tree. The roots should be tied toge. should be fixed at first, nailing up the ther loosely; the branches carefully whole five or six weeks afterwards, loosened from the wall, and tied up when the border has had time to setin parcels, to prevent their being in- tle properly. jured. The tree must then be con The only difference in moving veyed to the place where it is to be espalier and standard trees is, that a planted. Place it upright in the pit, full circle is to be dug round them. so as the surface roots may be level The best scason for transplanting with the top of the border. Well. large trees, is from the middle of broken earth is thea to be packed in November to the middle of March. underneath, and for about a foot round Dry mild weather should be chosen, the bottom of the trunk, to fill up all frost and wet being both very unvacuities where roots originate. All favourable to this operation. the roots are then to be carefully Above one hundred and sixty large spread out at full length, cutting off trees have been transplanted at Pinthose that are dead, bruised, or knot. kie within the last four years. Only ty; the remainder to be cut smooth three of these have failed; and some at the ends, and at different lengths; omissions took place in the managekeeping some at full length, others at ment of these, otherwise they might five, four, and three feet, and some also have succeeded. even at one foot long; taking care to Several of the transplanted trees preserve as many of the small fibres bore half a crop the first


and aitached to the leading roots as pos one standard apple, above a bushel sible. Begin first at one side of the the second year. semicircle next to the wall, and lay Watering and sprinkling water cut a set of the bottom roots in a le over the branches of newly transvel and fan direction, taking care to planted trees in dry weather is of spread out the small fibres in regular great benefit. order; cover this first layer with from Pruning is to be attended to when 'two to three inches of mould, packing the trees begin to shoot. It must it well with the hand, then spread be regulated by the strength of the another layer above the former, pack, tree: if the tree be vigorous, little ing and covering as before, and so on pruning is requisite; if otherwise, the till you finish at the top, never at knife may be more freely used. tempting to lay more at one time

Pinkie House, duz. 1811. than can be readily reached with the hand; never setting a foot upon the roots that have been covered. In A Committee of the Society having this way proceed with layer after lay.

been appointed to examine the er until you reach the centre of the

state of the transplanied trees at semicircle; then begin at the other Pinkie, the following report was side, and proceed as before, cover the

received, and an extra Silver Mewhole with earth to the height of dal was awarded to Nir Stewart two inches above the level of the bor for this comniunication, der; and after this, lay rotten dung threr inchesthick above all. A good

Settember 1812. wateriig should then be given, to We were agrecably sury rived to settle the earth about ihe rocks, il see very plentiful crops of fine fruit, fuw board, may be laid at the bottom on the trees in Pinkie garden, which of the wall to prevent the routs beings were transplanted when full grown, trodden upory, while nailing up the between four and five years ago, when times. The principal branches only the site of the fruit-garden was


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changed. On the wall-trees, espaliers, laid in heaps, and covered with clean
and standards, the crops were equally cloths and mats above, or with good
good. Many of the branches of the natural hay, in order to its sweating.
standards were quite pendulous with This is generally effected in three or
the load of fruit. Numbers of the four days; and the fruit may be al-
wall and espalier trees measure from lowed to lie in the sweat for three or
twenty to forty feet between the ex- four days more. They are then to
tremities of the branches, and are be wiped, one by one, with clean
quite healthy. The principal kinds cloths.
of trees transplanted, are Jargonelle, Some glazed earthen jars must then
Winter Achan, Green Yair, and be provided, with tops or covers ; and
Carnock pears; and Hawthorndean, also a quantity of pure pit-sand, free
Nonpareil, Codling, Ribston Pippin of any mixture; this is to be thorough-
and Gogar Pippin apples. Mr Stew. ly dried on a flue. Then put a layer
art's undertaking was perhaps the of sand an inch thick on the bottom
greatest of the kind ever attempted of the jar ; above this a layer of fruit,
in this country : it has been most suc a quarter of an inch free of each other.
cessful; and it is to be hoped that Cover the whole with sand to the
horticulturists will know how to ap- depth of an inch; then lay a second
preciate so excellent an example. stratum of fruit, covering again with

JAMES SMITH. an inch of sand, and proceed in this
Pat. NEILL." way till the whole be finished. An

inch and a half of sand may be placed Method of preserving Apples and over the uppermost row of fruit. The Pears.

jar is now to be closed and placed in By Mr JAMES STEWART, at Pinkie.

a dry, airy situation, as cool as pos

sible, but entirely free from frost. Mr Stewart having, at the quarterly

The usual time at which each kind meeting of the Society on 5th June of fruit ought to be fit for the table 1810, produced specimens of va- being known, the jars containing such rious kinds of apples in the most fruit are to be examined, turning out perfect state of preservation, was

the sand and fruit cautiously into a requested to communicate his method of keeping fruit; and after the shelves of the fruit-room for use,

sieve. The ripe fruit may be laid in wards transmitted the following and the unripe is carefully to be reaccount :

placed in the jars as before, but with The best time for gathering fruit is fresh dried sand. ushen it begins to drop off sponta Some kinds of apples, managed in neously. This is from the middle of this way, will keep till July. Pears September to the end of October.- will keep till April; the Terling till Ladders which will reach to the top June. of the trees must be provided ; likewise baskets for the reception of the fruit.

In plucking fruit, the best Proceedings of the EDINBURCK Isrule is to take what appears ripest in

STITUTE. your hand, and raise it level with the A General meeting of the members foot-stalk; if it parts from the trec, of this Institution was held in lay it carefully into the basket, other Mary's Chapel, on the 22d of Decemwise let it bang. The trees should ber last, for the purpose of receiving therefore be examined every three or communications on subjects connected four days.

with science, literature, and the arts : In the fruitery, the fruit is to be - Dr James Millar in the Chair.


Among other communications the this kind might be employed with following were received :

advantage by printers to execute small 1st, Account of a fact in Meteo. work, for which it appears to be rology lately discovered hy Mr John much better adapted than the large Hutten. In certain states of the at


and it would be found of much mosphere, a succession of small clouds use in small towns, at a distance from appears over the summit of Ar- any place where a press is established. thur's Seat. Each of these clouds Sd, Account of an improved syforms on the windward side of the phon, by Mr Archibald Kerr, mathehill, apparently about one hundred matical instrument maker. This infeet above the level of the summit, a strument consists of a syphon with line drawn perpendicularly from the a stopcock, and pump barrel, with centre of the suminit, forming an an a piston, valve, &c. The bottom of gle of about 80°, with a line drawn the barrel communicates with the infrom the same point to the place side, immediately above the stopcock, where the cloud begins to forin on at the end of the long leg, for the the windward side, and an angle of purpose of extracting the air and filabout 60°, with a line drawn from ling the syphion. The syphon is filthat point to the place where the led in an instant, by one or two cloud disappears on the leeward side. strokes of the pump with the hand, The cloud passes right over the sum and the communication between the mit. After an interval of two or pump and the syphon can be cut off threc minutes, another is formed and at pleasure by a stopcock. The prindisappears in the same way, and this ciple is applicable to all sizes of sycontinues. Mr Hutton first observed phons, and almost every kind of lithis phenomenon in the end of July quor may be drawn off with the utlast, about ten o'clock in the evening, most facility. Mr Kerr has already the wind blowing moderately from made many syphons on this plan, and W. by S. barometer 30. 11. He they are found to save considerably has observed it since, in August and both liquor and time. When conSeptember at different times of the structed in this way, the difficulties day, and from different positions. attending the use of the common sy

2d, Account of a portable print- phon are completely removed, and ing press, invented by Mr Join the instrument is rendered so perfect, Ruthven, Edinburgh. In this con that it will probably be found incatrivance, the pressure is produced by pable of any farther improveinent. a wheel and pinion acting on the A small one was exhibited and work. end of a small lever. It has


ed in

presence of the meeting ments for holding ink, balls, and every 4th, Account of another improved other article recessary, and prints syphon, by Mr John Hutton.

This off a form not exceeding the size of syphon is extremely simple, and has a duodecimn parte, with the greatest been used by Mr Hutton with much correctness and celerity. The press advantage in his chemical manufacexhibited was about 21 inches long, tory. It has a stopper at the extre6 broad, and 10 higli, weighed about mity of the longer leg, and a valve 22 pour.ds, including the page of opening inwards at the extremity of types, chase, balls, ink, &c. and was the other. it is filled in the usual worked with great ease.

An extract

way, by inverting it, and pouring in from the minute of the night's pro- the liquor at one end. After this, ceedings was printed off by it in pre- the stopcock being shut, the syphon sence of the meeting, and distributed is placed in its proper position, with among the members. A press of the end of the short leg immersed in


the liquor. The stupcock is then Since we acquired posssesion of the opened, and the liquor forcing up Cape, several quaggas have been sent the valve at the short end, flows out. home. About a year and a half ago, When the quantity required is drawn the Earl of Morton having procured off, the stopcock is shut, the valve one at London, sent it down to his at the other end falls down, and the seat of Dalmahoy in this neighboursyphon, remaining full, can be laid hood. It was a male, and was then aside, and when it is to be used again, only about a year vid. It -throve nothing more is necessary than to put very well in the rich pastures there, it into the liquor, and turn the stop increased considerably in size, and cock. A syphon of this description, seemed hardy, remaining abroad, withwhich Mr Hutton has empolyed for out clothing, during the greater part some time, was exhibited and used in of the year, and being sabled only presence of the meeting.

during the severe weather of winter. At the close of the proceedings, In the house, it was fed on hay, oats, the President observed, that the regu- carrots, or potatoes, but did not eat lations direct meetings of this kind to much. It appeared, however, to be be held occasionally in the course of affected by the very inclement weaeach session, and that, if conducted ther in the beginning of December as the meeting had been that night, last, and died, after a short illness. they would be productive of the On opening it, some of the viscera greatest advantage, in bringing into were found in an inflamed state. notice many useful inventions, and The body was, with much proprie. giving publicity to improvements, by ty, immediately sent to the Museum of which society at large might be be. the University of Edinburgh: it has nefited; and he recommended to been stuffed by Mr Wilson, and those (strangers as well as members) · forms a valuable acquisition to that who might have it in their power to excellent and improving collection, make such communications, to bring Lord Morton has, at Dalmahoy, them forward at future meetings. still another quagga,

which brought from the Cape about a year ago, in the same vessel, it is said,

with a quagga in Miles's collection Monthly Memoranda in Natural Hisa of wild animals now exhibiting in tory.

this city. Attempts are making to

break and train this last quagga. It QUAGGAS: -The quagga is a is sometimes very refractory, and apt

species of the Horse (Equus to bite, but is expected to become Quagga, Lin. Syst.), which inhabits more docile as it advances in age. It the plains of Southern Africa, along is said that it can go at a very hard with the Zebra. It was long con trut for a considerable time without founded with this last, which it con- sweating. The French, it may be siderably resembles : even the cele. remarked, found themselves baffled in brated Edwards fell into this mistake; all their attempts to domesticate and it was first ascertained to be a dis. train these animals. tinct species, by General Gurdon, a Both these quaggas are males.Dutch officer at the Cape of Good There is only one female, it is beHope. It has since been elegantly lieved, at present in Britain, the figured by Daniels, in bis Cape Views, property of a London merchant.-and also in the splendid French pub. It is to be hoped that Lord lication, entitled Le Menagerie d'His. Morton may procure this : if they toire Naturelle.

could be brought to breed, it seems


likely that their progeny would be teenth year, when it seemed to die still more hardy, and that they might of old age. From their report of be gradually inured to the climate. the dimensions of the animal, it apIn the meantime, however, attempts pears that both Lord Morton's quagare to be made to procure a cross ga, and that in Miles's caravan, are breed, by means of a mare or a she already nearly at full size.

The quagga described by Cu The name Quagga is a corrupvier and La Cepede, in the account tion of the Hottentot name Khouaof the Menagerie at Paris, was also khoua ; and this is supposed to be an a male : they mention that he readiimitation of the cry of the animal, ly associated with a she-ass, but no which is mentioned as not unlike the brood followed.

howling of a large dog. The quagga described by these


N. French naturalists lived till its thir 27th Jan, 1813. S


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Brecon .........


22,800 26,900
27,200 29,400
25,300 32,000
49,700 62,000
24,000 36,200

19,500 29,700
49,700 55,200
23,800 30,900
27,400 37,000
41,300 44,800
15,300 19,200



402 731 726 926 775 731 309 822 691 892 575 455

366,500 449,300 559,000 1082,600 18,125,

REMARK, col. 4.-The population countries a considerable number to of Great Britain, in the year 1811, the army, besides a majority of those as here ascribed to the several coun seamen who navigate registered vesties, is less by 843,000 than in a sum sels. On these considerations, only a mary of an ennumeration in 1801, thirtieth part is added to the resident because above a third of the army, population of each county, for its share navy, &c. are supposed not to be na of the army, navy, &c. and the same tives of Great Britain : Ireland fur- proportion is continued backward in nishing a large proportion of the ar. the preceding columns, 1, 2, and 3. my and of the navy: and foreign


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