282 cubic leave goldsmiths in possession of their inches. present usage.
It is obviously necessary to fix on
some definite quantity as a standard ; MEASURES OF EXTENT.
and it appears adviseable to adopt “ On measures of extent, lineal or
some one of these different measures. superficial, it appears unnecessary to
The Committee of the House of Compropose any modification whatever,
mons in 1758 chose the ale gallon of The simple adoption of the English 282 cubic inches; but this Gommitinch, foot, yard, pole, furlong, and tee, considering that a gallon of 280, milc, in lineal measure, and of the formed from the quart 1601, is diviEnglish foot, yard, perch, rood, and sible without a fraction into parts
coracre, in square measure, appears to be responding to the lowest denomina
tion in unquestionably adviseable. These
would rather recommend lineal measures have in fact already
it as the preferable standard. A almost entirely superseded the Scotch, glance of the following table, shewand the square measures are also in ing the number of cubic inches in a several parts of Scotland in very ge
bushel, and the different portions of neral use.
a bushel according to the several
standards now acknowledged, will MEASURES OF CAPACITY.
point out the ground on which the
gallon of 280 inches, and the bushel “The English measures of capacity of 2240, founded on it, seem preferaseem to require some modification. ble.
By Standard By Bushel of By Gallon By Quart. By Gallon of
In considering this point, it is not inches, and is thus within 43 inches unworthy of attention, that the legal (a little more than an English pint) wheat firlot in Scotland contains a of the size of this proposed bushel. fractional part more than 2197 cubic
The Committee who framed the ought to be the same, (at least up to. Parliamentary report 1758, expressed a certain point in the scale,) for dry an opinion in favour of the gallon of commodities and for liquids. The 280 inches; but, influenced by a fear pint, quart, and gallon, which are that such a chango would produce a used both in liquid and dry measures, necessity for an entire alteration in ought, of course, to contain in both the duties payable on liquids, and in cases the same number of cubic inches. the tables for gauging, &c. it was. The next denomination in the scale finally resolved to recommend the an is a firkin, which, in the legal ale doption of the old ale gallon of 282 measure, contains 8 gallons of 282 inches. But it is believed that these cubic inches, or 2256. If the bushel apprehensions will not now be felt. in dry measure be fixed at 8 gallons One of the documents before the of 280 inches or 2240, it seems no Committee contains a suggestion, violent proposal to make the firkin of from a gentleman connected with one the same contents with the bushel, of the revenue boards, for the intro- the difference not amounting to half duction of a new gallon measure of a pint. A higher denomination in 255 inches (as a sort of medium be- liquid measure, is a barrel, which, in tween the ale and wine gallon) for all the legal ale measure, con 4 firliquids; and this circumstance affordskins, or 9024 inches. The proposed a sufficient presumption that no ob- change in the size of the firkin would jection would arise from the difficul reduce the barrel only to 8960; not ty which startled the Committee quite two pints less than formerly. 1758.
Of those measures which have been If the proceedings which are now in specified, only the pint, quart, and progress should happily lead to a ge- gallon, apply to wine as well as ale geral uniformity over the whole em
In concurrence with the pire, a correspondent change in the principles adopted by the Parliamenstandards used in collecting the Re- tary Committee, it is proposed to avenue, would be a natural and neces. bolish this distinction, which crept in sary consequence. But if the dispo- through erroneous practice, and which sition towards the immediate estab- could not, with any sort of consistency, lishment of this uniformity should, in be kept up. The higher denomina, Eagland, be checked by doubts or tion of liquid measure next to be difficulties, and if the proposed regu- noticed, the hogshead, which is used lations should therefore be confined both in wine and ale measure, is of to Scotland, it would be foolish and very different sizes, and therefore reunreasonable to propose a change in quires consideration. The hogshead the Revenue system.
This, how- in ale measure contains 13536 inches, ever, would produce no invincible being 48 gallons of 282 (at least in difficulty; for the construction of a London, though it is said to contain table of equalization, shewing the re- 5) gallons, or 14382 cubic inches, in lation between the new standards and other parts of England, Swinton, p. there used by the revenue officers, 23.) The hogshead in wine measure world render the additional labour contains 63 gallons of 231 inches, or imposed on them too insignificant to, 14553. The difference between require notice.
these two amounts to nearly 4 wine This Committee is humbly of o- gallons. It is therefore difficult to pinion, that there is great propriety propose an assimilation. And, on in the resolution adopted by the Com- the other hand, although the evil conmittee of the House of Commons in sequence of establishing two sorts of 1758, that the measures of capacity measure, of the same denomination,
would not be so serious at a high as
January, 1812. at a low point of the scale, it is certainly very desireable to avoid intro
Unto the Right Honourable the Lord ducing any instance of such variety.
Provost, Magistrates, and Town It to the Committee, that the appears
Council of the City of Edinburgh, best course is to retain the hogshead
the Representation of the Managers solely in ale measure, and to fix it as
of the Charity Workhouse of the at present at 6 firkins, which, accord. ing to the new regulation of the size . of the firkin, will contain 13,410
HUMBLY SHEWETH, inches
, being about half an ale gallon THAT the funds of the Charity less than the size of the hogshead now
Workhouse labour at present unin use in ale measure. In wine der a deficiency so alarming, that the measure, it is submitted, that the gal. Managers feel it an imperious duty to lon ought to be left as the highest represent the state of them to the rate. In the disposal of a cask of Town Council. wine, or spirits, of whatever size, no The object of the representation is difficulty can arise from requiring the to induce the Town Council to make specification of the number of gallons, a suitable annual addition to the £.200 for this specification is necessary in sterling paid in consequence of a adjusting the amount of the duties; contract entered into in the year and, if parties choose it, the same 1740) from the revenue of the city, mode may be applied to the largest for the support of this institution, transaction, altho it may possibly be
The Town Council are the genthought expedient to liberate whole- eral guardians of all the classes of the sale dealers from such nicety of cal- community; and the Managers firmly culation, and by a special exception believe, that its present members have
o leave them, when they prefer it, as anxious a desire as any of their preto conduct their traffic according to decessors to protect and benefit them present practice. The quantity of a all. It becomes right and necessary, hogshead in wine measure now in use, therefore, for the Managers to bring is within 7 cubic inches, equivalent into view those material facts which to 52 gallons of 280 inches." have fallen under their cognizance as
The Society then conclude, by immediate superintendants of a charigiving their opinion, as to the man- ty, in the condition of which the inner in which the standard, when re- terests of the public at large, and pargulated, ought to be preserved. ticularly the interest and comfort of
the poor, are directly and deeply involved.
The Managers have no personal MEMORIAL respecting the present State concern in the case, nearer or greates
of the EDINBURGH CHARITY than any of their fellow - citizens WORKHOUSE, with a View of the They have undertaken a charge FUNDS.
which their fellow - citizens, un
solicited, elected them to fill : the (The following memorial contains so feel it to be one of serious responsibi much information relative to this im- lity, and no inconsiderable labour portant and necessary institution, that Their only recompence is the gratify we think the perusal of it must be ing consciousness of performing wit generally agreeable to our readers. It fidelity an useful task; and their onl seems also worthy of preservation as motive for this application is the hop ' an awsheatie and valuable document.) of rescuing a most important and va
luable establishment from oppressive. The aggregate amount of these and threatening difficulties. Its pro- different funds were no doubt estisperity or decline are at present, tomated, at the time, as adequate to the knowledge of the Managers, the purpose in view: but in a case placed unequivocally on the alterna new and untried, it was not surpritive of prompt and liberal aid being sing that the calculation turned out given, or being withheld. The cir- to be inaccurate. Unfortunately, ex. cumstances shall therefore be repre.' perience very soon proved that the sented by them frankly, fully, and amount had been overrated; for, in explicitly. It would be unfair to · little more than two years, the Maexaggerate-they would be unfaith- nagers of that period found that the ful to their trust if they concealed or necessary expenditure far exceeded palliated them. They owe it to the the actual revenue. They had republic, and to their own character, course, therefore, in consequence of to take care that, in the worst fate of this excess, to the humanity of the the institution, no ill-founded blame inhabitants, and solicited a general shall attach to them; a consideration collection. Their solicitation had, on which, combined with their deep sense, the occasion, the desired effect, as a of the importance of the subject, will very liberal collection was contribusufficiently apologize, they trust, for ted, and considerable relief obtained. the prolixity and earnestness of the But the relief was only temporary! details and observations on which It was found indispensable to renew, they are about to enter.
at no distant time, a similar solicitaç, The Charity Workhouse was estab- tion. lished in 1740, in consequence of a The frequent recurrence of these Contract made between the Town collections, however, appears to have Council and the General Kirk Ses- induced some leading men in the sions. By this contract (signed on Town Council, even at this early the 11th of February of that year) it period of the establishment, to form a was agreed, tható a hospital or work- plan for an effectual and permanent • house should be built, for the more melioration of the state of its funds.
regular maintenance and employ. With this view, they proposed to * ment of the whole poor of the city; make an application to parliament, and the contract also specified and for levying a general poor's rate on appropriated the following funds as the inhabitants : but the mere prorevenue of the charity,' for the main- posal of such a measure excited so tenance of the poor admitted into the universal and decided an alarm and house, and for out-pensioners,' viz. opposition, that it was found expedient Collections for the poor at the to desist from its farther prosecution.
church doors, and at Episcopal The stated revenue of the house meeting houses
was thus left to remain in its former Fines for marriages not solemnized precarious and inadequate condition. in church
It is termed precarious and inadequate, One third of fees for the dead or for the stubborn evidence of facts
passing bell, burial warrants and proves it to have been so. The sucgreen turfs
cessive statements of the revenue and Poor's box at the Greyfriars gate expenditure, authenticated by the Mortified money, houses, and shops signature of the Managers, or of an Poor's rate of 2 per cent. .
accountant appointed by the Town Fornication fines
Council, shew that the revenue was Legacies
never often, or for any length of time, '£.200 to be paid annually out of the "sufficient, though it might be at difrevenue of the city.
ferent Jan. 1813.
ferent times defective to a greater or which it appeared, that for the eight less amount.
preceding years, the annual deficiency So soon after the erection of the of funds had been £.446. Charity Work house as the year 1751 But without detaining the Town (November 5th,) the minutes bring Council by such continued minuteness this view of the case forward. They say, of detail, the Managers beg, leave
The Treasurer informed the meet simply to mention, that their minutes, • ing, that the ordinary funds of the from time to time, exhibit progressive6 house could not possibly answer the ly similar views of the insufficiency of . demands, in regard that wcal and the ordinary revenue, as will appear 'grain were greatly risen in the price from the following brief Table.
and the number of the poor increasing, and would probably increase in 1783, £ 2000. In 1785, € 2784
In 1782, the debt was £.1429. through the winter.'
In 1765 (January 22d,) the debt is represent. In 1789, €.3:01. In 1790, £.3923. ed at £.68, and 300 bolls of meal
In 1791, £.4215. In 1793, £.5301. unpaid. In 1766 (December 18th,) About this period, by some beneit was found in the September pre- .ficial alterations in the management ceding to have increased to £.303 of the house, and by extensive public Sterling. In 1967 (July 28th,) the contributions, the amount of debt was Managers found themselves called on, considerably reduced. It stood, in either to restrict the number of those 1795, £.2643. But though a favour4 admitted into, or those supported able state of the markets enabled the
out of the house. But no measures Managers, during two or three subsetaken in consequence had the effect
quent years, to reduce the debt still of causing the funds meet the de. lover, namely, to £.1355 ; still they mands. There was a balance due to could not bring it below this sum ; the Treasurer in 1771 (November and the price of meal, and other ne5th) of £.412, and in 1773 (July cessary articles of consumption, in the 27th) of £.1000.
usual fluctuation of markets, again At this period, the rapid and enor. rising, the debt, in 1801, amounted to mous increase of the debt struck the £.2862. A similar favourable state Town Council so powerfully, that of prices as had lately taken place they appointed a committee to inves once more after this time, enabled the tigate the state of the house and its Managers to pay off part of the debt; funds: and after communicating with and it stood in January 1803, at the Lord President and others, they £.1200. Nay, in 1806--7 and 8, were advised to publish a report om (and it was the first time since the the subject, and to suggest, as had for- erection of the House that the case inerly been done, to the inhabitants had happened,) the revenue so confor consideration, Wherber it would siderably exceeded the experliture, ! be proper or expedient to apply for that the ishole debt was discharged,
a poor's rate ? or whether some other and a saving of £.1000 had zecrued. method might not be found out But the former state of things recur! more easy and agreeable to them, in red in 1809--10 and 11. During " order to raise a fund to support the these three years, the expenditure has house in all time coming ?
again exceeded the revenue, and that The proposal of a poor's rate ap- to such an alarming degree, that, bepeared, however, then, as formerly, side the above-mentioned temporary improper and inexpedient; and a new saving being exhausted, there is now representation was made by the Ma. not only a debt of above £.2000 due gagers in 1774 (March 4th); from by the House, but there is the certain