There was another ally more power- reasonably expect to be joined by ful than either of the two just men. the Austrians.-Such, it may be pretioned, on which the Russians sumed, were the considerations, might, and no doubt did reckon, that encouraged and determined , namely, a rigorous climate to which the court of St. Petersburg to un. they themselves were inured, but dertake and to persevere in the war which might prove fatal to soldiers with France. The battle of Pul. from France, Spain, and Italy. tusk, though bloody and obstinately The enemy too, in proportion as he contested, was indecisive: and it should advance into Poland, or be. must be admitted that if the nations, yond it, would be drawn into diffi. on whose favour and co-operation culties and dangers on the line of his the Russians depended, had underoperations, in territories, with the stood and pursued their respective, nature or ground of which he could as well as their common interest, and not be well acquainted, and farther harmoniously joined in one well-con. and farther removed from supplies certed plan of action, their design and reinforcements. The Russians, might not have proved abortive. on the contrary, would receive re- It is, however, not physical, but inforcements and stores both by moral force that governs the world : land and sea from Russia, Sweden, bold conception, a just discrimina.

gland. The young and he- tion between difficulty and impossi. Se king of Sweden, emulating his bility, profound combination, unity ancestor the great Gu tavus Adol- of design, promptitude and rapidity phus, with the aid both of a sub- of action. It was not physical force, sidy, and troops from England, but sublime genius and an ascendanmight march an army through the cy over the minds of men, that gave Lower Saxony, from Dantzig and energy and success to the measures Colberg, as far as Hamburgh. This of Alexander of Macedon, Hanniarmy, augmented in its progress by bal, and Julius Cæsar. All great insurgents, in * Hesse, Hanover, and results spring from small, + and, at the Prussian dominions, might pass first, imperceptible origins ; one the Elbe, and establish a war in the constant impulsion, constantly and centre of Germany; where if he uniformly accelerating. In confeshould be able to maintain himself derations there is generally some. for any length of time, he might thing that misgives; something false

In consequence of the exactid:3 of the French, there had broken out in the territory of Hesse, a very considerable insurrection of about 10,000 men consisting principally of disbanded soldiers and peasants. Those ainong them who had served as non-commissioned officers, were appointed officers. They then armed themselves by seizing all the muskets, swords, and pieces of artillery they could lay their hands on. The insurrection had begun to extend itself to Hanover and Saxony, when this honest effervescence of German indignation was calmed by the prudent and paternal remonstrances of the prince of Hesse.

+ Natura in minimis maxima.--Pliny. The kingdoms of the carth are in this respect like the kingdom of heaven, i. e. of Jesus Christ :“The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which indeed is the least of all seeds, but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air coine and lodge in the branches thereof. Mark xii. 31-3.


and hollow. It is seldom even pose and ministers, he endeavoured, if he sible for the confederating parties could not at once induce them to to form, as emergencies arise, a con. acquiesce in his plans, at least to cert of wills in time, and seldomer occupy, and distract their minds, still that they submit without re. and by an appearance of negotiation, serve to the will of one dictator. to sow the seeds of mutual discord The fragility of confederations had between the powers cósfederated, been proved by three coalitions or that might be inclined to con against the ruler of France, and the federate against him. At the same issue of a fourth was now to be added time that he was busily employed to the number.

in forming the confederation of the Buonaparte, sensible of the dis. Rhine, that is, in the extension of advantages of being placed at so his own power, and preparing for great a distance from France, as the the extension of his conquests, he countries between the Vistula and amused Russia and England with a the Niemen, was in the first place, negotiation for peace, which he proand above all things, attentive to the fessed to have always uppermost in means of conveyance, or what in the his mind and heart, but which he really French armies is called the Ambuò contemplated not as an end, but a lance. On the great roads between means: the means of renewing war the Rhine and the Vistula, hundreds with greater advantage. He laboured and thousands of carriages were by all means, to detach the king of every where to be seen, going or re- Sweden from the cause of his allies, turning from Thorn and Warsaw. by professions of goodwill, respect, Travellers unacquainted with the and admiration, and even by disstate of public affairs in Germany memberments in his favour, of Prus. and Poland, might have supposed sia and Denmark. He roused the that the continued motion on the Turks to war against Russia, and bighways was occasioned by a entered into a negotiation for an flourishing internal commerce. From alliance offensive and defensive with the countries that lay at his mercy,


of Persia, Ambassa. Buona parte drew provisions, and dors were seen in his camp from forage, and even additions to his Ispahan and Constantinople. military force, while, at the same Whether he really harboured the time, one body of troops after extravagant design of sending a another continued to march for his French army through Persia to support from the frontier of France. Hindostan, or no, may reasonably

Buonaparte was also, in a very par. be doubted: but an embassy from ticular manner, attentive to the com. Persia to the emperor of France, missary department. The different had an imposing air of widely ex. corps and divisions of his army were tended and formidable influence, sure to find bread, at least, in abun. and might have an effect in any fu. dance, and, as much as possible, ture negotiation for peace, on the every comfort required by a rigorous councils of Russia and England. climate. Being intimately ac. On every occasion when a hapquainted with the interests and views py stage-effect might be produced, of the courts of Europe, and the he was careful to produce it. Eightyindividual characters of farourites four pieces of cannon taken from the

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Russian Russian generals Kamenskoy, Ben- altogether incredible, and beyond nigsen, and Buxhoevden, in the bat. all doubt intended only for the tles of Czarnowo, Nasielsk, Pultusk, eyes or ears of the young conscripts. and Golymin, were ranged before They were called to the field of the palace of the republic of War. glory, which was represented as saw. And that the effect which the dangerous only to their enemies. sight of se grand a triumpha was Buonaparte, at the same time, in. fitted to produce might be the famed the military ardour of his greater, it was observed, “That troops, and the whole French nation, they were the very same that the with whose character he was thoRussians drew along the streets of roughly acquainted, through their that city with so much ostentation, characteristical vanity and love of when lately they marched through distinction. Though naturally of them to meet the French." In order a reserved, saturnine, and sullen to heig' n the exultation, it was humour, he would now and then, in stated, “ that 5,000 prisoners had meetings with his principal officers, been sent to France, that 2,000 had and others, assume a familiar talkescaped in the first moments of con. ative humour, and make wany sar. fusion, and 1,500 entered among the castic observations on the characPolish troops. Thus had the battles ter and conduct of his enemies. He with the Russians cost them a great indulged in many gasconades, magpart of their artillery, all their bag. nifying the prowess of Frenchmen, gage, and from 25,000 to 30,000 and the power and resources of men, killed, wounded, or priso. France, beyond all measure or mo

It is well known that ga- deration. The same tone of exulzettes are strongly inclined to tation, braggadocio, and confidence, magnify advantages gained on one appeared in all his gazettes or maniside, and exaggerate losses sustained festoes which were called bulletins : on the other. This is deemed the object of all which was not only good policy : and so, no doubt, it is, to keep up and exalt the courage of when the statements do not alto- the French, but to strike awe and gether exceed the bounds of proba. terror into other nations. Though bility. But this bias, at the period by birth an Italian, he acted to the now spoken of, had been carried to life the part of a real and true born a pitch of extravagance, on the side Frenchman, and always identified of the Russian as well as the French his own personal interests and glory generals, altogether uuprecedented with those of France. To the

That the French accounts were French he represented his power more to be depended on in general and influence as established in the than the Russian, was clear from the entire submission or friendly dispoevidence of facts. But that their sition and attachment, though in successes, obtained not without an truth it was in the weakness and folly obstinate and bloody contest, and of almost all the nations on the thousands on thousands killed on continent; and to those nations, the part of the Russians, were at. again, he represented his throne as tended in so many instances with firmly established in the confidence, such trifling losses on that of the love, and admiration of the French, French, as is stated by them, is He played off France against the



world, and the world against French retired into winter-quarters France. In a word, he set him. on the Vistula. 'The Russians fell self to work on all the passions back by Ostrołenka, on the Niemen. that usually determine the conduct The king and queen of Prussia, of men and nations, -avarice, am- with the ministry, the treasure, the bition, gratitude, resentment, hope, most valuable property and a but above all, by terror. This was guard of 1,500 troops, foot and his chief dependence; and to this borse, retreated to Memel. The . alone he could, on the whole safely other troops remaining to the king trust. For he could neither sup. of Prussia, were as follows :pose, that the greater, or at least There were 5,000 under the the best, that is, the most formida- command of general Lestocq, the ble part of the French nation could greater part of which remained in be either doped by his cajoleries, or Koningsberg. There was a garrison so blinded and stupified by the of 6,000 Prussians in Dantzig, of splendour of his arms, as to forget 2,000 at Colberg, and of 3,000 at all that was due to moral obligation, Graudenz. And from 15 to 20,000 to themselves, their offspring, and were dispersed in the different gar. their country; nor be quite certain risons of Silesia. A military ofácer that his vassal princes and kings from England, encouraged the king would be more sensible of the be in this extremity, when he was litee nefits conferred in new titles and rally cooped up in the most remote possessions, than mortified at the and smallest corner of his kingdom, degrading and precarious tenures by with the promise of assistance in which they held them. It was an both money and troops, and the im. astonishing as well as pitiful specta. mediate advance of 80,0002. for maincle, to behold one mind governjog taining the garrisons in Silesia. The so great a portion of mankind Russian army was computed by some against their dearest interests, and in. at 160,000; by others at not more deed, for the most part, against than 100,000. The imagination is their inclinations.

apt to be imposed on by the im. While Buonaparte advanced mense extent of the Russian emagainst the Russians and Prussians pire, If we reflect on the extreme in front, with Sweden assailing, and difficulty of collecting, with proper Great Britain menacing his left wing, equipments, and stores, a vast army. there was reason for the apprehen. from the different regions of so sion of hostility in various shapes on widely extended an empire so his right flank and in his rear. Above thinly inhabited, the lowest estimate all, an attack in case of any disas. will probably appear the nearest to ter was to be apprehended from the truth, Austria. For this reason he still re- The strength of the French army tained possession of the fortress of was estimated by some at above Brannau and an army of 40,000 men 200,000; by none at less than in Dalmatia, which might be 150,000. Reinforcements of troops strengthened by reinforcements from advanced from time to time during Italy, turned the flank of the de. the whole of the campaign, to both fence of Austria, and even mena. armies. ced its capital.

The grand Russian army, to. After the battle of Pultusk, the wards the end of January, was

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supported supported on one side, by a corps of the French in their winter-quarof Russians and Prussians under the ters, one of the corps into which the generals Lestocq, Pahlen, and Gal. army was divided, under the comlitzin, flanked on their right by mand of Bernadotte, prince of Ponte the Frisch-baf* and the Pregel, Corvo, took possession of Elbing, and covered on its lest flank by a where there were immense magacorps under general Van Essen, zines filled with all manner of stores originally destined against Mol. and provisions, and occupied the davia, The command of the army country around, on the shores of after the battle of Pultusk, was the Baltic. This corps, which was given to general Bennigsen, who to be supported by that of marshal had formed a junction with general Ney, posted on the right banks of Buxhoevden after his defeat at Goly. the Alla, was ordered to surprize min.

Koningsberg, with its valuable maThe plan of the Russian gene- gazines ; which was attempted. But ral, was, to turn the left flank of the French marshals were discom. the French army, to extend his fited in the very outset of their enforce along the river, to Graudenz terprise, by the rapid advance of the and Thorn, to reduce the enemy to Russians under the counts Pahlen a necessity of evacuating Poland, to and Gallitzin, who on the 24th of straiten his , quarters, and by all January compelled marshal Ney to means drive him into positions of abandon his posts on the Alla, and difficulty and disadvantage.

to retire by the way of Allenstein, As the eye of the Russian gene- behind the Dribentz, a river which ral was fixed on the Vistula, so runs into the Vistula, six miles souththat of Buonaparte was directed east from Thorn ; where he joined to the Pregel and the Niemen. the corps under the grand duke of Perceiving that it was the design Berg, Murat. The Russian general of the Russians to give him no rest having for some time made a show of in his winter-quarters, he deter- following up his attack on the mined, according to his usual sys. troops under marshal Ney, bore tem, to take the advantage of an as. with all his force on the detachment sailant, and to anticipate an attack, under the prince of Ponte Corvo, by making one. In the distribution whom he met at Mohringent, where

he * A bay or arm of the sca between Koningsberg and Elbing, separated from the Baltic by a narrow tongue of land, and communicating with that sca by a narrow pássage near Pillau.

+ This account of the circumstances that led to the affair of Mohringen, is different from that given by the French bulletin ; according to which the movement of the prince of Ponte-Corvo, was provoked by the boldness of “a Russian column that had gone beyond the little river of the Passarge, and had carried off half a company of the voltigeurs of the 8th regiment of the line, who were at the advanced posts of the cantonment." 54th Bulletin of the grand French army, Warsaw, January 27, 1807.-But, in the same bulletin we read, “Some battalions of Ney's corps had advanced twenty leagues from their cantonments. The Russian army took the alarm, and made a movement on its right. The battalions have returned within the line of their cantonments.” It will be asked however, by whose orders, and for what other object than that above stated, bad they advanced so far beyond the line of their cantonments? The movement of Ney was plainly com

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