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12. “ The accident of a horse neighing of the hon. gentleman himself, who had once decided the succession to the throne made the allusion. In the ninth, the of a mighty empire.” [Anon.

gentleman referred to—not his having adSelections of the same kind, from re vanced an unconstitutional doctrine-is, cent publications, might be multiplied according to the true construction of the indefinitely; but there can be no need of sentence, the speaker's apology: And in augmenting the number. Of those which the twelfth, the horse, instead of his have now. koin presented, it must be per- neighing, is made the accident which defecily'obởiòus to every English scholar, cided the succession. An examination

that there is not one in which the gram- of all the other examples would present nätical constrưotion corresponds with the similar results. real meaning of the writer or speaker Now, all this blundering and absurdity in other words, not one in which the fact might have been avoided, and the inor idea intended to be communicated, is tended sense of the several passages cited, expressed by the language employed; have been made to correspond with their and, of course, not one in which the rules syntax, by merely using the possessive of composition are not grossly violated. case of the nouns, put in italics, in the This may be made very apparent by a several examples : as, by writing owner's, partial analysis of a few of the examples: instead of “owner”-Prussia's, instead To take the first-the meaning of the of“ Prussia”-secretary's, instead of “sewriter certainly is, not that the owner cretary,” &c. was the means by which the possession of If any one can doubt the justness of his goods was aliered, but tbat his taking these strictures, he may bring them to a tirem into his own custody was so. In very simple and decisive test, by substigraminatical construction, however, the tuting pronouns for nouns, in each of the language cxpresses the former meaning, passages cited. Thus: “ The possession and no other.

of one's goods is altered, by him taking In the second example, the fact which them into his own custody." "The Aulic the historian intended to state, is, in sub- council voted the king's conduct to be a stance, that in consequence of the inva- breach of the public peace, in consesion of Saxony and Bohemii by the king quence of him invading Saxony,” &c. of Prussia, the Aulic council voted, &c. “ He wearing a sword and uniform was But, according to the grammatical pur a circumstance which added to his natural port of the sentence, as it now stands, awkwardness.”

66 The lives of many the words, “ invading Saxony and Bo- studious men are lost, by reason of them hemia,” express merely an incidental indulging,” &c. This, it will readily be circumstance, which might have been agreed by every reader, is absolutely inthrown into a parenthesis, or a distinct tolerable: and yet it does not at all surclausc; and the whole sentence might, pass, in grossness of inaccuracy, any one without any material alteration of the of the original passages cited. sense, as expressed by the writer, be pa It is really a reproach to the literature rapbrased thus: “ In consequence of the of the age, that so much of it should be king of Prussia-who, by the by, had disgraced by this awkward hallucination. invaded Saxony, &c. the Aulic council Barbarous as it is, however, it has not, voted his conduct to be a breach of the thus far, I believe, become strictly vulpublic peace.” If the paraphrase is non gar; that is, it has not, as yet, interwoven sense, it is the nonsense of the original. itself as an idiom, with our common col

In the third, the meaning expressed by loquial style. If so, it is not, perhaps, the words, is, that the secretary, (who too inveterate for correction: and surely happened, indeed, to wear a sword and so rank a barbarism ought, if possible, uniform), was himself the circumstance and as speedily as possible, to be banished which added to his own natural awkward- from the English tongue. The fact intended to be commu

J. G. nicated is, that his wearing a sword, &c. was that circumstance.

To avoid unnecessary particularity, I An Historical Essay on the Rise and Prowill advert to only two or three more of gress of Civil Liberty in Asia. the examples:- In the fifth, the declara We can scarcely conceive a more imtion of the speaker, if construed accord- portant study than the examination of ing to the rules of syntax, is, that he principles manifestly operating upon a nurises, not in consequence of the allusion merous, high-minded, and intelligent peomade to a remark of his own, by the ple, to the production of national gran" hon. gentleman; but in consequence deur, power, and prosperity. We are

ness.

earnestly intent upon the comparative rated by those whose acquaintance with rude and imperfect developement of ener the Eastern character and genius would gies whose matured and refined action is dispose them earnestly and sincerely to to exhibit results so gratifying. The af- dispute the most plausible speculations on fairs of a nation destined to commence a the capabilities and natural tendencies of career at once honourable and glorious; the Orientals; then, too, the enervating vet struggling with the difficulties insepa- climate, and the luxurious propensities rable from a new and scarcely settled of which it invites and sues the indulstate; composed of parts not yet cemented gence; and the habitual unmurmuring into one great and efficient whole; whose submission to despotic authority, which civil dissentions partially consume the it appears to superinduce in the unstrength and talent which a more enlight- cultivated minds and overawed hearts of ened policy :zill direct to enterprises of the population; and the deep-rooted preforeign grandeur, and the consolidation judices of an intolerant faith; and the of a widely-spread and well-administered want of concert among the people; and dominion ;-must always open to the stu the absence of every feeling bearing the dent in human character, sources of more remotest connexion with patriotic sentiminute and accurate knowledge of its con- ment; and the tranquil equanimity in the stituents, than can possibly be afforded by endurance of predestined hardships and the history of older and more polished na distresses ; these, we are well aware, will. tions, whose affairs are, too generally, con enter largely into the calculations of the ducted in a manner that systematically readers of Eastern records, when they excludes the agency of superior abilities. are told that at this moment there are

The abstract correctness of these ob- three vast and independent states in the servations, we may presume, will be ge- East, whose government is constructed nerally acknowledged; but when predi- upon principles singularly liberal, and the cated of an Asiatic people, such an exor

nature of whose internal polity encourages dium may sound rather strange in the ears the progress of useful knowledge. of all who are versed in the history and The communities to which we allude, policy of the East. They will recall to are the WUHABEES, the Sikis, and the to their recollection those scenes of atro- AFGHAUNS. cious tyranny which, with the fewest imaginable exceptions, occupy the pages of The doctrine of the Wuhabees, while oriental historians; that system in wbich it embraces a considerable portion of the the ruler is every thing, and the people Muhammedan ethics and rules of moralinothing, will rise before them in all its va- tŷ, and acknowledges the unity of God riety of guilt; its unspeakable horror and as the fundamental article of faith, disgigantic enormity; held together only by sents from Islamism, and, indeed, from that dreadful compact which it has in- every other religion, ancient and modern, stinctively entered into with the vices, in two or three particulars, which the passions, and ignorance of its miserable clergy of all nations will, we are pervictims. That selfish and sanguinary tem- suaded, regard with the most disinterested per which teaches the sovereigu to endure displeasure; and should these sectaries no eminence but his own, or that spring- succeed in overthrowing the Turkisha ing from and dependent on himself: that power in Asia, the establishment of a morbid jealousy and distrust that will not creed which denies the claims of prophets, bear even á brother near the throne," and apostles, and inspired volumes, and and consequently interdicts the march of looks not with the eyes of affection on moral and political amelioration, and sub- mosques and richly-endowed benefices, mits the interests of the community to and whose principles inculcate the smallthe wayward and desolating caprices of a est possible reverence for the pillars of fool, perhaps, or a madman-always a the church, may invigorate and diversity tyrant,-willpot, assuredly, be forgotten the exhausted eloquence of the Moollas it will not be forgotten, that blood-stained of Christendom. basis on which nearly every Eastern Niebuhr is the first European traveller dynasty bas erected its seat of power, and who reports the rise and progress of this terror, and oppression, from the height of interesting and enterprising sect. ABwhich it has hung abroad the standard of its DOUL WUHAB was a native of El áred, terrible and heart-bowing dominion: nor (or Ool Urud,) a province of Arabia. In will the limited extent to which, it would his youth he diligently applied himself to seem on the first hasty glance, the nations the study of his native literature, and after of Asia are confined in their advances in residing some years at Básra (Bussora) science and practical morality, be under repaired to Bagdad, whence he returned

to Arabia. Here he began to propagate his late contests with the Pasha of Egypt) bis opinions, and having attached several is firmly fixed in Arabia, and their general of the principal Shaiks to his interests,- success against the Turks, and the ease among others, the governor of his native and rapidity with which they propagate town,--the success of his first endeavours their tenets, make it more than probable encouraged him to proceed, and his la- that at no very distant period the whole of bours were quickly rewarded by the Ottoman Asia will be included within happiest results. His authority became their boundaries. Their armies are nu. speedily acknowledged throughout El merous and better disciplined than any åred, and he established his capital at forces the Porte can send against them; Deryeh, near Lahsa. His principal doc- Mecca and Medina (the holy cities) have trines were,

fallen before them, and their expeditions 1. That there is but one God.

into Syria are frequent and successful. 2. That God never did, and never will, impart to man the gift of prophecy. The Sikhs are a powerful people, the

3. That there are no inspired books. independent possessors of a large portion

4. That it is a duty incumbent upon all of Upper Hindústaun, several of the extrue believers to join in the destruction of tensive and opulent provinces formerly mosques, magnificent tombs, fc.

subject to the Monguls, having been conMuhammed, Jesus, Moses, and other quered partly, and partly allured into the prophets, they regard with high respect, Sikh alliance by the vast benefits beld as great and excellent men, whose actions out to the Hinda inhabitants by those marare worthy of imitation; but the junction tial reformers. The countries of the Punof whose names with that of God they re- jaub, or territories watered by the five probate. Sobriety and temperance are branches of the Indus, part of Multaun, religious duties, and even the use of vege- and nearly all the regions between the table stimuli-coffee, opium, tobacco, &c. ^ Jumna and the Sutlege (their north-west-is prohibited among them. Countrymen ern frontier leaning on the limits of Afgof Muhammed, and surrounded by his haunistaun, and their south-eastern boundisciples, they evince an accommodating dary reposing, at present, on those parts disposition towards the Muslims, highly of India held by the British,) have thrown advantageous to their cause. Thus, they off the yoke both of their Muslim and consider it illegal to levy duties on the Brahminical tyrants, and embraced the moveable property of Muhammedans, en liberal and stimulating tenets of this bold join a strict observance of the moral pre- and adventurous people. cepts of the Koraun, fc.

The founder of the Sikhs arose in the Abdoul Wubab was succeeded by his reign of the Afghaun Sooltaun, Belloli. son Muhammed, according to Niebuhr, NANOCK, or Nanac, was born in the (Description de l'Arabie, tom. ii. p. 211. village of Tulwundy, or Rai-pour, sixty quarto ed. Paris,) but Major Waring miles west of the city of Lahore. A strict Tour to Sheeraz, p. 120) calls him Ubdool regard for the principles of justice, a comUzeez, while a French historian (Sala- manding, a persuasive eloquence, and an berry, Histoire de l'Empire Ottoman, tom. unshrinking fortitude, fitted him for the iii. p. 334. Paris, 1813) making no men- station in which he was destined to shine. tion of the establishment of the sovereign He visited most of the Indian States, and authority in the family of the founder, his disciples beheve that he penetrated says that Ebn Sehoud, prince of a power- into Persia and Arabia. His travels ocful Arabian tribe, having afforded refuge cupied fifteen years, and from the circumto Abdoul Wuhab during his difficulties, stance of his having converted, during embraced the opinions of his guest, and his absence, a Muslim who accompanied made them the means of erecting an em- him, we may infer that he drew up his pire, which he transmitted to his descend- civil and religious code, while employed ants. These apparent contradictions may in studying the manners and condition of possibly be reconciled, by supposing Mu- foreign nations. The death of the venehammed Ubdool Uzeez to have been the rable apostle (whom his disciples secretly name of Abdoul Wuhab's son and succes believe to have been an incarnation of sor, and Ebn Sehoud the same with Bin- the Deity) took place in 1539, at Dayrah, Saoud, the present sovereign and general- on the banks of the Ravee, where the anissimo of the Wuhabees, according to niversary of their founder's decease is still Major Waring. Be this as it may, the celebrated by the Sikhs with many sacred fact appears sufficiently clear that the ceremonies. Wuhabee empire (notwithstanding the The revolution effected by Nanock partial defeats sustained by its chief in was, indeed, in a philosophical and poli

tical point of view, the greatest that India fortunes; and was, for a period, successever witnessed; though its immediate re- ful against the forces sent against him by sults were by no means invested with the emperor Jehan-jire,--at length he was that external splendour so captivating to overpowered. (Foster's Journey, vol. i. the imagination. He abolished the wor- p. 298.) ship of images, and ordained that the The history of the Sikhs continues untemples should be of the most simple con- important till the accession of Aurungstruction, and utterly devoid of ornament. zebe. In the reign of that monarch they In each of these “ houses” of worship, is became more widely alienated from the deposited a copy of the “ Grunth,or system of Brahma than was strictly aucivil and sacred ordinances of Nanock. thorized by the precepts of Nanock. HiThe people are directed to address their therto they had had recourse to arms so prayers and supplications immediately to far only as was commanded by the law of God, and not through the medium of an self-defence and preservation; but the intercessor. They are educated in the arbitrary treatment they suffered under belief of one unassociated Governor of Aurungzebe, roused a new spirit, which the universe. The admission of prose- the assassination of their leader, Taigh lytes, forbidden among other Hindûs, Bhahauder, by his command, quickened aimed a mortal blow at the old supersti- and exasperated. Guru Govind (i. e. the tion, and opening to all the inferior castes · priest Govind), the son of the murdered the paths of respectability and opulence, chief, remembered how his father fell, shook to its basis the ancient and iron fa- and determined on retribution. The Sikh bric of Brahminical fraud and despotism. records inform us, that at this period he

The reformation, once began, conti- had accomplished only his fifteenth year. nued-rapidly, yet peacefully—to extend But he was active and resolute, accusitself, and grew up under the eyes of the tomed to the use of arms, and his martial Brahmins and the Monguls for two bun- genius speedily converted the pacific disdred years, without molestation. That ciples of Nanock into a nation of war. the Muslims, engaged in foreign and civil riors. wars, and caring little for, and rarely in This was the object of his whole scheme terfering with the religious opinions and of policy-and the sole addition to the ceremonies of their Hindû subjects, should system of Nanock that was required to not observe and persecute the dissenters, sweep away the last dyke between the will not surprise us; but it is surely ex old frame of Hindu society, and the over traordinary that a class of individuals, whelming waves of enthusiastic innovadepending for all their consequences tion. Prompted at once by the spirit of and privileges upon the existing system, revenge and ambition, Guru Govind (who should not have used their influence to henceforward assumed himself, and made crush in the beginning the innovator and his followers assume, the name of Singh, the innovation-and strangle in its birth or Lion) addressed himself to the inflamed a revolution which, though incalculably and exacerbated minds of his countrybeneficial to the people, would irreco men ;-vividly he displayed before then verably divest them of the sanctity, and the baseness of their fortunes under the power, and immunities they had hitherto Monguls, and passed in galling review the enjoyed—and obliterating the magic cir- disgraceful tenure by which alone they cle of their prerogative, drag them forth held their lands, their lives, their property. into the light, and exhibit them in all the He showed them by how slender proviparaphernalia of their imposture to the sions the institutions of their revered disenchanted vision of the multitude.- founder were guarded from destruction, (Foster's Journey from Bengal to Eng- every thing valuable in their estimation, land, vol. i. p. 291, et seq.)

and dear to their hearts, was at the mercy In the beginning of the seventeenth of a proud, cruel, and insolent tyrant, century, the progress of the Sikhs at- whose late atrocious outrage upon them tracted the observation of the Mongul go- in the person of their chief, too plainly vernment. It became jealous of the in- demonstrated the rancourous disposition creasing numbers and prosperity of the he fostered against the reformers-the dedissenters--and when did jealousy in termination he had formed to crush a power refrain from persecution ? Har power that already alarmed his fears-and Govind was the sixth ruler of this once the measures to which he would resort to peaceful people--his father had perished effect his abominable purpose. He dein a Muslim prison, and the new chief scribed the arts that would be employed resolved on revenge. He attacked and to deceive and allure--and the rigours put to death the agent of his father's mis. that would be practised to awe and com

pel;—disunion among the people—and nant with such great and evident benefits hostility between themselves and their to almost every class of Hindûs but one, leaders--and cabal among the chiefs, that their rapid diffusion could have been and bribery in its hundred shapes: And imperiled only by a character the reverse he unsheathed before their fancy the of that which belonged to their venerable &word of persecution and called up in founder. Courage and eloquence are, their minds the terrors of desolation - indeed, qualities of an exalted order, and and he asked them how they would feel he who without them should set about when they beheld their sons and kindred the task of national reformation, would weltering in their blood, their daughters quickly learn on the scaffold his total unwrithing in the embraces of lust and ra fitness for the part he had undertaken to pine, and their temples, and dwellings, enact: but the apostle of the Sikhs was and pleasant places blazing in Muham- not only distinguished by the undauntedmedan fires ? For the aversion of these ness of his temperament, and the enerdreadful evils, he said, but one mean gies of a commanding elocution,—he was presented itselfto force, force must be celebrated, likewise, for the uniform soopposed, and the Sikhs must rely for the briety of his deportment, and that inespreservation of their rights and their laws timable prudence which taught him how on the strength of their arms, and the to secure the greatest good with the sharpness of their swords. He would be slightest danger, and avoid risking the their leader ;-bis injuries-his hatred total failure of his noble plan by too hasty toward the strangers-gave him an un a developement of all its parts. Had he, deniable claim to that station of glory and in the onset, aimed at that complete enperil. Hereditary chief of the nation, franchisement of his countrymen, which he trusted for support to their free, un was reserved as the illustrious distinction influenced approbation. The design he of a succeeding age, the chances of his had formed to raise his countrymen to success would have been incomparably greatness, required that every man should diminished; both classes of tyrants, the become a soldier! . The first duty of a Monguls and Brahmins, would have taken citizen was the defence of his country. the alarm—the impetuous reformer and 6 That sacred service now demands us his rash disciples must have fallen beneath all-to all be the ranks of war thrown the first effects of their awakened dread, open-let the prizes of honour and wealth and the vigilance of the persecutors would be accessible to each ;-Brahmins and have taken effectual precautions against Cshatryas, Vaisyas and Sudras, be ye all the repetition of such an enterprize. equals, brothers, warriors! Ye have been Nanock pursued a surer, safer path. lambs in peace-be ye lions in battle. The advantages he put the inferior castes Govind will be your general, and the spirit in possession of, rendered their present of Nanock shall inspire your councils.” condition too delightful when compared

Govind addressed an auditory pre- with their preceding state, to leave them pared to receive his exhortations with either leisure or inclination forcibly to an enthusiasm answerable to his own. enlarge the circuit of their newly-acThey drank the spirit of his words quired privileges. Doubtless he was athey started to arms, and thronged ware that the career of improvement, around the standard of the illustrious once begun, is rarely abandoned—that youth who thus forcibly displayed to them to effect the entire liberation of his counthe evils, the disgraces of their present trymen would require more bold and darsituation, and so clearly pointed out the ing measures than were then expedient; long train of disasters that would infalli- but the wise and patient spirit of Nanock bly trace its march among them, if they perceived, that when the period of a farlonger endured in slavish apathy the heavy ther mutation should arrive, his instituand humiliating yoke of their foreign ty- tions would be so extensively propagated, rants. Into their hearts his words de- and so firmly established, that the strugscended, and the latent fires of indepen- gle for complete and acknowledged indence and glory, for which the principles dependence would be ushered in with of Nanock had provided the means of less ambiguous omens, and the triumphaccumulating access, burst at once into ant issue of that stern conflict with the flame. At the period when Guru Govind oppressors insured by the numbers and roused them to arms, the Sikhs were a experience of the sectaries. The calcupeople amazingly different from any other lations upon which we may suppose the nation of Hindu origin or connexion.- legislator of the Sikhs to have grounded The doctrines of Nanock were not merely his proceedings, were justified by the recaptivating in their first display, but preg- sult: Between Nanock (whom the gra

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