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CCLI. Madame Necker à M. Gibbon-her Disquietude on

the State of his Health-on Geneva, the tumults

there. Lausanne, Dec. 9th, 1793

467

CCLII. Mr. Gibbon to Mrs. Gibbon on the French Revolu-

tionLord Sheffield's Visit to Mr. Gibbon at Lau-

Lausanne, August 1st, 1792

469

CCLIII. Mr. Gibbon to Lady Elizabeth Foster (now Du-

chess of Devonshire) at Florence, on his inteuded

Visit to England -- Account of the Preparations for

besieging Geneva--M. Necker's Work on the De-

fence of the King Madame de Staël- the late

Duchess of Devonshire, &c. Nov. 8th, 1792 471

CCLIV. Sir Johu Macpherson to Mr. Gibbon-Account of

his Tour through Spain--Spanish Language-
King and Queen of Spain--Conde and Condessa de
Aranda-Conde Florida Blanca-Archbishop of
Toledo--Count O'Reilly, &c. Munich, Dec. 4th,
1792

477

CCLV. M. Necker à M. Gibbon-his, wish to see Mr. Gib-

bon. Rolle, March 19th, 1793

482

CCLVI. Mr. Gibbon to Lady Elizabeth Foster-Death of

Louis XVI. -- Prince of Cobourg, &c.-Commen-

dation of M. Necker. April 4th, 1793

483

GCLVII. Mr. Gibbon to Lord Loughborough on Lord

Loughborough's being appointed Lord Chancellor

-Mr. Fox-M. Necker's Work « Du Pouvoir

Exécutif.” Rolle, Feb. 23d, 1793

CCLVIII. Dr. Vincent (now Dean of Westminster) to Mr.

Gibbon-compliments on his Works--on the Time

of Mr. Gibbon's Entrance at Westminster School.

Dean's Yard, July 20th, 1793

488

CCLIX. Dr. Vincent to Mr. Gibbon on the same Subject 489

CCLX. Mr. Pinkerton to Mr. Gibbon on a Scheine for re-

publishing the Ancient English Historians. Lon-

don, July 23d, 1793 -

490

CCLXI. Mr. Gibbon to Mr. Pinkerton on the same Subject,

in Answer. Sheffield Place, July 25th, 1793 492

CCLXII. Mr. Gibbon to Lord Auckland. St. James's

Street, Nov. 26th, 1798

495

k 2

CCLXIII.

LETTERS

TO AND FROM

EDWARD GIBBON, Esq.

No IX.

This Letter, in the early hand-writing of Mr. GIBBON, (probably about the time of his first leaving Lausanne,) seems to be under the assumed character of a Swedish traveller, writing to a Swiss friend, delineating the defects he discovered in the government of Berne. In pointing out those defects he seems to have had the intention of suggesting remedies; but, as he is entering on this topic, the manuscript ends abruptly. The excellence of this curious paper will apologize for its

great length. NON, mon cher ami, je ne veux point être cosmopolite.' Loin de moi ce titre fastueux, sous lequel nos philosophes cachent une égale indifférence pour tout le genre humain. Je veux aimer ma patrie, et pour aimer, il me faut des préférences;

mais

No; my dear friend, I will not be a citizen of the world; I reject with scorn that proud title, under which our philosophers conceal an equal indifference for the whole human race. I will love

my country; and to love it above all others, there must be reasons for my preference: but, if I am not mistaken, my heart is

susceptible

VOL. II.

mais ou je me trompe, ou mon cæur est susceptible de plus d'une. Quand j'aurois tout sacrifié pour

la Suède, mon pays natal, je ne me serois point encore acquitté envers elle; je lui dois la vie et la fortune: mais que cette vie seroit triste, que cette fortune me seroit à charge, si, expatrié dès ma tendre jeunesse, votre pays n'eut pas formé mon goût et ma raison à des moeurs moins grossières que les nôtres ! Je me montrerois indigne de ces bienfaits, s'ils ne m'avoient pas inspiré la plus vive reconnoissance. Aujourd'hui que la Suède, tranquille à l'abri des loix, n’exige de ses enfans que de sentir leur bonheur, je puis, sans l'offenser, jetter un regard sur le Pays de Vaud, mon autre patrie, me réjouir avec vous de ses avantages, et compâtir à ses maux.

Votre climat est beau, votre terroir fertile; vous avez pour le commerce intérieur des facilités, dont

il

susceptible of affection for more countries than one. Did I sacrifice all to Sweden, I should only pay my debt of gratitude to the land in which I was born, and to which I owe my life and fortune. Yet life and fortune would have been but melancholy burthens, if, after my banishment from home in early youth, your country had not formed my taste and reason, and taught me more refined morals than our own. I should prove myself unworthy of this goodness, did it not inspire me with the liveliest gratitude: and now that Sweden, enjoying tranquillity under the protection of laws, requires nothing from its subjects but a just sense of their happiness, I may direct my attention, without offence, to the Pays de Vaud, my second country; rejoicing with you in its advantages, or commiserating its misfortunes. You enjoy a fine climate, a fertile soil, and have conveniences

for

il ne tient qu'à vous de profiter. Mais je considère plutôt les habitans, que l'habitation. On va chercher les philosophes à Londres. Paris attire dans son sein tous ceux qui n'aiment que la douceur de la société. Votre pays le cède à ces deux capitales, la où elles brillent; mais cependant il réunit tous leurs avantages respectifs ; il est le seul où tout à la fois on ose penser, et on sache vivre. Que vous manque-t-il ? la liberté : et privés d'elle, tout vous manque.

Cette vérité vous surprend, elle vous blesse. Pouvoir dire que nous ne sommes pas libres, me répondez vous, prouve que nous le sommes. Il le prouveroit peut-être, si j'écrivois à Lausanne; ou plutôt là même il ne prouveroit rien. Vos maîtres connoissent la maxime du Cardinal Mazarin, de vous laisser parler, pourvu que vous les laissiez agir. Ainsi le procès n'est point encore jugé.

Si

for internal commerce, from which great benefit might be derived. But I consider the people rather than their territory. Philosophy flourishes in London; Paris is the centre of those attracted by the allurements of polished society. Your country, though inferior to those capitals, yet unites in some measure their respective advantages; since it is the only country whose inhabitants, while they think freely and boldly, live politely and elegantly. What then is wanting? Liberty; and deprived of it, you have lost your all.

This truth surprises and offends you. The right of complaining, you answer, that we are not free, is a proof of our liberty. If I wrote at Lausanne, the argument would have weight; yet even there, it would not be convincing; for your masters are not ignorant of Cardinal Mazarine's maxim, and are willing to allow you to talk, provided you allow them to act; so that the process is not yet determined.

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